aajeevika

koi vyakti jeevan ke vibhinn kaalaavadhiyon mein jis kshetr mein kaam karta hai ya jo kaam karta hai, usi ko usaki aajeevika ya 'vrutti' ya kariar (Career) kehte hain. aajeevika praaya: aise kaaryon ko kehte hain jisse jeevikopaarjan hota hai. shikshak, daaktar, injineeyar, prabandhak, vakeel, shramik, kalaakaar, aadi kuchh aajeevikaaeain hain.

hamamein se pratyek ko kisi na kisi star par apna jeevanayaapan karne ke liye jeevikopaarjan ka saadhan chunana padta hai. vyaapaar ka kshetr svarojagaar tatha savetan rojagaar ke anginat avsar pradaan karta hai. aaj svarojagaar, berojgaari door karne ka ek ati uttam vikalp hai jisse desh ki unnati bhi hoti hai. swayam ke liye kaarya karna apne aap mein ek chunauti tatha prasannata hai.

anukram

jeevika ki avadharana

jeevika ka shaabdik arth hai : ek aisa vyavasaaya, jiske dvaara jeevan mein aage badhne evam unnati ke avsaron ka laabh uthaaya ja sake. isse abhipraaya maatra ek rojagaar/jeevika ka chayan naheen hai. iska taatparya un vibhinn padon se hain, jo kriyaasheel jeevan mein koi vyakti praapt kar sakta hai. vyaapak arthon mein jeevika kisi vyakti ki jeevan sanrachana ka ek mahatvapoorn paksh hai. udaaharan ke liye aapko kaaryaalaya sahaayak ka pad milta hai. aage chalakar aap kaaryaalaya adheekshak ban sakte hain aur ho sakta hai ki kaaryaalaya prabandhak ke pad tak pahunch jaaen. vyavasaaya ka arth hai kisi vyakti dvaara jeevan mein unnati karna visheshataya us vyakti se sambandhit vyavasaaya ke sambandh mein. vyavasaaya saamaanyat: ek vyakti dvaara lambe samay tak kiya jaane wala kaarya hai, jo seva mein rahate hue apni sthiti banaaye hue apne vyavasaaya/jeevikopaarjan ke roop mein karta hai.

aaj jaldi-jaldi vyavasaaya badalne ka chalan badh raha hai. udaaharan ke liye ek vakeel apne vyaktigat vyavaasaya mein kai alag-alag farmon ka alag-alag kaanooni vyavasaaya karta hai.

alag-alag kshetron mein alag-alag vyavaaya jo aap karte hain. use aapke vyavasaaya ka raasta kah sakte hai aur isse aapke din pratidin ki dincharya par bhi prabhaav padta hai. vyavasaaya se hi kisi ki sthiti ka pata bhi chalta hai ki jo us vyakti ne apni yogyata tatha kshamata viksit ki hai.

jeevika ke chayan ka mahatva

jeevika ka chunaav jeevan ka ek mahatvapoorn paksh hai. apni yogyata ke anusaar ek vishesh vyavasaaya ka chunaav jo ham apne bhavishya ke liye karte hain, usaka aaj ke pratiyogi jeevan mein bahut mahatva hai. aap jis vrutti ka chunaav karte hain vahi aapke bhavishya ki aadharashila hai. pehle, log apni shiksha poori karte the, pifr apni jeevika ka nirnaya karte the. lekin aaj ki peedhi apni vidyaalayi shiksha poori karne se pehle hi apne bhavishya nirmaan ki disha mein kadam badha leti hai. jeevika ka chunaav kisi vyakti ki jeevan shaili ko anya kisi ghatna ki tulana mein sabse adhik prabhaavit karta hai. kaarya hamaare jeevan ke kai roopon ko prabhaavit karte hain. hamaare jeevan mein moolyon, drushtikon evam hamaari pravruttiyon ko jeevan ki or prabhaavit karta hai. is bheeshan pratiyogita ki duniya mein praarambh mein hi jeevika sambandhi sahi chunaav atyadhik mahatvapoorn hai. iseeliye ek aisi prakriya ki aavashyakta hai, jo kisi vyakti ko vibhinn jeevan vruttiyon se avagat karaae. is prakriya mein vyakti ko apni un yogyataaon evam kshamataaon ka pata lag jaata hai, jo jeevan sambandhi nirnaya ka ek mahatvapoorn ang hai.

chunauti pratiyogita aaj ke samaaj ke mukhya ang hai, isliye jeevika ki yojana banaana hi keval yeh bataata hai ki hamein jeevan mein kya karna hai aur ham kya karna chaahate hai? na ki baar-baar aur jaldi-jaldi apne vyavasaaya athva kaarya ko uddeshyaheen tareeke se badalna.

ham vartamaan mein kya hai! iska pata hamein jeevika chunane se hi chalta hai. ham sabhi ki kuchh aakaankshaaen hoti hai aur ham sabhi bhavishya mein sthirta chaahate hain. isliye jeevika ka chayan ek kunji ka kaarya karta hai. koi vyakti apne baare mein uchit vishleshan karke uchit nirnaya le sakta hai.

jeevika ka chayan mukhyat: haai school athva intar ki padhaai poori karne par praarambh hota hai. uske pashchaat snaatak ki padhaai vyakti ko achhi tatha sulabh jeevika chunane mein sahaayak hoti hai. jeevika ka chunaav hamein bhavishya ko suchaaroo banaane mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata he. udaaharan ke liye yadi koi vyakti banker banana chaahata hai to vah ''indiyn Caste end vark ekaaunteint'' chaarted ekaauntent, master of business euministreshan ;vittaddh ka course karna chaahega. jeevika chayan ek aisa kaarya hai jo ki hamein jeevan parayant adhyayan karne tatha unnati karne ke liye prerit karta rahata hai aur ham jaisa karte hai hamaari roochi aur aavashyakataaen hamein badlaav ki or agrasar karti rahati hai.

vyavasaaya mein jeevika ke avsar

jab koi vyakti kisi vyavasaaya mein laga hota hai to ham kehte hain ki vah rojagaar mein hai. har vyakti ka vyavasaaya kisi na kisi aarthik kriya se juda hai. har vyakti apne bhavishya ke nirmaan ke liye kisi na kisi rojagaar mein lagana chaahata hai arthaat apni aajeevika kamaane ke liye kisi na kisi aarthik kriya mein lag jaata hai.

jeevika ka chunaav karne ke liye neeche diye gaye vikalpon mein se kisi ek ka chunaav karna padta hai : # naukri # svarojagaar

naukri ka arth hai kisi doosare ki majadoori athva vetan ke badle mein kaarya karna. yadi kisi ko kaaryaalaya sahaayak ke pad par niyukt kiya jaata hai to vah us kaarya kokarega jo usaka paryavekshak use saunpata hai. apne kaarya ke badle mein pratimaas use vetan milega. is prakaar ka rojagaar rojagaaradaata evam karmachaari ke beech anubandh par aadharit hota hai. karmachaari apne maalik ke liye kaarya karta hai. vah us kaarya ko karta hai jo usaka maalik use karne ke liye deta hai. iske badle mein use usaka pratifl milta hai. kaaryakaal ki avadhi mein vah maalik ki dekh-rekh aur niyantran mein kaarya karta hai. doosari or svarojagaar ka arth hai apni jeevika kamaane ke liye swayam kisi aarthik kriya ko karna. aaie, pehle naukri ke vibhinn avsaron ke baare mein sankshep mein jaanein.

naukri

savetan vyavasaaya athva savetan naukri ke avsar sarkaari kaaryaalayon mein paaye jaate hain. sarkaari vibhaagon mein railway, bank, vyaapaarik companiyaan, school evam aspataalon mein vibhinn prakaar ka kaarya hota hai. isi prakaar se audyogik ikaaiyon evam transport companyon ke kaaryon ki prakruti mein antar hota hai. isliye inmein kaaryarat takaneeki karmachaariyon ke kaarya mein bhi bhinnata hoti hai.

jin logon ne maadhyamik pareeksha paas ki hai un logon ke liye lipik athva vidyaalayon mein prayogashaala sahaayak ke pad par niyukti ke avsar hote hain, kyonki in padon ke liye nyoonatam shaikshanik yogyata maadhyamik kaksha utteern hai. vaise inke liye I. ti.I. pauleetaiknik, raajya sachiv evam vaanijyik sansthaanon mein prashikshan ki vishesh suvidhen upalabdh hain. jo vyakti takaneeki athva kaaryaalaya sachivaalayon ke paathyakram mein uteern ho jaata hai use kisi kaaryashaala mein takaneeki karmachaari athva kaaryaalaya sahaayak athva lekhaalipik ke pad par niyukti mil sakti hai. yadi vah computer prachaalan mein nipun hai to use computer prachaalak ke roop mein niyukti mil sakti hai.

svarojagaar

jab aap koi rojagaar apnaate hain to aap vah kaarya karte hain jo aapka rojagaaradaata aapko saunpata hai tatha badle mein aapko majadoori athva vetan ke roop mein ek nishchit raashi praapt hoti hai. lekin koi kaam/naukri ke sthaan par apna koi kaarya kar sakte hain tatha apni aajeevika kama sakte hain.

aap ek davaaiyon ki dukaan chala sakte hain ya fir ek darji ka kaam kar sakte hain. yadi ek vyakti koi aarthik kriya karta hai tatha swayam hi iska prabandhan karta hai to ise svarojagaar kehte hain. har ilaake mein aap chhote-chhote store, marammat karne waali dukaanein athva seva pradaan karne waali ikaaiyaan dekhte hain. in pratishthaanon ka ek hi vyakti svaami hota hai tatha vahi unka prabandhan karta hai. kabhi-kabhi ek ya do vyaktiyon ko vah apne sahaayak ke roop mein rakh leta hai. kiraana bhandaar, steshanari ki dukaan, kitaab ki dukaan, dava ghar, darji ki dukaan, naai ki dukaan, telephone booth, beauty paarlar, bijli, cycle aadi ki marammat ki dukaanein svarojagaar aadhaarit kriyaaon ke udaaharan hain. in bhandaaron athva dukaanon ke svaami prabandhk kraya-vikraya kriyaaon athva seva kaaryon se aay arjit karte hain jo unki jeevika ka saadhan hai. yadi unki aay vyaya se kam hoti hai to unhein haani hoti hai, jise unhein hi vahan karna hota hai.

svarojagaar tatha savetan rojagaar mein antar

  • naukri ya savetan rojagaar mein vyakti karmachaari hota hai, jabki svarojagaar mein vah swayam niyokta ki tarah hota hai.
  • naukri mein aamdani niyokta par nirbhar karti hai ki vah kitna vetan deta hai, jabki svarojagaar mein us vyakti ki yogyata par nirbhar karti hai jo svarojagaar mein laga hua hai.
  • naukri mein vyakti doosaron ke laabh ke liye kaarya karta hai jabki svarojagaar mein vyakti apne hi laabh ke liye kaarya karta hai.
  • naukri mein aay seemit hoti hai, jo pehle se hi niyokta dvaara tay kar li jaati hai. jabki svarojagaar mein svarojagaar mein lage hue vyakti ki lagan va yogyata par nirbhar karti hai.
  • naukri mein karmachaari ko 'kaarya vishesh' niyokta dvaara diya jaata hai, jabki svarojagaar mein vah apni aavashyakataanusaar kaarya chunata hai.
  • svarojagaar mein jokhim sadaiv bana rahata hai tatha aap ghatati rahati hai naukri mein koi jokhim naheen hai jab tak ki ek karmachaari kaarya karta hai.

svarojagaar ke kshetr

jab aap svarojagaar ki yojana banaaen to aap iske liye nimnalikhit avsaron ko dhyaan mein rakh sakte hain :

  • chhote paimaane ka pufatakar vyaapaar : ek akela svaami chhote vyaavasaayik ikaaiyon ko ek ya do sahaayakon ke sahayog se saralata se praarambh kar sakta hai tatha laabh kama sakta hai.
  • vyaktigat nipunata ke aadhar par sevaaen pradaan karna : jo log apni vishisht nipunata ke aadhar par graahakon ko sevaaen pradaan karte hain vah bhi svarojagaar mein sammilit kiye jaate hain. udaaharan ke liye saaikil, scooter, ghadiyon ki marammat, silaai, baal sanvaarana aadi aisi sevaaen hai jo graahak ko vyaktigat roop se pradaan ki jaati hai.
  • peshegat yogyataaon par aadharit vyavasaaya : jin kaaryon ke liye peshe sambandhi prashikshan evam anubhav ki aavashyakta hoti hai vah bhi svarojagaar ke antargat aate hain. udaaharan ke liye peshe mein kaaryarat Doctor, vakeel, chaatard ekaauntaint, faarmesist, aarakeetaikt aadi bhi apne vishisht prashikshan evam nipunata ke aadhar par svarojagaar ki shreni mein aate hain inke chhote pratishthaan hote hain jaise kleenik, dafratar ka sthaan, chaimbar aadi tatha yeh ek ya do sahaayakon ki sahaayata se apne graahakon ko sevaaen pradaan karte hain.
  • chhote paimaane ki krushi : krushi ke chhote paimaane ke kaarya jaise deri, murgeepaalan, baagabaani, resham utpaadan aadi mein svarojagaar sambhav hai. addh graameen evam kuteer udyog :charkha kaatana, bunana, haath se bunana, kapadon ki silaai bhi svarojagaar hai. yeh paaramparik viraasat mein mili nipunataaen hain.
  • kala evam kaashtakaari/shilp : jo log kisi kala athva shilp mein prashikshan praapt hain vah bhi sv rojagaar hi hai. inke vyavasaaya hain - sunaar, lohaar, badhi aadi.

savetan ki vareeyata mein svarojagaar

svarojagaar, aksar savetan se nimn kaaranon se behtar maana jaata hai :

  • svarojagaar apni yogta ko apne faayde ke liye svarojagaar se aap apne samay va yogyata ka adhiktam laabh utha sakte hain.
  • svarojagaar pooainji ke atyaadhik sansaadhanon tatha anya sansaadhanon ke bina bhi sambhav hai. udaaharan ke liye ek marammat ki dukaan kam pooainji se shuroo ki ja sakti hai.
  • svarojagaar mein ek vyakti 'kaarya par' rah kar kai cheeje seekhata hai kyonki use apne vyavasaaya se sambandhit apne faayde ke liye sabhi nirnaya swayam lene hote hain.

svarojagaar mein safalta ke liye aavashyak gun

  • bauddhik yogyataaen : aap yadi svarojagaar mein safalta praapt karna chaahate hain to aap mein svarojagaar ke sarvaadhik anukool avsaron ki pehchaan karne ki yogyata honi aavashyak hai. saath hi vyavasaaya parichaalan ke sambandh mein nirnaya lene tatha tarah-tarah ke graahakon ko santusht karne ki yogyata ka hona bhi mahatva rakhata hai. pifr samasyaaon ke poorvaanumaan evam jokhim uthaane ki kshamata ki bhi aavashyakta hai.
  • satarkata tatha door-drushti : svarojagaar mein lage vyakti ko baajaar mein ho rahe parivrtanon ke prati sachet aur satark hona chaahiye jisse ki vah unke anusaar apne vyavasaaya ke kaaryon ka samaayojan kar sake. usamein door-drushti ka bhi hona aavashyak hai jisse ki vah sambhaavit parivrtanon ka anumaan laga sake, avsaron ka laabh utha sake tatha bhavishya mein yadi kisi prakaar ke khatre ki sambhaavana hai to unka saamana kar sakein.
  • aatmavishvaas : svarojagaar mein maalik ko hi sabhi nirnaya lene aavashyak hote hain kyonki use samasyaaon ko hal karna hota hai tatha aapoortikrta, lenadaar graahak tatha sarkaari adhikaariyon ka samaana karna hota hai.
  • vyavasaaya ka gyaan : jo bhi vyakti svarojagaar mein laga hai usako vyavasaaya ka poora gyaan hona chaahiye. ismein vyavasaaya ko chalaane ka takaneeki gyaan evam kaushal bhi sammilit hai.
  • sambandhit kaanoonon ka gyaan : jo svarojagaar mein laga hai, yeh aavashyak naheen ki vah kaanoon ka visheshagya ho lekin use jahaan usaka vyavaaya chal raha hai vahaan ke vyavasaaya sambandhi evam sevaaon se sambandhit kaanoonon ka kaam chalaaoo gyaan hona aavashyak hai. inmein trade end aistebalishmeint act, vikraya kar evam utpaadan kar se sambandhit kaanoon evam pradooshan niyantran aadi se sambandhit niyam hai.
  • lekha kaarya ka gyaan : vyavasaaya karne vaale pratyek vyakti ko sabhi len denon ka poora byaura rakhana hota hai jisse ki vah aavadhik antaraal ka laabh haani nirdharit kar sake, bhugataan tithi ko apne lenadaaron ka bhugataan kar sake, graahakon se paisa vasool kar sake tatha karon ka bhugataan kar sake. is sabke liye use lekha kaarya ka aavashyak gyaan hona jaroori hai.
  • anya vyaktigat gun : svarojagaar mein lage vyakti mein imaandaari, gambhir tatha parishrami jaise gunon ka hona aavashyak hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain