aam

aam
आम के पक्के फल
aam ke pakke fal
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: paadap
(unranked) yoodikauts
(unranked) rojids
gan: saipindels Sapindales
kul: enaakaardiyesi Anacardiaceae
vansh: maingifera
kairolas linnaieyas Carolus Linnaeus
prajaatiyaaain

50 se adhik prajaatiyaaain

भारत Bhaarat ke raashtreeya prateek
dhvaj tiranga
raashtreeya chinh ashok ki laat
raashtra-gaan jan gan man
raashtra-geet vande maataram
pashu baagh
jaleeya jeev ganga daalafin
pakshi mor
pushp kamal
vruksh bargad
fal aam
khel maidaani hockey
panyachaang
shak samvat
sandarbh "Bhaarat ke raashtreeya prateek"
bhaarateeya dootaavaas, landan
Retreived 03-09-2007


aam atyant upayogi, deerghajeevi, saghan tatha vishaal vruksh hai, jo Bhaarat mein dakshin mein kanyaakumaari se uttar mein himaalaya ki taraai tak (3,000 foot ki ooainchaai tak) tatha pashchim mein Punjab se poorv mein Assam tak, adhikta se hota hai. anukool jalavaayu milne par iska vruksh 50-60 foot ki ooainchaai tak pahuainch jaata hai. vanaspati vaigyaanik vargeekaran ke anusaar aam ainaakaardiyesi kul ka vruksh hai. aam ke kuchh vruksh bahut hi bade hote hain.

anukram

parichay

mojar (fool) laga hua aam ka vruksh

aam ka vruksh ek fooladaar, bada sthaleeya vruksh hai. ismein do beejapatr hote hain. iske fool chhote-chhote evam samooh mein rahate hain. ise manjari kehte hain. iski patti saral, lambi evam bhaale ke samaan hoti hai. iska tana lamba evam majaboot hota hai. iska fal ek guthaleevaala saras aur goodedaar hota hai. aam ka fal vishvaprasiddh svaadisht fal hai. ise falon ka raaja kaha gaya hain.

aam ka vruksh bada aur khada athva faila hua hota hai; ooainchaai 30 se 90 foot tak hoti hai. chhaal khuradari tatha matamaili ya kaali, lakdi katheeli aur thas hoti hai. iski pattiyaaain saadi, ekaantarit, lambi, praasaakaar (bhaale ki tarah) athva deerghavruttaakaar, nukeeli, paaainch se 16 inch tak lambi, ek se teen inch tak chaudi, chikni aur gahre hare rang ki hoti hain; pattiyon ke kinaare kabhi-kabhi laharadaar hote hain. vrunt (eainthal) ek se chaar inch tak lambe, jod ke paas foole hue hote hain. pushpakram sanyut ekavardhyaksh (painikil), prashaakhit aur lomash hota hai. fool chhote, halake basanti rang ke ya lalachhaunh, bheeni gandhamaya aur praaya: eainthalarahit hote hain; nar aur ubhayalingi donon prakaar ke fool ek hi baar (painikil) par hote hain. baahmadal (sepal) lambe ande ke roop ke, avatal (kaunakev); pankhudiyaaain baahmadal ki apeksha duguni badi, andaakaar, teen se paaainch tak ubhadi hui naarangi rang ki dhaariyon sahit; binb (disk) maansal, paaainch bhaagasheel (lobd); ek paraagayukt (frtaail) punkesar, chaar chhote aur vividh lanbaaiyon ke bandhya punkesar (staiminnod); paraagakosh kuchh kuchh baingani aur andaashaya chikna hota hai. fal saras, maansal, ashthil, tarah tarah ki banaavat evam aakaaravaala, chaar se 25 seinteemeetar tak lamba tatha ek se 10 seinteemeetar tak gherevaala hota hai. pakane par iska rang hara, peela, jogiya, sinduriya athva laal hota hai. fal goodedaar, fal ka gooda peela aur naarangi rang ka tatha svaad mein atyant ruchikr hota hai. iske fal ka chhilka mota ya kaagaji tatha iski guthali ekal, kathali evam praaya: reshedaar tatha ekabeejak hoti hai. beej bada, deerghavat, andaakaar hota hai.

aam lakshmeepatiyon ke bhojan ki shobha tatha gareebon ki udarapoorti ka ati uttam saadhan hai. pake fal ko tarah tarah se surakshit karke bhi rakhate hain. ras ka thaali, chakale, kapde ityaadi par pasaar, dhoop mein sukha "amaavat" banaakar rakh lete hain. yeh badi svaadisht hoti hai aur ise log bade prem se khaate hain. kaheen kaheen fal ke ras ko ande ki safedi ke saath milaakar atisaar aur aaainve ke rog mein dete hain. pet ke kuchh rogon mein chhilka tatha beej hitkar hota hai. kachche fal ko bhoonakar pana bana, namak, jeera, heeng, podeena ityaadi milaakar peete hain, jisse taraavat aati hai aur loo lagne ka bhaya kam rahata hai. aam ke beej mein mailik aml adhik hota hai aur yeh khooni bavaaseer aur pradar mein upayogi hai. aam ki lakdi gruhanirmaan tatha ghareloo saamagri banaane ke kaam aati hai. yeh idhan ke roop mein bhi adhik barati jaati hai. aam ki upaj ke liye kuchh kuchh baaloovaali bhoomi, jismein aavashyak khaad ho aur paani ka nikaas theek ho, uttam hoti hai. aam ki uttam jaatiyon ke nae paudhe praaya: bheintakalam dvaara taiyaar kiye jaate hain. kalamon aur mukulan (bardig) dvaara bhi aisi kismein taiyaar ki jaati hain. Biju aamon ki bhi anek badhiya jaatiyaaain hain, paratu inmein vishesh asuvidha yeh hai ki is prakaar utpann aamon mein vaanchhit Patrick gun kabhi aate hain, kabhi naheen ; isliye ichhaanusaar uttam jaatiyaaain is reeti se naheen mil sakateen. aam ki vishesh uttam jaatiyon mein Varanasi ka laingada, Mumbai ka alafaanjo tatha maleehaabaad aur Lucknow ke dashahari tatha safeda ullekhaneeya hain.

itihaas

aam ka itihaas atyant praacheen hai. di kaidal (san 1844) ke anusaar aamr prajaati (mainjeefera jeenas) sambhavat: barma, syaam tatha malaaya mein utpann hui; parantu Bhaarat ka aam, mainjeefera indika, jo yahaaain, barma aur Pakistan mein jagah jagah swayam (jangali avastha mein) hota hai, barma-Assam athva Assam mein hi pehle pahal utpann hua hoga. Bhaarat ke baahar logon ka dhyaan aam ki or sarvapratham sambhavat: buddhakaaleen prasiddh yaatri, huyenatsaang (632-45,) ne aakarshit kiya.

fraayar (san 1673) ne aam ko aadoo aur khoobaani se bhi ruchikr kaha hai aur haimiltan (san 1727) ne Goa ke aamon ko bade, svaadisht tatha sansaar ke falon mein sabse uttam aur upayogi bataaya hai. Bhaarat ke nivaasiyon mein ati praacheen kaal se aam ke upavan lagaane ka prem hai. yahaaain ki udyaani krushi mein kaam aanevaali bhoomi ka 70 pratishat bhaag aam ke upavan lagaane ke kaam aata hai. spasht hai ki bhaaratavaasiyon ke jeevan aur arthavyavastha ka aam se ghanishth sambandh hai. iske anek naam jaise saurabh, rasaal, chuvat, tapka, sahakaar, aam, pikvallabh aadi bhi iski lokapriyta ke pramaan hain. ise "kalpavruksh" arthaat manovaachhint fal denevaala bhi kehte hain shatapath braahman mein aam ki charcha iski vaidik kaaleen tatha amarakosh mein iski prashansa iski buddhakaaleen mahatta ke pramaan hain. mugal samraat Akbar ne "laalabaag" naamak ek lakh pedonvaala udyaan darabhanga ke sameep lagavaaya tha, jisse aam ki us samay ki lokapriyta spasht hain. bhaaratavarsh mein aam se sambandhit anek lokageet, aakhyaayikaaeain aadi prachalit hain aur hamaari reeti, vyavahaar, havan, yagya, pooja, katha, tyohaar tatha sabhi mangalakaayaaain mein aam ki lakdi, patti, fool athva ek na ek bhaag praaya: kaam aata hai. aam ke baur ki upama vasantadtase tatha manjari ki manmathateer se kaviyon ne di hai. upayogita ki drushti se aam Bhaarat ka hi naheen varan samast ushn katibandh ke falon ka raaja hai aur bahut tarah se upayog hota hai. kachche fal se chatani, khataai, achaar, murabba aadi banaate hain. pake fal atyant svaadisht hote hain aur inhein log bade chaav se khaate hain. ye paachak, rechak aur balaprad hote hain.

kaalidaas ne iska gunagaan kiya hai, sikandar ne ise saraaha aur mugl samraat Akbar ne darabhanga mein iske ek lakh paudhe lagaae. us baag ko aaj bhi laakhi baag ke naam se jaana jaata hai. vedon mein aam ko vilaas ka prateek kaha gaya hai. kavitaaon mein iska zikr hua aur kalaakaaron ne ise apne kainavaas par utaara. Bhaarat mein garmiyon ke aarambh se hi aam pakane ka intajaar hone lagta hai. aaainkadon ke mutaabik is samay Bhaarat mein prativrsh ek karod tan aam paida hota hai jo duniya ke kul utpaadan ka 52 pratishat hai. aam Bhaarat ka raashtreeya fal bhi hai.[1] antarraashtreeya aam mahotsav, Delhi mein iski anek prajaatiyon ko dekha ja sakta hai.[2] bhaarateeya praayadveep mein aam ki krushi hajaaron varshon se ho rahi hai.[3] yeh 4-5 isa poorv poorvi Asia mein pahuaincha. 10 veen shataabdi tak yeh poorvi Africa pahuainch chuka tha.[3] uske baad aam Brazil, vest Indies aur maiksiko pahuaincha kyonki vahaaain ki jalavaayu mein yeh achhi tarah ug sakta tha.[3] 14veen shataabdi mein muslim yaatri ibnabatoota ne iski somaaliya mein milne ki pushti ki hai.[4] Tamil Nadu ke krushnagiri ke aam bahut hi svaadisht hote hain aur duniya bhar mein prasiddh hain.

prajaatiyaaain

mukhya lekh:aam ki kismein
udyaan mein lagaae jaanevaale aam ki lagbhag 1,400 jaatiyon se ham parichit hain. inke atirikt kitni hi jangali aur Biju kismein bhi hain. gangoli aadi (san 1955) ne 210 badhiya kalami jaatiyon ka sachitr vivran diya hai. vibhinn prakaar ke aamon ke aakaar aur svaad mein bada antar hota hai. kuchh ber se bhi chhote tatha kuchh, jaise sahaaranapur ka haatheejhool, bhaar mein do dhaai ser tak hote hain. kuchh atyant khatte athva svaadaheen ya chep se bhare hote hain, parantu kuchh atyant svaadisht aur madhur hote hain.

Bhaarat mein ugaayi jaane waali aam ki kismon mein dashahari, langada, chausa, fajli, Mumbai green, Mumbai, alafaunjo, baingan palli, him saagar, keshar, kishn bhog, malagova, neelam, survan rekha, vanaraaj, jaradaaloo hain. nai kismon mein, mallika, aamrapaali, ratna, arka Arun, arma puneet, arka anmol tatha dashahari-51 pramukh prajaatiyaaain hain. uttar Bhaarat mein mukhyat: gaurajeet, baambegreen, dashahari, langada, chausa evam Lucknow safeda prajaatiyaaain ugaayi jaati hain.[5]

gun

aam, vibhinn avasthaaeain, chaukor kata, saamane, tirchha aur kata.

aaryurvaidik mataanusaar aam ke panchaang (paaainch ang) kaam aate hain. is vruksh ki antarhaal ka kvaath pradar, khooni bavaaseer tatha fefadon ya aaaint se raktasraav hone par diya jaata hai. chhaal, jad tatha patte kasaile, malarodhak, vaat, pitt tatha kaf ka naash karanevaale hote hain. patte bichhoo ke kaatne mein tatha inka dhuaaain gale ki kuchh vyaadhiyon tatha hichki mein laabhadaayak hai. foolon ka choorn ya kvaath aatisaar tatha sangrahani mein upayogi kaha gaya hai. aam ka baur sheetal, vaatakaarak, malarodhak, agnideepak, ruchivrdhak tatha kaf, pitt, prameh, pradar aur atisaar ko nasht karanevaala hai. kachcha fal kasaila, khatta, vaat pitt ko utpann karanevaala, aaainton ko sikodnevaala, gale ki vyaadhiyon ko door karanevaala tatha atisaar, mootravyaadhi aur yonirog mein laabhadaayak bataaya gaya hai. paka fal madhur, snigdh, veeryavardhak, vaatanaashak, sheetal, pramehanaashak tatha vran shleshm aur rudhir ke rogon ko door karanevaala hota hai. yeh shvaas, amlapitt, yakrutavruddhi tatha kshaya mein bhi laabhadaayak hai.

aadhunik anusandhaanon ke anusaar aam ke fal mein vitaamin A aur si paae jaate hain. anek vaidyon ne keval aam ke ras aur doodh par rogi ko rakhakar kshaya, sangrahani, shvaas, raktavikaar, durbalata ityaadi rogon mein safalta praapt ki hai. fal ka chhilka garbhaashaya ke raktasraav, raktamaya kaale daston mein tatha muainh se balagam ke saath rakt jaane mein upayogi hai. guthali ki gari ka choorn (maatra 2 maash) shvaas, atisaar tatha pradar mein laabhadaayak hone ke sivaaya kruminaashak bhi hai.

paka aam bahut svaasthyavardhak, poshak, shaktivrdhak aur charabi badhaane wala hota hai. aam ka mukhya ghatak sharkara hai, jo vibhinn falon mein 11 se 20 pratishat tak vidyamaan rahati hai. sharkara mein mukhyataya ikshu sharkara hoti hai, jo ki aam ke khaane yogya hisse ka 6.78 se 16.99 pratishat hai. glookoj va anya sharkara 1.53 se 6.14 pratishat tak rahati hai. amlon mein taartarik aml va melik aml paaya jaata hai, iske saath hi saath saaitrik aml bhi alp maatra mein paaya jaata hai. in amlon ka shareer dvaara upayog kiya jaata hai aur ye shareer mein kshaareeya sanchaya banaae rakhane mein sahaayak hote hain. aam ke anya ghatak is prakaar hain- proteen 9.6, vasa 0.1, khanij padaarth 0.3 resha, 1.1 fausaforas 0.02 aur lauh padaarth 0.3 pratishat. nami ki maatra 86 pratishat hai. aam ka ausat oorja moolya prati 100 gram mein lagbhag 50 kailori hai. Mumbai ki ek kism ka ausat oorja moolya prati 100 gram 90 kailori hai. yeh vitaamin 'si' ke mahattvapoorn sroton mein se ek hai aur ismein vitaamin 'A' bhi prachur maatra mein hai.[6]

aam par lagne vaale rog

aam ke anek shatru hain. inmein ainathrai kanos, jo kavakajanit rog hai aur aardrataapradhaan pradeshon mein adhik hota hai, paaudari mildiu, jo ek anya kavak se utpann honevaala rog hai tatha black tip, jo bahudha it choone ke bhatthon ke dhueain ke sansarg se hota hai, pradhaan hain. anek keede makode bhi iske shatru hain. inmein maingohaupar, maingo borar, froot flaai aur deemak mukhya hain. jal-choona-gandhak-mishran, surti ka paani tatha sankhiya ka paani in rogon mein laabhakaari hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "apne desh ko jaano" (echateeem). hindi nest. http://www.hindinest.com/bachpan/adkj.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  2. "aam falon ka raaja" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/southasia/030509_mango_sz.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  3. a aa i Ensminger 1994: 1373
  4. Watson, Andrew J. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques, 700-1100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–3. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-521-24711-X.
  5. "udyaan vigyaan" (echateeemael). vigyaan kendra dhura, unnaav. http://opaals.iitk.ac.in/zcu/Dhaura/uddhan.html. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  6. "falon aur sabjiyon se chikitsa" (peeechapi). bhaarateeya saahitya sangrah. http://pustak.org/bs/home.php?bookid=2661. abhigman tithi: 2009.

baahari kadiyaaain