aakaashaganga

aakaashaganga
236084main MilkyWay-full-annotated.jpg
aakaashaganga (hamaari galaxy) ka ek kaalpanik chitr jispar kuchh bhujaaon ke naam likhe hue hain - ham iski ek bhuja mein sthit hain isliye aisa drushya vaastav mein naheen dekh sakte, haalaanki vaigyaanik roop se ham jaante hain ki najaara aisa hi hoga.
aankade
prakaar varjit sarpil galaxy
vyaas 100–120 kilo-prakaash-varsh (31–37 kilopaarasaik)
motaai 1.0 kilo-prakaash-varsh (0.31 kilopaarasaik)
taaron ki sankhya 300 ± 100 arab
gyaat sabse puraana taara 13.2 Gyr
vajan 1.0–1.5×a1012 M☉
soorya se doori 27.2 ± 1.1 kilo-prakaash-varsh (8.34 ± 0.34 kilopaarasaik)
spitjr antariksh doorabeen se li gayi aakaashaganga ke kendreeya bhaag ki infraared prakaash ki tasveer.
alag rangon mein aakaashaganga ki vibhinn bhujaaeain.
aakaashaganga ke kendra ki tasveer.
ऍna॰ajee॰asee॰ 1365 (ek sarpil galaxy) - agar aakaashaganga ki do mukhya bhujaaeain hain jo usaka aakaar is jaisa hoga.

[[File:Heavens Above Her.jpg|thumb| aakaashaganga ke neeche khadi ek mahila - California mein liya gaya ek chitr brahmaand mein anumaanat 100 arab aakaashaganga hain jismein milki veya ksheeramaarg ya mandaakini hamaari aakaashaganga (galaxy) ko kehte hain, jismein pruthvi aur hamaara saur mandal sthit hai. hamaari aakaashaganga aakruti mein ek sarpil (spaairal) galaxy hai, jiska ek bada kendra hai aur us se niklati hui kai vakr bhujaaeain. hamaara saur mandal iski shikaari-hans bhuja (oraayan-signas bhuja) par sthit hai. aakaashaganga mein 100 arab se 400 arab ke beech taare hain aur anumaan lagaaya jaata hai ki lagbhag 50 arab grah honge, jinmein se 50 karod apne taaron se jeevan-yogya taapamaan rakhane ki doori par hain.[1] san 2011 mein hone vaale ek sarvekshan mein yeh sambhaavana paayi gayi ki is anumaan se adhik grah hon - is adhyayan ke anusaar aakaashaganga mein taaron ki sankhya se dugane grah ho sakte hain.[2] hamaara saur mandal aakaashaganga ke baahari ilaake mein sthit hai aur aakaashaganga ke kendra ki parikrama kar raha hai. ise ek poori parikrama karne mein lagbhag 22.5 se 25 karod varsh lag jaate hain.

anukram

naam

sanskrut aur kai anya hind-aarya bhaashaaoain mein hamaari gailaiksi ko "aakaashaganga" kehte hain.[3][4] puraanon mein aakaashaganga aur pruthvi par sthit ganga nadi ko ek dusare ka joda maana jaata tha aur donon ko pavitra maana jaata tha. praacheen hindu dhaarmik granthon mein aakaashaganga ko "ksheer" (yaani doodh) bulaaya gaya hai.[5] bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke baahar bhi kai sabhyataaon ko aakaashaganga doodhiya lagi. "gailaiksi" shabd ka mool yoonaani bhaasha ka "gaala" (γaaάaaλaaα) shabd hai, jiska arth bhi doodh hota hai. faarasi sanskrut ki hi tarah ek hind-Irani bhaasha hai, isliye usaka "doodh" ke liye shabd sanskrut ke "ksheer" se milta-julata sajaateeya shabd "sheer" hai aur aakaashaganga ko "raah-A-sheeri" (رaaاaaه شaaیaaرaaی) bulaaya jaata hai. angreji mein aakaashaganga ko "milki ve" (Milky Way) bulaaya jaata hai, jiska arth bhi "doodh ka maarg" hi hai.

kuchh poorvi Asiaee sabhyataaon ne "aakaashaganga" shabd ki tarah aakaashaganga mein ek nadi dekhi. aakaashaganga ko cheeni mein "chaandi ki nadi" (銀aa河) aur Koreai bhaasha mein bhi "mirinaae" (미aa리aa내, yaani "chaandi ki nadi") kaha jaata hai.

aakaar

aakaashaganga ek sarpil (angreji mein spaairal) galaxy hai. iske chapate chakr ka vyaas (daayaameetar) lagbhag 1,00,000 (ek lakh) prakaash-varsh hai lekin iski motaai keval 1,000 (ek hajaar) prakaash-varsh hai.[6] aakaashaganga kitni badi hai iska anumaan is baat se lagaaya ja sakta hai ke agar hamaare poore saur mandal ke chakr ke kshetrafal ko ek rupaye ke sikke jitna samajh liya jaae to usaki tulana mein aakaashaganga ka kshetrafal Bhaarat ka dedh guna hoga.

andaaja lagaaya jaata hai ke aakaashaganga mein kam-se-kam 1 kharab (yaani 10,000 karod) taare hain, lekin sambhav hai ki yeh sankhya 4 kharab tak ho.[7][8] tulana ke liye hamaari padosi galaxy endromeda mein 10 kharab taare ho sakte hain.[9] endromeda ka aakaar bhi sarpil hai. aakaashaganga ke chakr ki koi aisi seema naheen hai jiske baad taare ekdam na hon, balki seema ke paas taaron ka ghanatv dheere-dheere kam hota jaata hai. dekha gaya hai ke kendra se 40,000 prakaash varshon ki doori ke baad taaron ka ghanatv teji se kam hone lagta hai. vaigyaanik iska kaaran abhi theek se samajh naheen paae hain. mukhya bhujaaon ke baahar ek anya galaxy se arabo saalon ke kaal mein chheene gaye taaron ka chhalla hai, jise ikasinga chhalla (monosairaus ring) kehte hain. aakaashaganga ke ird-gird ek gailekseeya sehara bhi hai, jismein taare aur plaajma gas kam ghanatv mein maujood hai, lekin is sehare ka aakaar aakaashaganga ki do maijalainik baadal (Magellanic Clouds) naam ki upagraheeya gaileksiyon ke kaaran seemit hai.

bhujaaeain

kyonki maanav aakaashaganga ke chakr ke bheetar sthit hain, isliye hamein iski sahi aakruti ka achook anumaan naheen laga paae hain. ham poore aakaashaganga ke chakr aur usaki bhujaaon ko dekh naheen sakte. hamein hajaaron anya gaileksiyon ka poora drushya aakaash mein milta hai jis se hamein gaileksiyon ki bhinn shreniyon ka pata hai. aakaashaganga ka adhyayan karne ke baad ham keval anumaan laga sakte hain ke yeh sarpil shreni ki galaxy hai. lekin yeh pata lagaana bahut kathin hai ke aakaashaganga ki kitni mukhya aur kitni kshudr bhujaaeain hain. oopar se yeh bhi dekha gaya hai ke anya sarpil gaileksiyon mein bhujaaeain kabhi-kabhi ajeeb dishaaon mein mudi hui hoti hain ya fir vibhaajit hokar upabhujaaeain banti hain.[10][11][12] in pecheedagiyon ki vajah se vaigyaaniko mein bhujaaon ke aakaar ko lekar matabhed hai. 2008 tak maana jaata tha ke aakaashaganga ki chaar mukhya bhujaaeain hain aur kam-se-kam do chhoti bhujaaeain hain, jinmein se ek shikaari-hans (ya oraayan-signas) bhuja hai jispar hamaara saur mandal sthit hai. daaeain par sthit ek chitr mein vibhinn bhujaaeain alag-alag rangon mein darshaai gayi hain -

rang bhuja ya bhujaaeain
neela paraseeyas bhuja
jamuni norama bhuja aur baahari bhuja
hara skootam-saintauras bhuja
gulaabi kaireena-saijeeteriys bhuja
kam-se-kam do anya chhoti bhujaaeain bhi hain, jinmein se ek yeh hai:
naarangi oraayan-signas bhuja (jismein sooraj aur saur mandal maujood hain)

2008 mein viskonsin vishvavidyaalaya ke Robert bainjamin ne apne anusandhaan ka nateeja ghoshit karte hue daava kiya ke daraasal aakaashaganga ki keval do mukhya bhujaaeain hain - paraseeyas bhuja aur skootam-saintauras bhuja - aur baaki saari chhoti bhujaaeain hain. agar yeh sach hai to aakaashaganga ka aakaar endromeda se alag aur ऍna॰ajee॰asee॰ 1365 naam ki sarpil galaxy jaisa hoga.[13][14]

banaavat

1990 ke dashak tak vaigyaanik samjha karte the ke aakaashaganga ka ghana kendreeya bhaag ek gole ke akaar ka hai, lekin fir unhein shak hone laga ke usaka aakaar ek mote dande ki tarah hai.[15] 2005 mein spitjr antariksh doorabeen se li gayi tasveeron se spasht ho gaya ke unki aashanka sahi thi: aakaashaganga ka kendra vaastav mein gole se adhik khincha hua ek dandenuma aakaar nikla.[16]

aayu

2007 mein aakaashaganga mein ek "echa॰ai॰ 1523-0901" naam ke taare ki aayu 13.2 arab saal anumaanit ki gayi, isliye aakaashaganga kam-se-kam utana puraana to hai hi.

upagraheeya gaileksiyaaain

do gaileksiyaaain, jinhein bada aur chhota maijalainik baadal kaha jaata hai, aakaashaganga ki parikrama kar raheen hain.[17] aakaashaganga ki aur bhi upagraheeya gaileksiyaaain hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Borenstein, Seth (2011-02-19). "Cosmic census finds crowd of planets in our galaxy". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2011-02-21. http://www.webcitation.org/5wg3VVKg4.
  2. "Free-Floating Planets May be More Common Than Stars". Pasadena, CA: NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 2011-02-18. http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/news/freePlanet.cfm. "The team estimates there are about twice as many of them as stars."
  3. A M T Jackson, R.E. Enthoven (1989). Folk Lore Notes. Asian Educational Services. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8120604857. http://books.google.com/?id=eRkuXFD93zsC. "... According to the Puranas, the milky way or akashganga is the celestial River Ganga which was brought down by Bhagirath ..."
  4. Hormusjee Shapoorjee Spencer (1965). The Aryan ecliptic cycle: glimpses into ancient Indo-Iranian religious history from 25628 B.C. to 292 A.D.. H.P. Vaswani. http://books.google.com/?id=jdMoAAAAYAAJ. "... There are two "Gangas"—aone terrestrial and the other "akashic" or celestial ... bear reference only to the "Akash Ganga" which is the Milky Way ..."
  5. Edward C. Sachau (2001). Alberuni's India: an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, geography, chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and astrology of India about A.D. 1030. Routledge. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780415244978. http://books.google.com/?id=a91-t4uw8A4C. "... revolves around Kshira, i.e. the Milky Way ..."
  6. Christian, Eric; Safi-Harb, Samar. "How large is the Milky Way?". NASA: Ask an Astrophysicist. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980317b.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-11-28.
  7. Sanders, Robert (January 9, 2006). "Milky Way Galaxy is warped and vibrating like a drum". UCBerkeley News. http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2006/01/09_warp.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2006-05-24.
  8. Frommert, H.; Kronberg, C. (August 25, 2005). "The Milky Way Galaxy". SEDS. http://www.seds.org/messier/more/mw.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-09.
  9. Young, Kelly (2006-06-06). "Andromeda galaxy hosts a trillion stars". NewScientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9282-andromeda-galaxy-hosts-a-trillion-stars.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-06-08.
  10. Majaess, D. (2010). "Concerning the Distance to the Center of the Milky Way and Its Structure". Acta Astronomica 60: 55. Bibcode 2010AcA....60...55M.
  11. saaaincha:Cite arxiv
  12. saaaincha:Cite arxiv
  13. Benjamin, R. A. (2008). "The Spiral Structure of the Galaxy: Something Old, Something New...". In Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Henning, T. (ed.). Massive Star Formation: Observations Confront Theory. 387. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. pp. 375. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/080603-aas-spiral-arms.html.
  14. Bryner, Jeanna (2008-06-03). "New Images: Milky Way Loses Two Arms". Space.com. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/080603-aas-spiral-arms.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-04.
  15. Chen, W.; Gehrels, N.; Diehl, R.; Hartmann, D. (1996). "On the spiral arm interpretation of COMPTEL ^26^Al map features". Space Science Reviews 120: 315–316. Bibcode 1996A&AS..120C.315C.
  16. McKee, Maggie (August 16, 2005). "Bar at Milky Way's heart revealed". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn7854--bar-at-milky-ways-heart-revealed.html.
  17. Connors, et al.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K. (2007). "N-body simulations of the Magellanic stream". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 371 (1): 108. arXiv:astro-ph/0508390. Bibcode 2006MNRAS.371..108C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10659.x.