aalochna

aalochna ya samaalochana (Criticism) kisi vastu/vishay ki, uske lakshya ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue, uske gun-doshon evam upayuktatata ka vivechan karne vaali saahityik vidha hai. hindi aalochna ki shuruaat 19veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein bhaarateindu yug se hi maani jaati hai. samaalochana' ka shaabdik arth hai - 'achhi tarah dekhna'.

aalochna shabd 'luch' dhaatu se bana hai. 'luch' ka arth hai 'dekhna'. sameeksha aur samaalochana shabdon ka bhi yahi arth hai. angreji ke 'kritisijm' shabd ke samaanaarthi roop mein 'aalochna' ka vyavahaar hota hai. sanskrut mein prachalit 'teeka-vyaakhya' aur kaavya-siddhaantaniroopan ke liye bhi aalochna shabd ka prayog kar liya jaata hai kintu aachaarya raamachandr shukl ka spasht mat hai ki aadhunik aalochna, sanskrut ke kaavya-siddhaantaniroopan se svatantr cheej hai. aalochna ka kaarya hai kisi saahityak rachana ki achhi tarah pareeksha karke uske roop, ganu aur arthavyastha ka nirdhaaran karna.

Doctor shyaamasundar das ne aalochna ki paribhaasha in shabdon mein di hai: yadi ham saahitya ko jeevan ki vyaakhya maanein to aalochna ko us vyaakhya ki vyaakhya maanana padega. arthaat aalochna ka kartavya saahityak kruti ki vishleshan parak vyaakhya hai. saahityakaar jeevan aur anabhuv ke jin tatvon ke sanshleshan se saahitya rachana karta hai, aalochna unheen tatvon ka vishleshan karti hai. saahitya mein jahaaain raagatatv pradhaan hai vahaaain aalochna mein buddhi tatv. aalochna aitihaasik, saamaajik, raajaneetik paristhitiyon aur shistayon ka bhi aakalan karti hai aur saahitya par unke padne vaale prabhaavon ki vivechana karti hai.

vyaktigat ruchi ke aadhaar par kisi kruti ki ninda ya prashansa karna aalochna ka dharm naheen hai. kruti ki vyaakhya aur vishleshan keͧaalae aalochna mein paddhati aur pranaali ka mahattv hota hai. aalochna karte samay aalochak apne vyaktigat raag-dvesh, ruchi-aruchi setabhi bach sakta hai jab paddhati ka anusaran kare. vah tabhi vastunishth hokar saahitya ke prati nyaaya kar sakta hai. is drushti se hindi mein aachaarya raamachandr shukl ko sarvashreshth aalochak maana jaata hai.

anukram

aalochna ke prakaar

aalochna karte samay jin maanyataaon aur paddhatiyon ko sveekaar kiya jaata hai, unke anusaar aalochna keprakaar viksit ho jaate hain. saamaanyat: sameeksha ke chaar prakaaron ko sveekaar kiya gaya hai:-

  1. saiddhaantik aalochna
  2. nirnayaatmak aalochna
  3. prabhaavaabhivyajank aalochna
  4. vyaakhyaatmak aalochna

saiddhaantik aalochna

saiddhaantik aalochna mein saahitya ke siddhaanton par vichaar hota hai. ismein praacheen shaastreeya kaavyaagon - ras, alankaar aadi aur saahitya ki aadhunik maanyataaon tatha niyamon ki mukhya roop se vivchena ki jaati hai. saiddhaantik aalochna mein vichaar ka binduyah haiͩaak saahitya ka maanadand shaastreeya hai ya aitihaasik. maanadand ka shaastreeya roop, sthir aur aparivrtanasheel hota hai kintu maanadandon ko aitihaasik shreni maananepar unka svaroop parivrtanasheel aur vikaasaatmak hota hai. donon prakaar ki saiddhaantik aalochanaaeain upalabdh hain. kintu ab usi saiddhaantik aalochna ka mahattv adhik hai jo saahitya ke tatvon aur niyamon ki aitihaasik prakriya mein vikaasamaan maanati hai.

nirnayaatmak aalochna

nishchit siddhaanton keaadhaar par jab saahitya ke ganu-dosh, shreshth-nikrusht ka nirnaya kar diya jaata hai tab use nirnayaatmak aalochna kehte hain. ise ek prakaar ki naitik aalochna bhi maana jaata hai. iska mukhya svabhaav nyaayaadheesh ki tarah saahityak krutiyon par nirnaya dena hai. aisi aalochna praaya: hi siddhaant ka yaantrik dhang se upayog karti hai. isliye nirnayaatmak aalochna ka mahattv kam ho jaata hai.

yadyapi moolya ya shreshth saahitya aur nikrusht saahitya ka bodh paida karna aalochna ke pradhaan dharmon mein se ek hai lekin vah siddhaanton ke yaantrik upayog se naheen sabhanv hai. 'hindi saahitya kosh' mein nirnayaatmak aalochna ke vishay mein bataaya gaya hai:

vah krutiyon ki shreshthata ya ashreshthata ke sabandhan mein nirnaya deti hai. is nirnaya mein vah saahitya tatha kala sanbandhi niyamon se sahaayata leti hai kintu ye niyam saahitya aur kala ke sahaj roop se sabandhann rakh vaahya roop se aaropit hain.

is prakaar aalochna mein nirnaya vivaad ka bindu utana naheen hai jitna nirnaya keͧaalae apnaaya gaya tareeka. jasai raamachandr shukl ki aalochna mein moolya nirnaya hai, lekin usaka tareeka sajrunaatmak hai, yaantrik naheen. nirnayaatmak aalochna mein moolya aur tareeka, donon ki mein lacheelaapan naheen hota.

prabhaavaabhivyajank aalochna

is aalochna mein kaavya ka jo prabhaav aalochak keman par padta hai use vah sajeele pad-vinyaas mein vyast kar deta hai. ismein vayaiktik ruchi hi mukhya hai. prabhaavaabhivyajank samaalochana koi thaȤaak-Ǒaathakaane ki vastu naheen hai. na gyaan ke kshetr mein usaka moolya hai na bhaav ke kshetr mein.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • saahityik samaalochana

baahari kadiyaaain