aaisalaind

aaisalaind ganaraajya
Lýaðaveldið Íasland
dhvaj
raashtravaakya: kuchh naheen
raashtragaan: Lofsöangur
hindi: asanbaddh kaavya
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
rekjaavik
64°a08′aN 21°a56′aW / 64.133°aN 21.933°aW / 64.133; -21.933
raajabhaasha(eain) aaisalaindik
sarkaar samvaidhaanik ganatantr
- raashtrapati olaafr raaganar grimsan
- pradhaanamantri jeer hilmar haarde
svatantr Denmark se
- samprabhuta 1 December 1918
- ganatantr 17 June 1944
kshetrafal
- kul 1,03,000 varg kilometer (107vaan)
39,768.5 varg meal
- jal (%) 2.7
janasankhya
- July 2006 janaganana 2,97,139 (178vaan)
- December 1970 janaganana 2,04,930
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2005 praakkalan
- kul 10.531 arab dollar (135vaan)
- prati vyakti 35,586 dollar (2005) (5vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2003) 0.956
bahut uchch · 2ra
mudra aaisalaindik krona (ISK)
samay mandal jeeemati (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+0)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) koi naheen (yoo॰atee॰asee॰)
doorabhaash koot 354
Internet teeeladi .is

aaisalaind ya aaisalaind ganaraajya (aaislaindik : Íasland ya Lýaðaveldið Íasland) uttar pashchimi Europe mein uttari atalaantik mein greenalaind, fro dweep samooh aur naarve ke madhya basa ek dvipeeya desh hai. aaisalaind ka kshetrafal lagbhag 1,03,000 kimi2 hai aur anumaanit janasankhya 3,13,000 (2009) hai. yeh Europe mein Britain ke baad doosra aur vishv mein athaarahava sabse bada dweep hai. yahaaain ki rajdhani hai rekjaavik aur desh ki aadhi janasankhya yaheen nivaas karti hai.

avasthaapan saakshyon se yeh gyaat hota hai ki aaisalaind mein avasthaapan 874 isvi mein aarambh hua tha jab ingolfr aarnaarsan log yahaaain par pahuainche, yadyapi isse pehle bhi kai log is desh mein asthaai roop se ruke the. aane vaale kai dashakon aur shataabdiyon mein avasthaapan kaal ke dauraan anya bahut se log aaisalaind mein aae. 1262 mein aaisalaind, naarve ke old kovenent ke adheen aaya aur 1918 mein samprabhuta milne tak naarve aur Denmark dvaara shaasit raha. Denmark aur aaisalaind ke beech hui ek sandhi ke anusaar aaisalaind ki videsh neeti ka niyaaman Denmark ke dvaara kiya jaana tay hua aur donon deshon ka raaja ek hi tha jab tak ki 1944 mein aaisalaind ganaraajya ki sthaapana naheen ho gayi. is desh ko vibhinn naamon se pukaara gaya, vishesharoop se kaviyon dvaara.

beesaveen sadi ke uttaraardh mein aaisalaindavaasiyon ne apne desh ke vikaas par purajor dhyaan diya aur desh ke aadhaarbhoot dhaaainche ko sudhaarane aur anya kai kalyaanakaari kaamon par dhyaan diya jiske parinaamasvaroop aaisalaind, sanyukt raashtra ke jeevan gunavatta soochakaank ke aadhaar par vishv ka sarvaadhik rahane yogya desh hai.

aaisalaind, sayunkt raashtra, naato, efta, iie samet vishv ki bahut si sansthaaon ka sadasya hai.

anukram

itihaas

sarvapratham log jo aaisalaind mein rahe the Ireland ke bhikshu the. ve log lagbhag 800 isvi mein yahaaain aae the.

9veen shataabdi mein, naurs log yahaaain rahane ke liye aae. aaisalaind mein rahane wala sarvapratham naurs tha floki viljaraarsan (Flóaki Vilgerðaarson). yeh aun logon mein se tha jinhonne aaisalaind ko yeh naam diya. naarve ka ek senaapati jo aaisalaind ke dakshin pashchim mein rahata tha ne rekjaavik ki sthaapana ki thi.

930 mein aaisalaind ke shaasakon ne vaha ka samvidhaan likha tha. unhonne althing (Alþaingi), ek prakaar ki sansad banaai jo pingvelir naamak sthaan par thi. yeh vishv ki sarvapratham sansad thi jo aaj bhi sanchaalan mein hai.

985 isvi mein erik, the red naamak ek vyakti ko kisi ki hatya ke aarop mein aaisalaind se nikaal diya gaya. usane pashchim ki or yaatra ki aur greenalaind ki khoj kar daali. erik ke putr leef eriksan ne 1000 isvi mein ameriki mahaadveep ki khoj ki thi. usane ise vinlaind kaha. erik, leef aur anyon ki yaatraaon ka ullekh gaathaaon (sagas) mein milta hai.

1262 mein, aaisalaind, naarve ka bhaag bana aur 1662 mein Denmark ka. unneesaveen sadi mein bahut se aaisalaindavaasi Denmark se svatantr hona chaahate the. 1918 mein aaisalaind ko bahut si shaktiyaan di gain, lekin Denmark ka shaasak abhi bhi aaisalaind ka bhi shaasak tha.

jab 9 April, 1940 ko Germany ne Denmark par adhikaar kar liya to aaisalaind ki sansad althing ne yeh nirnaya liya ki aaisalaindavaasiyon ko apne desh ka shaasan swayam karna chaahiye, lekin unhonne abhi tak svatantrata ki ghoshana naheen ki thi. pehle british aur baad mein ameriki sainikon ne aaisalaind ka adhikran kar liya taaki jarman usapar hamla na kar sakein. antat: 1944 mein aaisalaind ek poorn svatantr raashtra bana

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad aaisalaind uttari atalaantik sandhi sangathan ka sadasya bana, lekin Europeeya sangh ka naheen. 1958 aur 1976 ke madhya aaisalaind aur Britain ke beech kaud machhaliyon ko pakadne ko lekar teen baar vaarta hui. ise code yudd kaha gaya.

1980 mein vigdis finbogaadotir (Vigdías Finnbogadóattir) aaisalaind ki raashtrapti chuneen gayi. vah kisi bhi desh mein nirvaachit hone waali sarvapratham mahila raashtrapati theen.

raajaneeti

aaisalaind ek pratinidhi lokatantr aur sansadeeya ganatantr hai. aadhunik sansad, jise alpingi "Alþaingi" kaha jaata hai, 1845 mein Denmark ke raaja ke liye ek salaahakaar nikaaya ke roop mein sthaapit ki gayi thi. ise vyaapak roop se 930 mein sthaapit ek vidhaanasabha ke roop mein dekha jaata hai jiski sthaapana raashtramandal kaal mein ki gayi thi aur jise 1799 mein nilambit kar diya. parinaamat:, "tark saadhya roop se aaisalaind duniya ka sabse puraana sansadeeya lokatantr hai" ismein vartamaan mein 63 sadasya hote hain, jinhein chaar varsheeya kaaryakaal ke liye chuna jaata hai.

aaisalaind ka raashtrapati mukhyat: keval ek aupachaarik raashtraadhyaksh hai aur ek raajanayik ke roop mein kaarya karta hai, lekin vah sansad dvaara paarit kisi bhi kaanoon ko rok sakta hai aur raashtreeya janamat sangrah ke liye rakh sakta hai. vartamaan raashtrapti olaafar raaganaar grimsan (Óaalafur Ragnar Gríamsson) hain. sarkaar ka pramukh hota hai pradhaanamantri, jo vartamaan mein johaana sirguraadotir (Jóahanna Sigurðaardóattir) hain, jo apni mantreeparishd ke saath, kaaryakaari sarkaar ke prati uttaradaai hai. mantreeparishd ki niyukti raashtrapati dvaara aam chunaav ke baad ki jaati hai, lekin, niyukti par aam taur par raajaneetik dalon ke netaaon mein vichaar vimarsh hota hai ki kaun se dal mantreeparishd mein sammilit ho sakte hain aur seaton ka baintavaara kaise hoga lekin is shart par ki us mantreeparishd ko althing mein bahumat praapt hoga. jab dalon ke neta apne aap ek nirdhaarit avadhi mein kisi nishkarsh tak pahuainchane mein asamarth hote hain to raashtrapati apni shakti ka prayog karke mantreeparishd ki niyukti swayam karta ya karateen hain. yadyapi 1944 mein ganatantr banane ke baad se abhi tak aisa naheen hua hai, lekin 1942 mein desh ke reejeint sveen jornsan (Sveinn Bjöarnsson, jo 1941 mein althing dvaara is sthiti mein sthaapit kiye gaye the) ne ek asansadeeya sarkaar ko niyukt kiya tha. reejeint, sabhi vyaavahaarik prayojanon ke liye, ek raashtrapati ki sthiti thi aur sveen vaastav mein 1944 mein desh ke pehle raashtrapati bane.

prashaasanik prabhaag

aaisalaind kshetron, nirvaachan-kshetron, kaauntiyon aur nagar paalikaaon mein vibhaajit hai. yahaaain aath kshetr hain jo mukhya roop se saankhyikeeya prayojanon ke liye prayog mein laae jaate hain, jila nyaayaalaya bhi is vibhaag ke ek puraane sanskaran ka upayog kar rahe hain. 2003 tak, sansadeeya chunaavon ke liye nirvaachan kshetr vahi kshetr the, lekin samvidhaan sanshodhan dvaara, ve vartamaan chhah nirvaachan kshetron mein parivrtit kiye gaye:

  • rekjaavik uttar aur rekjaavik dakshin (nagareeya kshetr);
  • dakshin pashchim (chaar bhaugolik drushti se alag rekjaavik ke chaaron or ke upanagareeya kshetr);
  • uttar pashchim aur poorvottar (aaisalaind ka uttari ardhabhaag, vibhaajit) aur,
  • dakshin (aaisalaind ka dakshini ardhabhaag, rekjaavik aur upanagaron ko chhodkar).

bhoogol

chitr:aaisalaindaantarikshase.jpeg
aaisalaind ka upagrah chitr.

aaisalaind bhoovaijnyaaanik roop se bahut sakriya hai aur khaadi ki garm dhaaraaeain jo iski or bahti hain, ke kaaran yahaaain bhaari varsha aur himpaat hota hai aur in dhaaraaon ke kaaran kai dilchasp aur asaamaanya bhaugolik visheshataaon ka vikaas hua hai jo aarkatik vrut ke itne nikat kisi bhi anya dweep se bahut alag hain.

inmein se kuchh visheshataaeain hain, aaisalaind ke kai pahaad, jvaalaamukhi, garam chashme (haut springs), nadiyaan, chhoti jheelein, jharane, himnad aur geejar. balki "geejar" shabd bhi geesir naamak ek prasiddh geejar se vyutpann hua hai jo desh ke dakshini bhaag mein sthit hai. himnad is dvipeeya desh ke 11% bhoobhaag ko achhaadit kiye hue hain aur sabse bada, vaatnaajokul (Vatnajöakull) lagbhag 1 kimi mota hai aur Europe ka sabse bada himnad hai.

aaisalaind, haalaanki ek Europeeya desh maana jaata, lekin aanshik roop se uttar America mein padta hai, kyonki yeh madhya atalaantik Cuttack (rij), jo yooreshiyaai aur uttari America ke vivrtanik pleton ke beech seema ke banaata hai, par sthit hai. yeh Cuttack aitihaasik roop se janasankhya vaale rekjaavik aur thingvelir kshetron ke madhya se hokar gujarata hai aur in alag vivrtanik pleton ki gatividhi kshetron mein prachur maatra mein bhootaap oorja ka srot hai.

arthavyavastha

aarthik soochako ke aadhaar par aaisalaind vishv ke sarvaadhik dhani deshon mein hai. varsh 2007 mein prati vyakti sakal aay 63,830 $ thi. (vishv mein chauthe sthaan par, antarraashtreeya mudra kosh ke anusaar)

arthavyastha mukhya roop se machhali pakadne par aadhaarit hai, jiski desh ke niryaat aay mein bhaageedaari 60% hai aur yeh udyog desh ke 8% kaaryabal ko rojagaar diye hue hai. aaisalaind ke paas machhali aur apaar jalavidyut aur bhootaapeeya oorja ke atirikt anya koi sansaadhan naheen hai. isliye yahaaain ki arthavyastha par antarraashtreeya baajaar mein machhali utpaado aur unke prakraman moolyon par hone vaale badlaavon ka prabhaav padta hai. seemant hi ekamaatr aisa utpaad hai jiske prakraman ka kachcha maal yahaaain banta hai. yahaaain adhikaansh bhavan isi se banaae jaate hai aur lakdi (mahaingi hone ke kaaran) kam hi upayog mein laai jaati hai. machhali udyog par nirbharata hi ek aisa kaaran hai jo aaisalaind ke Europeeya sangh mein sammilit hone se roke hue hai. unhein yeh chinta hai ki yoosan ka sadasya banane se desh ke oopar kai niyaamak laagoo honge jiske kaaran machhali ke kachche maal ke prabandhan par se unka niyantran samaapt ho jaaega. yadyapi arthavyastha machhali udyog par aadhaarit hai lekin yeh udyog ab kam mahatvapoorn ho raha hai aur paryatan udyog (mukhyat: paaristhitiki paryatan) aur aadhunik praudyogiki udyog (mukhyat: sauftaveyar aur jaiv praudyogiki) badh rahe hain. 2003 mein desh ki vikaas dar 4.3% thi aur 2004 mein 5.2%. 2004 ki chauthi timaahi mein berojgaari dar 2.5% thi jo liktenastaain ke baad Europeeya aarthik kshetr mein sabse kam thi.

2008 ka aarthik sankat

haal hi ke varshon mein aaisalaind ko ghor aarthik sankat ka saamana karna pada hai, jo 2008 ke banking sankat ke baad se aur gahra gaya. badhti mudraasfeeti, asthir banking aur mudra ke kaaran aaisalaind ki rinapaatrata nirdhaaranata (kredit rating) dhh gayi aur bahut se visheshajnyao ka maanana hain ki banking pranaali ka charamaraana tab tak jaari rahega jab tak ki aarthik neetiyon mein naatakeeya badlaav naheen kiye jaate.

paryatan

desh ka laghu paryatan kaal aadhikaarik roop se 31 May se aarambh hokar 1 September ko samaapt hota hai. June ke aaranbhik maheenon mein bhi kai kshetr aur maarg barf se achhaadit hote hain. greeshmakaaleen din lambe hote hain aur ardharaatri tak ujaala rahata hai. June ki samaapti aur July ke maheenon mein adhiktar paryatak aate hain. August ke maheene mein pravaasi pakshi bhi aate hain. pepin, jo raashtreeya pakshi August ke ant hone tak dikhne kam ho jaate hain. 20 August paryatan ke mausam ka aadhikaarik antim din hota hai. iske baad se din chhote hone lagte hain aur barfbaari ka mausam aarambh ho jaata hai. paryatan ke do-teen maheenon ke dauraan hi aaisalaind mein lagbhag 10 lakh paryatak aate hain jo yahaaain ki jangali prakruti jaise: himnad, jharane, jvaalaamukhi aur jeejar dekhne aate hain. haal hi ke varshon mein aaisalaind mein sardiyon ke dauraan bhi paryatan mein teji I hai.

sanskruti

saahitya

aaisalaind ka adhikaansh saahitya ida kavitaaen hain jo 900 se 1050 isvi ke beech likheen gayi thi aur inmein naayako aur vibhinn devataaon ka vivran hai, mukhyat: gaathaaon ke raajaaon ka jo madhyakaal mein the.

sonora staurlosan sahitya ne ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai hai. isaaiyat ke yahaaain aane ke baad se church se sambandhit saahitya bhi yahaaain likhe gaye.

19veen sadi ke aarambh mein aaisalaindik saahitya-lekhan mein bahut teji I. us kaal ke kuchh ati mahatvapoorn lekhak hain vaai gimsan, grondal M aaikomsan ityaadi. aaisalaind ke 20veen sadi ke kuchh mahatvapoorn lekhak hain: ipsteen, E vendiktsan, John gonaarsan haaldor laikjis

janasaankhyiki

not: yeh aaainkade varsh 2005 ke liye hain.

aaisalaind ki kul janasankhya 2,96,737 hai aur yahaaain ki nasleeya banaavat is prakaar hai:

94% aaisalaindi aur 6% dainish, sveedish, naarvejiyaai, ameriki aur anya.

aaisalaind bahut seema tak ek sajaateeya desh hai aur yahaaain poore desh ki janasankhya par DNA shodh chal raha hai.

jeevan pratyaasha: purush 78.23 varsh, mahila 82.48 varsh.

janasankhya vitran: desh ki 93% janasankhya nagareeya kshetron mein nivaas karti hai jismein se lagbhag aadhe se bhi adhik keval raajadhaani rekjaavik mein rahate hain.

janasankhya ki vruddhi dar hai 0.9%.

dharm

aaisalaind ki bahusankhyak janasankhya isaai dharm ki hai aur adhikaanshat: lootharan hain.

dhaarmik banaavat: 96% ivainglikl lootharan, 2% anya isaai aur anya mataavalambi aur 2% koi dhaarmik sanbaddhata naheen.

bhaasha

yahaaain ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai aaisalaindi. yeh bhaasha pichhle 1,000 varshon mein bahut adhik naheen badli hai, isliye aaisalaindavaasi abhi bhi vaaiking ki un gaathaaon ko padh sakte hain jo sadiyon pehle likhe gaye the.

shiksha aur vigyaan

aaislaind mein aath varsh ki shiksha anivaarya hai. yahaaain do vishvavidyaalaya, shikshak prashikshan vidyaalaya, mahaavidyaalaya aur takaneeki sansthaan hain. aaislaind ki saaksharata dar 100% hai.

praudyogiki ke maamale mein aaisalaind ek atyant unnt desh hai. 1999 tak, 82.3% aaisalaindavaasiyon ke paas computer tha.[1] 2006 mein aaisalaind mein prati 1,000 vyaktiyon par 1,007 mobile fon the, jo vishv mein 16vaan sabse adhik uchchatam aaainkada tha.[2]

Europeeya mangal enaalaug shodh station ka mukhyaalaya aaisalaind mein sthit hai.

yaataayaat

aaisalaind ki saamaajik sanrachana niji kaaron par bahut nirbhar hai. aaisalaind mein prati vyakti car svaamitv vishv mein uchchatam mein se ek hai: 2008 mein 656.7 prati ek hajaar nivaasi (www.statice.is) 17 varsh se oopar.[3] adhikaansh aaisalaindavaasi yaatra karne, kaam par jaane, vidyaalaya ya anya gatividhiyon ke liye kaaron ka hi upayog karte hain..

aaisalaind mein yaataayaat ka mukhya saadhan sadak hai. aaisalaind mein 13,034 kimi lambi prashaasit sadkein hain, jinmein se 4,617 kimi pakki aur 8,338 kachchi sadkein hain. ring road 1974 mein poori ki gayi thi aur kuchh varsh poorv hi sabhi samudaayon ko sadak se joda gaya hai aur isse pehle sadkon ke chhote-2 bhaag hi pakke the. aaj, deshbhar mein sadkon ka nirmaan aur sudhaar kiya ja raha hai aur rajdhani rekjaavik ke aaspaas mahaamaargon ka nirmaan kiya ja raha hai. abhi bhi badi sankhya mein sadkein kachchi hain jinmein adhiktar graameen kshetron mein kam upayog mein laai jaane waali sadkein hain. kasbon mein sadkon par gati seema 50 kimi/prati ghanta, pathareeli sadkon par 80 kimi/ghanta aur pakki sadko par 90 kimi/ghanta hai. vartamaan mein aaisalaind mein koi relamaarg naheen hain.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain