aaijk nyootan

sar aaijk nyootan

gaudafre nellar dvaara 1689 mein banaaya gaya aaijk nyootan ka chitr (aayu 46)
janm 4 January 1643
[OS: 25 December 1642][1]
voolasthorpe bye kolasteravarth
linkanashaayar, ingalaind
mrutyoo 31 March 1727(1727-03-31) (umr 84)
[OS: 20 March 1727][1]
keinsingtan, midlaseks, ingalaind
nivaas ingalaind
naagarikta ingalaind
raashtreeyata ingalaind (1707 se britaani)
kshetr bhautik vigyaan, ganit, khagol, praakrutik darshan, alchemy, theology
sansthaaeain Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya
royal society
royal mint
maatrusanstha Trinity College, Cambridge
Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2]
Benjamin Pulleyn[3][4]
Notable students Roger Cotes
William Whiston
prasiddh kaarya chirsammat yaantriki
gurutvaakarshan ka siddhaant
kalan
nyootan ke gati niyam
prakaashiki
nyootan vidhi
prinsipiya
Influences yohaanes keplar
gaileeliyo gailili
arastu
Robert bauyal
Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier
John Keill
volteyar
Signature
Notes
His mother was Hannah Ayscough. His half-niece was Catherine Barton.

sar aaijaik nyootan England ke ek vaigyaanik the. jinhonne gurutvaakarshan ka niyam aur gati ke siddhaant ki khoj ki. ve ek mahaan ganitjnya, bhautik vaigyaanik, jyotish evam daarshanik the. inka shodh prapatr "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" san 1687 mein prakaashit hua, jismein saarvatrik gurtvaakarshan evam gati ke niyamon ki vyaakhya ki gayi thi aur is prakaar chirsammat bhautiki (klaasikl bhautiki) ki neenv rakhi. unki filosofi nechurelis prinsipiya methemetika, 1687 mein prakaashit hui, yeh vigyaan ke itihaas mein apne aap mein sabse prabhaavashaali pustak hai, jo adhikaansh saahityik yaantriki ke liye aadhaarbhoot kaarya ki bhoomika nibhaati hai.

is kaarya mein, nyootan ne saarvatrik gurutv aur gati ke teen niyamon ka varnan kiya jisne agali teen shataabdiyon ke liye bhautik brahmaand ke vaigyaanik drushtikon par apna varchasv sthaapit kar liya. nyootan ne darshaaya ki pruthvi par vastuon ki gati aur aakaasheeya pindon ki gati ka niyantran praakrutik niyamon ke samaan samuchchaya ke dvaara hota hai, ise darshaane ke liye unhonne graheeya gati ke kepalar ke niyamon tatha apne gurutvaakarshan ke siddhaant ke beech nirantarata sthaapit ki, is prakaar se soorya kendreeyata aur vaigyaanik kraanti ke aadhunikeekaran ke baare mein pichhle sandeh ko door kiya.

yaantriki mein, nyootan ne sanveg tatha koneeya sanveg donon ke sanrakshan ke siddhaanton ko sthaapit kiya. prakaashiki mein, unhonne pehla vyavahaarik paraavarti dooradarshi banaaya[5] aur is aadhaar par rang ka siddhaant viksit kiya ki ek prijm shvet prakaash ko kai rangon mein apaghatit kar deta hai jo drushya spectrum banaate hain. unhonne sheetalan ka niyam diya aur dhvani ki gati ka adhyayan kiya. ganit mein, avakalan aur samaakalan kalan ke vikaas ka shreya gotafraaid leebaneej ke saath nyootan ko jaata hai. unhonne saamaanyeekrut dvipd prameya ka bhi pradarshan kiya aur ek falan ke shoonyon ke sanniktan ke liye tathaakathit "nyootan ki vidhi" ka vikaas kiya aur ghaat shrrunkhala ke adhyayan mein yogadaan diya.

vaigyaaniko ke beech nyootan ki sthiti bahut sheersh pad par hai, aisa Britain ki royal society mein 2005 mein hue vaigyaaniko ke ek sarvekshan ke dvaara pradarshit hota hai, jismein poochha gaya ki vigyaan ke itihaas par kiska prabhaav adhik gahra hai, nyootan ka ya elbart aainsteen ka. is sarvekshan mein nyootan ko adhik prabhaavi paaya gaya.[6]. nyootan atyadhik dhaarmik bhi the, haalaaainki ve ek aparanparaagat isaai the, unhonne praakrutik vigyaan, jiske liye unhein aaj yaad kiya jaata hai, ki tulana mein baaibil hermeneyutiks par adhik likha.

anukram

jeevan

praarambhik varsh

aaijaik nyootan ka janm 4 January 1643 ko puraani shaili aur nai shaili ki tithiyaan |OS]]:</nowiki> 25 December 1642][1]linkolanashaayar ke County mein ek hemalet, voolsthorpe-bye-kolstervorth mein voolasthrop menar mein hua. nyootan ke janm ke samay, England ne grigoriyn keleindar ko naheen apnaaya tha aur isliye unke janm ki tithi ko christmas diwas 25 disanbara1642 ke roop mein darj kiya gaya.

nyootan ka janm unke pita ki mrutyu ke teen maah baad hua, ve ek samruddh kisaan the unka naam bhi aaijaik nyootan tha. poorv paripakva avastha mein paida hone wala vah ek chhota baalak tha; unki maata hanna aiskf ka kehna tha ki vah ek chauthaai gelan jaise chhote se mag mein sama sakta tha.

jab nyootan teen varsh ke the, unki maan ne dubaara shaadi kar li aur apne nae pati revarand barnaabus smith ke saath rahane chali gayi aur apne putr ko usaki naani margeri aiskf ki dekhbhaal mein chhod diya.chhota aaijaik apne sautele pita ko pasand naheen karta tha aur uske saath shaadi karne ke kaaran apni maan ke saath dushmani ka bhaav rakhata tha. jaisa ki 19 varsh tak ki aayu mein unke dvaara kiye gaye aparaadhon ki soochi mein pradarshit hota hai: "mainne maata aur pita smith ke ghar ko jalaane ki dhamaki di."[7]


1702 mein nyootan ka ek chitr godafre knelar ke dvaara
aaijaik nyootan (bolatan, saara ke.femas main of science NY: Thomas vaai krovel end kan, 1889)

baarah varsh se satrah varsh ki aayu tak unhonne di kings school, graantham mein shiksha praapt ki (jahaan pustakaalaya ki ek khidki par unke hastaakshar aaj bhi dekhe ja sakte hain) unhein school se nikaal diya gaya aur October 1659 ve voolsthorpe-bye-kolstervorth aa gaye, jahaaain unki maaain, jo doosari baar vidhva ho chuki thi, ne unhein kisaan banaane par jor diya. vah kheti se nafarat karte the.[8] kings school ke master henari stoks ne unki maan se kaha ki ve unhein fir se school bhej dein taaki ve apni shiksha ko poora kar sakein. school ke ek ladke ke khilaaf badla lene ki ichha se prerit hone ki vajah se ve ek sheersh kram ke chhaatr ban gaye.[9]

June 1661 mein, unhein triniti college, Cambridge mein ek sijr-ek prakaar ki kaarya-adhyayan bhoomika, ke roop mein bharti kiya gaya.[10] us samay college ki shikshaaen arastu par aadhaarit theen. lekin nyootan adhik aadhunik daarshanikon jaise desakaartes aur khagolavidon jaise koparaniks, gaileeliyo aur kepalar ke vichaaron ko padhana chaahata tha.

1665 mein unhonne saamaanyeekrut dvipd prameya ki khoj ki aur ek ganiteeya siddhaant viksit karna shuroo kiya jo baad mein atyalp kalan ke naam se jaana gaya. August 1665 mein jaise hi nyootan ne apni degree praapt ki, uske theek baad pleg ki bheeshan mahaamaari se bachane ke liye ehatiyaat ke roop mein vishvavidyaalaya ko band kar diya.yadyapi ve ek Cambridge vidyaarthi ke roop mein pratishthit naheen the,[11] iske baad ke do varshon tak unhonne voolsthorpe mein apne ghar par niji adhyayan kiya aur kalan, prakaashiki aur gurutvaakarshan ke niyamon par apne siddhaanton ka vikaas kiya.

1667 mein vah triniti ke ek felo ke roop mein Cambridge laut aae.[12]

beech ke varsh

adhikaansh aadhunik itihaasakaaron ka maanana hai ki nyootan aur leebaneej ne atyalp kalan ka vikaas apne apne adviteeya sanketanon ka upayog karte hue svatantr roop se kiya.

nyootan ke aantarik chakr ke anusaar, nyootan ne apni is vidhi ko leebaneej se kai saal pehle hi viksit kar diya tha, lekin unhonne lagbhag 1693 tak apne kisi bhi kaarya ko prakaashit naheen kiya aur 1704 tak apne kaarya ka poora lekha jokha naheen diya. is beech, leebaneej ne 1684 mein apni vidhiyon ka poora lekha jokha prakaashit karna shuroo kar diya. iske alaava, leebaneej ke sanketanon tatha "avakalan ki vidhiyon" ko mahaadveep par saarvatrik roop se apnaaya gaya aur 1820 ke baad, british saamraajya mein bhi ise apnaaya gaya. jabki leebaneej ki pustikaaen praarambhik avasthaaon se paripkvata tak vichaaron ke aadhunikeekaran ko darshaati hain, nyootan ke gyaat nots mein keval antim parinaam hi hai.

nyootan ne kaha ki ve apne kalan ko prakaashit naheen karna chaahate the kyonki unhein dar tha ve upahaas ka paatr ban jaayeinge.

nyootan ka Swiss ganitjnya nikolas fatiyo de duiliar ke saath bahut kareebi rishta tha, jo praarambh se hi nyootan ke gurutvaakarshan ke siddhaant se bahut prabhaavit the. 1691 mein duiliar ne nyootan ke filosofi nechurelis prinsipiya methemetika ke ek nae sanskaran ko taiyaar karne ki yojana banaayi, lekin ise kabhi poora naheen kar paae.baharahaal, in donon purushon ke beech sambandh 1693 mein badal gaya. is samay, duiliar ne bhi leebaneej ke saath kai patron ka aadaan pradaan kiya tha.[13]

1699 ki shuruaat mein, royal society (jiske nyootan bhi ek sadasya the) ke anya sadasyon ne leebaneej par saahityik chori ke aarop lagaaye aur yeh vivaad 1711 mein poorn roop se saamane aaya.

nyootan ki royal society ne ek adhyayan dvaara ghoshana ki ki nyootan hi sachche aavishkaarak the aur leebaneej ne dhokhaadhadi ki thi. yeh adhyayan sandeh ke ghere mein aa gaya, jab baad paaya gaya ki nyootan ne khud leebaneej par adhyayan ke nishkarsh ki tippani likhi.

is prakaar kadva nyootan banaam leebaneej vivaad shuroo ho gaya, jo baad mein nyootan aur leebaneej donon ke jeevan mein 1716 mein leebaneej ki mrutyu tak jaari raha.[14]

nyootan ko aam taur par saamaanyeekrut dvipd prameya ka shreya diya jaata hai, jo kisi bhi ghaat ke liye maanya hai. unhonne nyootan ki sarvasamikaaon, nyootan ki vidhi, vargeekrut ghan samatal vakr (do charon mein teen ke bahuaayaami pad) ki khoj ki, parimit antaron ke siddhaant mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya, ve pehle vyakti the jinhonne bhinnaatmak soochakaank ka prayog kiya aur daayofenataain sameekaranon ke hal ko vyutpann karne ke liye nirdeshaank jyaamiti ka upayog kiya.

unhonne laghuganak ke dvaara haraatmak shredhi ke aanshik yog ka sanniktan kiya, (yoolar ke sameshan sootr ka ek poorvagaami) aur ve pehle vyakti the jinhonne aatmavishvaas ke saath ghaat shrrunkhala ka prayog kiya aur ghaat shrrunkhala ka vilom kiya.

unhein 1669 mein ganit ka lyukesiyn professor chuna gaya. un dinon, Cambridge ya oksaford ke kisi bhi sadasya ko ek nirdisht angreji pujaari hona aavashyak tha. haalaaainki, lyukesiyn professor ke liye jaruri tha ki vah church mein sakriya na ho.(taaki vah vigyaan ke liye aur adhik samay de sake)

nyootan ne tark diya ki samanvaya ki aavashyakta se unhein mukt rakhana chaahiye aur Charles dviteeya, jiski anumati anivaarya thi, ne is tark ko sveekaar kiya. is prakaar se nyootan ke dhaarmik vichaaron aur angreji roodheevaadiyon ke beech sangharsh tal gaya.[15]

prakaashiki

nyootan ke doosare paraavarti dooradarshi ki ek pratikruti jo unhonne 1672 mein royal society ko bheint kiya.

1670 se 1672 tak, nyootan ka prakaashiki par vyaakhyaan diya. is avadhi ke dauraan unhonne prakaash ke apavartan ki khoj ki, unhonne pradarshit kiya ki ek prijm shvet prakaash ko rangon ke ek spectrum mein viyojit kar deta hai aur ek leins aur ek doosra prijm bahuvarni spectrum ko sanyojit kar ke shvet prakaash ka nirmaan karta hai.[16]

unhonne yeh bhi dikhaaya ki rangeen prakaash ko alag karne aur bhinn vastuon par chamakaane se rageen prakaash ke gunon mein koi parivartan naheen aata hai. nyootan ne varnit kiya ki chaahe yeh paraavartit ho, ya vikirit ho ya sancharit ho, yeh samaan rang ka bana rahata hai.

is prakaar se, unhonne dekha ki, rang pehle se rangeen prakaash ke saath vastu ki antarkriya ka parinaam hota hai naaki vastuen khud rangon ko utpann karti hain.

yeh nyootan ke rang siddhaant ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[17]

is kaarya se unhonne nishkarsh nikaala ki, kisi bhi apavarti dooradarshi ka leins prakaash ke rangon mein visran (rangeen vipthan) ka anubhav karega aur is avadhaarana ko siddh karne ke liye unhonne abhidrushyak ke roop mein ek darpan ka upayog karte hue, ek dooradarshi ka nirmaan kiya, taaki is samasya ko hal kiya ja sake.[18] daraasal design ke nirmaan ke anusaar, pehla gyaat kriyaatmak paraavarti dooradarshi, aaj ek nyootoniyn doorabeen ke roop mein jaana jaata hai[19], ismein takaneek ko aakaar dena tatha ek upayukt darpan padaarth ki samasya ko hal karna shaamil hai. nyootan ne atyadhik paraavartak veekshak dhaatu ke ek custom sangathan se, apne darpan ko aadhaar diya, iske liye unke dooradarshi hetu prakaashiki ki gunavatta ki jaaainch ke liye nyootan ke chhallon ka prayog kiya gaya.

February 1669 tak ve rangeen vipthan ke bina ek upakaran ka utpaadan karne mein saksham ho gaye. 1671 mein royal society ne unhein unke paraavarti dooradarshi ko prardashit karne ke liye kaha.[20] un logon ki roochi ne unhein apni tippaniyon on kalar ke prakaashan hetu protsaahit kiya, jise baad mein unhonne apni optiks ke roop mein vistrut kar diya.

jab Robert huk ne nyutan ke kuchh vichaaron ki aalochna ki, nyootan itna naaraaj hue ki ve saarvajanik bahas se baahar ho gaye. huk ki mrutyu tak donon dushman bane rahe.[tathya vaanchhit][27]

nyootan ne tark diya ki prakaash kanon ya atisooksham kanon se bana hai, jo saghan maadhyam ki aur jaate samay apavartit ho jaate hain, lekin prakaash ke vivrtan ko spasht karne ke liye ise tarangon ke saath sambandhit karna jaruri tha. (optiks beeke.

II, props. XII-L). baad mein bhautikvidon ne prakaash ke vivrtan ke liye shuddh tarang jaise spashteekaran ka samarthan kiya. aaj ki kvaantam yaantriki, foton aur tarang-kan yugmata ke vichaar, nyootan ki prakaash ke baare mein samajh ke saath bahut kam samaanata rakhate hain.

1675 ki unki prakaash ki parikalpana mein nyootan ne kanon ke beech bal ke sthaanaantaran hetu, ithar ki upasthiti ko manjoor kiya.

brahm vidyaavaadi henari mor ke sampark mein aane se rasaayan vidya mein unki ruchi punarjeevit ho gayi. unhonne ithar ko kanon ke beech aakarshan aur pratikrshan ke vaayuruddh vichaaron par aadhaarit gupt balon se pratisthaapit kar diya. John menaard kenej, jinhonne rasaayan vidya par nyootan ke kai lekhon ko sveekaar kiya, kehte hain ki "nyutan kaaran ke yug ke pehle vyakti naheen the: ve jaadoogaron mein aakhiri number par the."[21] rasaayan vidya mein nyootan ki roochi unke vigyaan mein yogadaan se alag naheen ki ja sakti hai.[22] (yeh us samay hua jab rasaayan vidya aur vigyaan ke beech koi spasht bhed naheen tha.)

yadi unhonne ek nirvaat mein se hokar ek doori par kriya ke gupt vichaar par bharosa naheen kiya hota to ve gurutv ka apna siddhaant viksit naheen kar paate.

(aaijaik nyootan ke gupt adhyayan bhi dekhein)

1704 mein nyootan ne aaptiks ko prakaashit kiya, jismein unhonne apne prakaash ke atisookshm kanon ke siddhaant ki vistaar se vyaakhya ki.unhonne prakaash ko bahut hi sookshm kanon se bana hua maana, jabki saadhaaran dravya bade kanon se bana hota hai aur unhonne kaha ki ek prakaar ke raasaayanik roopaantaran ke maadhyam se "sakal nikaaya aur prakaash ek doosare mein roopaantarit naheen ho sakte hain,....... aur nikaaya, prakaash ke kanon se apni gatividhi ke adhikaansh bhaag ko praapt naheen kar sakte, jo unke sangathan mein pravesh karti hai?"[23] nyootan ne ek kaanch ke globe ka prayog karte hue, (optiks, 8 vaan prashn) ek gharshan vidyut sthaitik generator ke ek aadya roop ka nirmaan kiya.


yaantriki aur gurutvaakarshan

doosare sanskaran ke liye haath se likh kar kiye gaye sudhaaron ke saath nyootan ki apni prinsipiya ki pratilipi

1677 mein, nyootan ne fir se yaantriki par apna kaarya shuroo kiya, arthaat, gurutvaakarshan aur graheeya gati ke kepalar ke niyamon ke sandarbh ke saath, grahon ki kaksha par gurutvaakarshan ka prabhaav aur is vishay par huk aur flemasteed ka paraamarsh.

unhonne jirm mein di motoo korporam mein apne parinaamon ka prakaashan kiya. (1684) ismein gati ke niyamon ki shuruaat thi jisne prinsipiya ko soochit kiya.

filosofi nechurelis prinsipiya methemetika (jise ab prinsipiya ke roop mein jaana jaata hai) ka prakaashan edamand heli ki vitteeya madad aur protsaahan se 5 July 1687 ko hua. is kaarya mein nyootan ne gati ke teen saarvabhaumik niyam diye jinmein 200 se bhi adhik varshon tak koi sudhaar naheen kiya gaya hai. unhonne us prabhaav ke liye laitin shabd grevitaas (bhaar) ka istemaal kiya jise gurutv ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur saarvatrik gurutvaakarshan ke niyam ko paribhaashit kiya. isi kaarya mein unhonne vaayu mein dhvani ki gati ke, bauyal ke niyam par aadhaarit pehle vishleshaatmak pramaan ko prastut kiya. bahut adhik doori par kriya kar sakane vaale ek adrushya bal ki nyootan ki avadhaarana ki vajah se unki aalochna hui, kyonki unhonne vigyaan mein "gupt agencyon" ko mila diya tha.[24]

prinsipiya ke saath, nyootan ko antararaashtreeya khyaati mili.[25] unhein kaafi prashansaaen mileen, unke ek prashansak the, svitjaralaind mein janme nikolas fatiyo de dayuleeyar, jinke saath unka ek gahra rishta ban gaya, jo 1693 mein tab samaapt hua jab nyootan tantrika avarodh se peedit ho gaye.[26]

baad ka jeevan

aaijaik nyootan budhaape mein 1712 mein, sar James thorn hil ke dvaara chitr

1690 ke dashak mein, nyootan ne kai dhaarmik shodh likhe jo baaibal ki saahityik vyaakhya se sambandhit the. henari mor ke brahmaand mein vishvaas aur kaarteeya dvaitavaad ke liye asveekruti ne shaayad nyootan ke dhaarmik vichaaron ko prabhaavit kiya. unhonne ek paandulipi John loke ko bheji jismein unhonne triniti ke astitv ko vivaadit maana tha, jise kabhi prakaashit naheen kiya gaya. baad ke kaarya – [39]di kronoloji of enashiyeint kingadems amenaded (1728) aur obsaraveshans apon di profisij of Daniel end di epokelips of seint John (1733) – [40] ka prakaashan unki mrutyu ke baad hua. unhonne rasaayan vidya ke liye bhi apna bahut adhik samay diya (oopar dekhein).

nyootan 1689 se 1690 tak aur 1701 mein England ki sansad ke sadasya bhi rahe. lekin kuchh vivranon ke anusaar unki tippaniyaaain hamesha koshth mein ek thande sookhe ko lekar hi hoti theen aur ve khidki ko band karne ka anurodh karte the.[27]

1696 mein nyootan shaahi takasaal ke vaardan ka pad sambhaalne ke liye landan chale gaye, yeh pad unhein raajakosh ke tatkaaleen kulaadhipti, hailifaiks ke pehle arl, Charles montaagu ke sanrakshan ke maadhyam se praapt hua. unhonne England ka pramukh mudra dhallaai ka kaarya sanbhaal liya, kisi tarah master lukaas ke ishaaron par naachane lage (aur edamand heli ke liye asthaai takasaal shaakha ke up niyanta ka pad haasil kiya)

1699 mein lukaas ki mrutyu nyootan shaayad takasaal ke sabse prasiddh master bane, is pad par nyootan apni mrutyu tak bane rahe.ye niyuktiyaan daayitvaheen pad ke roop mein li gayeen theen, lekin nyootan ne unhein gambheerta se liya, 1701 mein apne Cambridge ke kartavyon se sevaanivrut ho gaye aur mudra mein sudhaar laane ka prayaas kiya tatha kataranon tatha nakali mudra banaane vaalon ko apni shakti ka prayog karke saja di.

1717 mein takasaal ke master ke roop mein "la of queen ene" mein nyootan ne anajaane mein sone ke paksh mein chaandi ke paise aur sone ke sikke ke beech dvi dhaatvik sambandh sthaapit karte hue, pound starling ko chaandi ke maanak se sone ke maanak mein badal diya.

is kaaran se chaandi starling sikke ko pighla kar Britain se baahar bhej diya gaya. nyootan ko 1703 mein royal society ka adhyaksh aur French ekedamik des saainsej ka ek sahayogi bana diya gaya. royal society mein apne pad par rahate hue, nyootan ne royal khagolavid John flemasteed ko shatru bana liya, unhonne flemasteed ki historika kolestis britenika ko samay se pehle hi prakaashit karva diya, jise nyootan ne apne adhyayan mein kaam mein liya tha.[28]

April 1705 mein queen aini ne nyootan ko triniti college, Cambridge mein ek shaahi yaatra ke dauraan night ki upaadhi di. yeh night ki padavi nyootan ko takasaal ke master ke roop mein apni sevaao ke liye naheen di gayi thi aur na hi unke vaigyaanik kaarya ke liye di gayi thi balki unhein yeh upaadhi May 1705 mein sansadeeya chunaav ke dauraan unke raajanitik yogadaan ke liye di gayi thi.[29]

nyootan ki mrutyu London mein 31 March 1727 ko hui, [puraani shaili 20 March 1726][1] aur unhein vestaminstar ebbe mein dafnaaya gaya tha. unki aadhi-bhateeji, Cathrine baartan konaduit,[30] ne landan mein jarmeen street mein unke ghar par saamaajik maamalon mein unki parichaarika ka kaam kiya; ve uske "bahut pyaare ankal" the,[31] aisa jikr unke us patra mein kiya gaya hai jo nyootan ke dvaara use tab likha gaya jab vah chechak ki beemaari se Uber rahi thi.

nyootan, jinke koi bachche naheen the, unke antim varshon mein unke rishtadaaron ne unki adhikaansh sampatti par adhikaar kar liya aur nirvaseeyat hi unki mrutyu ho gayi.

unki mrutyu ke baad, nyootan ke shareer mein bhaari maatra mein paara paaya gaya, jo shaayad unke raasaayanik vyavasaaya ka parinaam tha. paare ki vishaaktata nyootan ke antim jeevan mein sanakeepan ko spasht kar sakti hai.[32]

mrutyu ke baad

prasiddhi

French ganitjnya Joseph luis laagreinj aksar kehte the ki nyootan mahaanatam pratibhaashaali tha aur ek baar unhonne kaha ki vah "sabse jyaada bhaagyashaali bhi tha kyonki ham duniya ki pranaali ko ek se jyaada baar sthaapit naheen kar sakte."[33] angreji kavi alekjeindar Pope ne nyootan ki upalabdhiyon ke dvaara prabhaavit hokar prasiddh smruti-lekh likha:

Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night;

God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.

nyootan apni upalabdhiyon ka bataane mein khud sankoch karte the, February 1676 mein unhonne Robert huk ko ek patra mein likha:

If I have seen further it is by standing on ye shoulders of Giants[50]

haalaanki aamtaur par itihaasakaaron ka maanana hai ki uparokt panktiyaan, namrata ke saath kahe gaye ek kathan ke alaava – [51] ya bajaay – [52], huk par ek hamla theen (jo kam oonchaai ka aur kubada tha).[34][35] us samay prakaashikeeya khojon ko lekar donon ke beech ek vivaad chal raha tha.

baad ki vyaakhya usaki khojon par kai anya vivaadon ke saath bhi upayukt hai, jaisa ki yeh prashn ki kalan ki khoj kisne ki, jaisa ki oopar bataaya gaya hai.

baad mein ek itihaas mein, nyootan ne likha:

main naheen jaanta ki mein duniya ko kis roop mein dikhaai doonga lekin apne aap ke liye mein ek aisa ladka hooain jo samudra ke kinaare par khel raha hai aur apne dhyaan ko ab aur tab mein laga raha hai, ek adhik chikna patthar ya ek adhik sundar khol dhooaindhane ki koshish kar raha hai, sachchaai ka yeh itna bada samudra mere saamane ab tak khoja naheen gaya hai.[36]

smaarak

Oxford vishvavidyaalaya ke praakrutik itihaas ke sangrahaalaya mein nyootan ki moorti ka pradarshan

nyootan ka smaarak (1731) vestaminstar ebbe mein dekha ja sakta hai, yeh gaayak mandal screen ke vipreet gaayak mandal ke pravesh sthaan ke uttar mein hai.

ise moortikaar Michael rijbrek ne (1694-1770) safed aur dhoosar sangamaramar mein banaaya hai, jiska design vaastukaar William kaint (1685-1748) dvaara banaaya gaya hai. is smaarak mein nyootan ki aakruti patthar ki bani hui kabr ke oopar tiki hui hai, unki daahini kohani unki kai mahaan pustakon par rakhi hai aur unka baayaan haath ek ganeetiya design se yukt ek soochi ki aur ishaara kar raha hai.

unke oopar ek piraamid hai aur ek khagoleeya globe raashi chakr ke sanketon tatha 1680 ke dhoomaketu ka raasta dikha raha hai.

ek raahat panel dooradarshi aur prijm jaise upakaranon ka prayog karte hue, putti ka varnan kar raha hai.[37] aadhaar par diye gaye letin shilaalekh ka anuvaad hai:

yahaaain night, aaijaik nyootan, ko dafnaaya gaya, jo dimaagi taakat se lagbhag divya the, unke apne vichitr ganiteeya siddhaant hain, unhonne grahon ki aakrutiyon aur path ka varnan kiya, dhoomaketu ke maarg bataaye, samudra mein aane vaale jvaar ka varnan kiya, prakaash ki kirnon mein asamaanataaon ko bataaya aur vo sab kuchh bataaya jo kisi anya vidvaan ne pehle kalpana bhi naheen ki thi, rangon ke gunon ka varnan kiya.

ve mehanati, medhaavi aur vishvaasayogya the, puraatanata, pavitra granthon aur prakruti mein vishvaas rakhate the, ve apne darshan mein achhaai aur Bhagwan ke paraakram ki pushti karte hain aur apne vyavahaar mein susamaachaar ki saadagi vyakt karte hain.

maanav jaati mein aise mahaan aabhooshan upasthit rah chuke hain!

vah 25 December 1642 ko janme aur 20 March 1726/ 7 ko unki mrutyu ho gayi.--ji L smith ke dvaara anuvaad, di monyumeints end jenil of seint pauls kethedral, end of vestaminstar ebbe (1826), ii, 703–4.[37]


1978 se 1988 tak, heri ekalestan ke dvaara design ki gayi nyootan ki ek chhavi ingleind ke bank ke dvaara jaari kiye gaye D £a1 shrrunkhala ke bank noton par pradarshit ki gayi, (antim £a1 not jo ingleind ke bank ke dvaara jaari kiye gaye).

nyootan ko not ke pichhli or haath mein ek pustak pakade hue darshaaya gaya hai, saath hi ek dooradarshi, ek prijm aur saur tantr ka ek maanachitr bhi hai.[38]

ek seb par khadi hui aaijaik nyootan ki ek moorti, Oxford vishvavidyaalaya ke praakrutik itihaas sangrahaalaya mein dekhi ja sakti hai.

dhaarmik vichaar

vestaminstar ebbe mein nyootan ki kabr

itihaasakaar Stefan di. snobelen ka nyootan ke baare mein kehna hai ki "aaijaik nyootan ek vidhrmi the. lekin ... unhonne apne niji vishvaas ki saarvajanik ghoshana kabhi naheen ki- jisse is roodhivaadi ko behad kattarpanthi jo samjha gaya. unhonne apne vishvaas ko itni achhi tarah se chhupaaya ki aaj bhi vidvaan unki niji maanyataaon ko jaan naheen paayein hain."[39] snobelen ne nishkarsh nikaala ki nyootan kam se kam ek soshiniyn sahaanubhooti rakhate the, (unke paas kam se kam aath soshiniyn kitaabein theen or unhonne inhein padha), sanbhavataya eriyn or lagbhag nishchit roop se ek triniti virodhi the.[39] —ateen purvaji roop jo aaj yooneetereeyanavaad kahalaate hain.

unki dhaarmik asahishnuta ke liye vikhyaat ek yug mein, nyootan ke kattarpanthi vichaaron ke baare mein kuchh saarvajanik abhivyaktiyaan hain, sabse khaas hai, pavitra aadeshon ka paalan karne ke liye unke dvaara inkaar kiya jaana, or jab ve marne vaale the tab unhein pavitra sanskaar lene ke liye kaha gaya or unhonne inkaar kar diya.[39]


snobelen ke dvaara vivaadit ek drushtikon mein,[39] teesi faaijanameyar ne tark diya ki nyootan triniti ke poorvi rudhivaadi drushtikon ko rakhate the, roman Catholic, angrejavaad aur adhikaansh protesateinton ka pashchimi drushtikon naheen rakhate the.[40] unke apne din mein un par ek roseekrusiyn hone ka aarop lagaaya gaya. (jaisa ki royal society aur Charles dviteeya ki adaalat mein bahut se logon par lagaaya gaya tha.)[41]

yadyapi gati aur gurutvaakarshan ke saarvatrik niyam nyootan ke sabse prasiddh avishkaar ban gaye, unhein brahmaand ko dekhne ke liye ek machine ke taur par inka upayog karne ke khilaaf chetaavani di gayi, jaise mahaan ghadi ke samaan.

unhonne kaha, "gurutv grahon ki gati ka varnan karta hai lekin yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki kisne grahon ko is gati mein sthaapit kiya.

Bhagwan sab cheejon ka niyantran karte hain aur jaante hain ki kya hai aur kya kiya ja sakta hai."[42]


unki vaigyaanik prasiddhi ullekhaneeya hai, saath hi unka praarambhik church paadariyon va baaibal ka adhyayan bhi ullekhaneeya hai.

nyootan ne shaabdik aalochna par likha, sabse vishesh hai. N historikl account of too notebal corruption of skripchar

unhonne 3 April E. 33 ko yeeshu maseeh ka kroosaaropan bhi kiya, jo ek paaramparik roop se sveekrut taareekh ke saath sahamat hai.[43] unhonne baaibal ke andar chhupe hue sandeshon ko khojane ka asafal prayaas kiya.

unke apne jeevanakaal mein, nyootan ne praakrutik vigyaan se adhik dharm ke baare mein likha.vah tarkayukt vishvavyaapi duniya mein vishvaas karte the, lekin unhonne leebaneej aur baruch spinoja mein nihit haailojoijm ko asveekaar kar diya.is prakaar, aadeshit aur gatisheel roop se soochit brahmaand ko samjha ja sakta tha aur ise ek sakriya kaaran ke dvaara samjha jaana chaahiye.unke patraachaar mein, nyootan ne daava kiya ki prinsipiya mein likhte samay "mainne ek najar aise siddhaanton par rakhi, taaki devata mein vishvaas rakhate hue manushya par vichaar kiya ja sake."[44] unhonne duniya ki pranaali mein design ka pramaan dekha: graheeya pranaali mein aisi adbhut ekaroopata ko pasand ke prabhaav ki anumati di jaani chaahiye."

lekin nyootan ne jor diya ki asthaayitv ki dheemi vruddhi ke kaaran daivi hastakshep ant mein pranaali ke sudhaar ke liye aavashyak hoga.[45] iske liye leebaneej

ne un par ninda lekh kiya: "sarvashaktimaan ishvar samay samay par apni ghadi ko samaapt karna chaahata hai: anyatha yeh sthaanaantarit karne ke liye band kar diya jaayega. aisa lagta hai ki uske paas ise ek satat gati banaane ke liye paryaapt dooradarshita naheen thi."

[46] nyootan ki sthiti ko unke anuyaayi shamooel Clark dvaara ek prasiddh patraachaar ke dvaara sakhti se bachaane ka prayaas kiya gaya.

dhaarmik vichaar par prabhaav

nyootan aur Robert boyal ke yaantrik darshan ko buddhijeevi klamaghaseet dvaara roodheevaadiyon aur utsaahiyon ke liye ek vyavahaarya vikalp ke roop mein padonnat kiya gaya aur ise roodhivaadi prachaarakon tatha asantusht prachaarakon jaise leteetyudeeneriyn ke dvaara hichkichaakar sveekaar kiya gaya.[47] is prakaar, vigyaan ki spashtata aur saralata ko naastikta ke khatre tatha andhavishvaasi utsaah donon ki bhaavanaatmak aur aadhyaatmik atishyokti ka mukaabala karne ke liye ek raaste ke roop mein dekha gaya,[48] aur usi samay par, angreji devatv ki ek doosari lahar ne nyootan ki khojon ka upayog ek "praakrutik dharm" ki sambhaavana ko prardashit karne ke liye kiya.


"nyootan," William blek ke dvaara; yahaaain, nyootan ko ek divya jyaamitishaastreeya ke roop mein darshaaya gaya hai

poorv-aatmajnyaaan ke khilaaf kiye gaye hamle "jaadui soch," aur isaaiyat ke rahasyamayi tatv, ko brahmaand ke baare mein boyal ki yaantrik avadhaarana se neenv mili. nyootan ne ganiteeya pramaanon ke maadhyam se boyal ke vichaaron ko poorn banaaya aur shaayad adhik mahatvapoorn roop se ve unhein lokapriya banaane mein bahut adhik safal hue.[49] nyootan ne ek hastakshep Bhagwan dvaara niyantrit duniya ko ek aisi duniya mein badal daala jo tarkasangat aur saarvabhaumik siddhaanton ke saath Bhagwan ke dvaara kalaatmak roop se banaayeen gayi hai.[50] ye siddhaant sabhi logon ke liye khojane hetu upalabdh hain, ye logon ko isi jeevan mein apne uddeshyon ko faladaayi roop se poora karne ki anumati dete hain, agale jeevan ka intajaar naheen karte hain aur unhein unki apni tarkasangat shaktiyon se poorn banaate hain.[51]

nyootan ne Bhagwan ko mukhya nirmaata ke roop mein dekha, jiske astitv ko sabhi nirmaanon ki bhavyata ke chehare mein nakaara naheen ja sakta hai.[52][53][54] unke pravakta, Clark, ne leebaneej ke dharm vigyaan ko asveekrut kar diya, jisne Bhagwan ko "l'origine du mal " ke uttaradaayitv se mukt kar diya, iske liye Bhagwan ko uske nirmaan mein yogadaan se hata diya, chooainki jaisa ki Clark ne kaha tha aisa devata keval naam se hi raaja hoga, lekin naastikta se ek kadam door hoga.[55] lekin agali sadi mein nyootan ki pranaali ki safalta ka anadekha dharm vigyaani parinaam, leebaneej ke dvaara bataai gayi aastikta ki sthiti ko majaboot banaaega.[56]

duniya ke baare mein samajh ab saadhaaran maanav ke kaaran ke star tak aa gayi aur maanav, jaisa ki odo markavaard ne tark diya, buraai ke sudhaar aur unmoolan ke liye uttaradaayi ban gaya.[57]

doosari or, leteetyudeeneriyn aur nyootoniyn ke vichaaron ke parinaam bahut dooragaami the, ek dhaarmik gut yaantrik brahmaand ki avadhaarana ko samarpit ho gaya, lekin ismein utana hi utsaah aur rahasya tha ki prabuddhata ko nasht karne ke liye kathin sangharsh kiya gaya.[58]

duniya ke ant ke baare mein drushtikon

inhein bhi dekhein: Isaac Newton's occult studies evam eschatology

ek paandulipi jo unhonne 1704 mein likhi, jisme unhonne baaibal se vaigyaanik jaankaari nikaalne ke apne prayaas ka varnan kiya hai, unka anumaan tha ki duniya 2060 se pehle samaapt naheen hogi.

is bhavishyavaani mein uhone kaha ki, "ismein mein yeh naheen kah raha ki antim samay kaun sa hoga, lekin main isse un kaalpanik vyaktiyon ke atkalon ko band karna chaahata hooain jo aksar ant samay ke baare mein bhavishyavaani karte hain aur is bhavishyavaani ke asafal ho jaane par pavitra bhavishyadvaani badnaam hoti hai."[59]

aatmajnyaaani daarshanik

aatmajnyaaani daarshanikon ne poorvavarti vaigyaaniko ke ek chhote itihaas ko chuna-gaililiyo, boyal aur mukhya roop se nyootan- yeh chunaav din ke pratyek bhautik aur saamaajik kshetr ke liye praakrutik niyam aur prakruti ki ekal avadhaarana ke unke anuprayog ke maargadarshan aur jamaanat ke roop main kiya gaya.

is sambandh mein, is par nirmit saamaajik sanranchanaaon aur itihaas ke adhyaaya tyaage ja sakte the.[60]

praakrutik aur aatmajnyaaani roop se samajhne yogya niyamon par aadhaarit brahmaand ke baare mein yeh nyootan ki hi sankalpana thi jisne aatmajnyaaan vichaaradhaara ke liye ek beej ka kaam kiya.[61] loke aur vaulatair ne aantarik adhikaaron ki vakaalat karte hue praakrutik niyamon ki avadhaarana ko raajanitik pranaali par laagoo kiya; fijiyokret aur Adam smith ne aatm-roochi aur manovijnyaaan ki praakrutik avadhaarana ko aarthik pranaali par laagoo kiya tatha samaajashaastriyon ne pragati ke praakrutik namoonon mein itihaas ko fit karne ki koshish ke liye tatkaaleen saamaajik vyavastha ki aalochna ki.

monabodo aur semayool Clark ne nyootan ke kaarya ke tatvon ka virodh kiya, lekin antat: prakruti ke baare mein unke prabal dhaarmik vichaaron ko sunishchit karne ke liye ise yuktisangat banaaya.

nyootan aur jaalsaaji

shaahi takasaal ke prabandhak ke roop mein, nyootan ne anumaan lagaaya ki dubaara dhalaai kiye jaane vaale sikkon mein 20% jaali the. jaalsaaji ek bahut bada raajadroh tha, jiske liye faansi ki saja thi. is ke baavajood, sabse jvalant aparaadhiyon ko pakadna bahut mushkil tha; yadyapi, nyootan is kaarya ke liye sahi saabit hue.[62] bhesh badal kar sharaabakhaane aur jail mein jaakar unhonne khud bahut se saboot ikatthe kiye.[63] sarkaar ki shaakhaaon ko alag karne aur abhiyojan paksh ke liye sthaapit sabhi baadhaaon hetoo, angreji kaanoon mein abhi bhi satta ke praacheen aur durjeya rivaaj the.

nyootan ko shaanti ka nyaayaadheesh banaaya gaya aur June 1698 aur christmas 1699 ke beech unhonne gavaah, mukhabiron aur sandigdhon ke 200 parikshan karavaae.

nyootan ne apni pratibaddhata ko jeeta aur February 1699 mein unke paas das kaidi rihaai ka intajaar kar rahe the.[tathya vaanchhit][103]

raaja ke vakeel ke roop mein nyootan ka ek maamala William chaloner ke khilaaf tha.[64] chaloner ki yojana thi Catholic ke jaali shadyantr ko tay karna aur fir abhaage shadyantrakaari mein badal dena jisko vah bandhak bana leta tha. chaloner ne apne aap ko paryaapt samruddh sajjan bana liya. sansad mein arji dete hue chalonar ne takasaal mein nakali sikke banaane ke liye upakaran bhi upalabdh karaaye. (aisa aarop doosaro ne us par lagaaya) usane prastaav diya ki use takasaal ki prakriyaaon ka nireekshan karne ki anumati di jaae taaki vah ismein sudhaar ke liye kuchh kar sake.

usane sansad mein arji di ki sikkon ki dhalaai ke liye usaki yojana ko sveekaar kar liya jaaye taaki jaalsaaji na ki ja sake, jabki usi samay jaali sikke saamane aaye.[65] nyootan ne chalonar par jaalsaaji ka pareekshan kiya aur sitmbar 1697 mein use new gate jail mein bhej diya. lekin chalonar ke uchch sthaanon par mitr the, jinhonne use usaki rihaai ke liye madad ki.[66] nyootan ne doosari baar nirnaayak saboot ke saath us par parikshan kiya.

chaloner ko uchch raajadroh ka doshi paaya gaya tha aur use 23 March 1699 ko tiburn geloj mein faansi de kar dafna diya gaya.[67]

nyootan ke gati ke niyam

chirsammat yaantriki

nyootan ka gati ka dviteeya niyam
itihaas · samayarekha
is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

gati ke prasidd teen niyam

nyootan ke pehla niyam (jise jadtv ke niyam bhi kaha jaata hai) ke anusaar ek vastu jo sthirvastha mein hai vah sthir hi bani rahegi aur ek vastu jo samaan gati ki avastha mein hai vah samaan gati ke saath usi disha mein gati karti rahegi jab tak us par koi baahari bal kaarya naheen karta hai.

nyootan ke doosare niyam ke anusaar ek vastu par lagaaya gaya bal \vec{, samay ke saath iske sanveg \vec{ mein parivartan ki dar ke baraabar hota hai.

ganiteeya roop mein ise nimnaanusaar vyakt kiya ja sakta hai

choonki doosra niyam ek sthir dravyamaan ki vastu par laagoo hota hai, (dm /dt = 0), pehla pad lupt ho jaata hai aur tvaran ki paribhaasha ka upayog karte hue pratisthaapan ke dvaara sameekaran ko sanketon ke roop mein nimnaanusaar likha ja sakta hai

pehla aur doosra niyam arastu ki bhautiki ko todne ka pratinidhitv karta hai, jismein aisa maana jaata tha ki gati ko banaaye rakhane ke liye ek bal jaruri hai.

ve raajya mein vyavastha ki gati ka ek uddeshya hai raajya badalne ke liye hai ki ek hi shakti ki jaroorat hai. nyootan ke sammaan mein bal ki SI ikaai ka naam nyootan rakha gaya hai.

nyootan ke teesare niyam ke anusaar pratyek kriya ki baraabar aur vipreet pratikriya hoti hai. iska arth yeh hai ki jab bhi ek vastu kisi doosari vastu par ek bal lagaati hai tab doosari vastu vipreet disha mein pehli vastu par utana hi bal lagti hai.

iska ek saamaanya udahaaran hai do aais skets ek doosare ke vipreet khiskate hain to vipreet dishaaon mein khiskane lagte hain.

ek anya udaaharan hai bandook ka peechhe ki aur dhakka mahasoos karna, jismein bandook ke dvaara goli ko daagane ke liye us par lagaaya gaya bal, ek baraabar aur vipreet bal bandook par lagaata hai jise goli chalaane wala mahasoos karta hai.

choonki prashn mein jo vastuen hain, aisa jaruri naheen ki unka dravyamaan baraabar ho, isliye donon vastuon ka parinaami tvaran alag ho sakta hai (jaise bandook se goli daagane ke maamale mein).

arastoo ke vipreet, nyootan ki bhautiki saarvatrik ho gayi hai. udaaharan ke liye, doosra niyam grahon tatha ek girte hue patthar par bhi laagoo hota hai. doosare niyam ki sadish prakruti bal ki disha aur vastu ke sanveg mein parivartan ke prakaar ke beech ek jyaamiteeya sambandh sthaapit karti hai. nyootan se pehle, aam taur par yeh maana jaata tha ki soorya ke chaaron aur ghoornan kar rahe ek grah ke liye ek agragaami bal aavashyak hota hai jiski vajah se yeh gati karta rahata hai. nyootan ne darshaaya ki is ke bajaay soorya ka andar ki aur ek aakarshan bal aavashyak hota hai. (abhikendri aakarshan) yahaaain tak ki prinsipiya ke prakaashan ke kai dashakon ke baad bhi, yeh vichaar saarvatrik roop se sveekrut naheen kiya gaya. aur kai vaigyaaniko ne desakaartes ke vortikes ke siddhaant ko vareeyata di.[68]

nyootan ka seb

Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree, at the Botanic Gardens in Cambridge and the Instituto Balseiro library garden

nyootan aksar khud ek kahaani kehte the ki ek ped se ek girte hue seb ko dekh kar ve gurutvaakarshan ka siddhaant banaane ke liye prerit ho paae.[69]

baad mein vyangya karne ke liye aise kaartoon banaaye gaye jinmein seb ko nyootan ke sar par girte hue bataaya gaya aur yeh darshaaya gaya ki isi ke prabhaav ne kisi tarah se nyootan ko gurutv ke bal se parichit karaaya. unki pustikaaon se gyaat hua ki 1660 ke antim samay mein nyootan ka yeh vichaar tha ki sthaleeya gurutv ka vistaar hota hai, yeh chandrama ke varg vyutkramaanupaati hota hai; haalaaainki poorn siddhaant ko viksit karne mein unhein do dashak ka samay laga.[70] John kanadayuit, jo royal takasaal mein nyootan ke sahayogi the aur nyootan ki bhateeji ke pati bhi the, ne is ghatna ka varnan kiya jab unhonne nyootan ke jeevan ke baare mein likha:

1666 mein ve Cambridge se fir se sevaanivrutt ho gaye aur apni maan ke paas linkanashaayar chale gaye. jab ve ek baag mein ghoom rahe the tab unhein ek vichaar aaya ki gurutv ki shakti dharati se ek nishchit doori tak seemit naheen hai, (yeh vichaar unke dimaag mein ped se neeche ki aur girte hue ek seb ko dekh kar aaya) lekin yeh shakti usase kaheen jyaada aage vistrut ho sakti hai jitna ki pehle aam taur par socha jaata tha. unhonne apne aap se kaha ki kya aisa utana oopar bhi hoga jitna oopar chaaaind hai aur yadi aisa hai to, yeh usaki gati ko prabhaavit karega aur sanbhavataya use usaki kaksha mein banaaye rakhega, ve jo ganana kar rahe the, is tark ka kya prabhaav hua.[71]

savaal gurutv ke astitv ka naheen tha balki yeh tha ki kya yeh bal itna vistrut hai ki yeh chaaaind ko apni kaksha mein banaaye rakhane ke liye uttaradaayi hai. nyootan ne darshaaya ki yadi bal doori ke varg vyutkram mein kam hota hai to, chandrama ki kaksheeya avadhi ki ganana ki ja sakti hai aur achha parinaam praapt ho sakta hai. unhonne anumaan lagaaya ki yahi bal anya kaksheeya gati ke liye jimmedaar hai aur iseeliye ise saarvatrik gurutvaakarshan ka naam de diya.

ek samakaaleen lekhak, William stukele, sar aaijaik nyootan ki jindagi ko apne smaran mein rikord karte hain, ve 15 April 1726 ko kenasingatan mein nyootan ke saath hui baatcheet ko yaad karte hain, jab nyootan ne jikr kiya ki "unke dimaag mein gurutv ka vichaar pehle kab aaya.

jab vah dhyaan ki mudra mein baithe the usi samay ek seb ke girne ke kaaran aisa hua. kyon yeh seb hamesha bhoomi ke saapeksh lambavat mein hi kyon girta hai? aisa unhonne apne aap mein socha. yeh bagal mein ya oopar ki or kyon naheen jaata hai, balki hamesha pruthvi ke kendra ki or hi girta hai." isi prakaar ke shabdon mein, volter mahaakaavya kavita par nibandh (1727) mein likha, "sar aaijaik nyootan ka apne baagaanon mein ghoom rahe the, ped se girte hue ek seb ko dekh kar, unhonne gurutvaakarshan ki pranaali ke baare mein pehli baar socha.

vibhinn pedon ko "vah" seb ke ped hone ka daava kiya jaata hai jiska nyootan ne varnan kiya hai. di kings school, graantham daava karta hai ki yeh ped school ke dvaara khareed liya gaya tha, kuchh saalon baad ise jad sahit laakar pradhaanaadhyaapak ke bageeche mein laga diya gaya. national trast jo voolasthrop menar ka maalik hai, ka vartamaan staaf is par vivaad karta hai, or daava karta hai ki vah ped unke bageeche mein upasthit hai jis ke baare mein nyootan ne baat ki.

mool vruksh ka vanshaj triniti college, Cambridge ke mukhya dwaar ke baahar uga hua dekha ja sakta hai, yeh us kamre ke neeche hai jismein nyootan padhaai ke samay rahata tha.

brogdel mein raashtreeya falon ka sangrah[72] un pedon se graaft ki aapoorti kar sakta hai, jo flauvar of keint ke samaan dikhaai deta hai, jo ek mote goode ki pakaane ki kism hai.[73]

nyootan ke lekhan

  • methad of flaksiyns (1671)
  • of nechar obviys loss end prosesej in vejiteshan (aprakaashit si.1671-75)[74]
  • de motoo korporam in jirm (1684)
  • filosofi nechurelis prinsipiya methemetika (1687)
  • optiks (1704)
  • takasaal mein master ke roop mein riportein (1701-25)
  • erithmetika yuneevaraselis (1707)
  • di system of di world, optikl lekchars, 'di kronoloji of enashiyeint kingadems , (sanshodhit) aur di mundi sistamet (1728 mein maranoparaant prakaashit ki gayi),
  • "Daniel par prekshan aur di epokalips of seint John" (1733)
  • dharm-granth ke do ullekhaneeya bhrashtaachaaron ka aitihaasik lekha jokha (1754)

yeh bhi dekhein

  • ismaail buleeaaladas
  • de motoo (barkali ke nibandh)
  • nyootan ke darshan ke tatv
  • gaaus-nyootan elgorithm
  • kalan ka itihaas
  • svatantr khojon ki soochi
  • nyootan ki kenan baal
  • nyootan ki disk
  • nyootan fraaktaal
  • nyootan ka jhoola
  • nyootan ki asamaanataaen
  • nyootan ke gati ke niyam.
  • nyootan ke sanketan
  • nyootan bahubhuj
  • nyootan bahupad
  • nyootan ka pratikshepak
  • nyootan ke dhaarmik vichaar
  • nyootan shrrunkhala
  • nyootan ki parikraami kakshaaon ki prameya
  • nyootan (ikaai)
  • nyootan-kots sootr
  • nyootan- yoolar sameekaran
  • nyutoniyn vaad
  • shrodingar-nyootan sameekaran
  • vaigyaanik kraanti
  • spaalading jeintalamens society

paadatippani aur sandarbh

  1. a aa i E During Newton's lifetime, two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe, and the Gregorian or 'New Style', in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar, but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. By the time he died, the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Moreover, prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752, the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day', i.e. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.
  2. Mordechai Feingold, Barrow, Isaac (1630–1677), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2007; accessed 24 fravari 2009; explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton, Leibniz, and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation"; Isis, Vol. 84, No. 2 (June, 1993), pp. 310-338
  3. Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Newton, Isaac, n.4
  4. Gjersten, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  5. "The Early Period (1608–1672)". James R. Graham's Home Page. http://etoile.berkeley.edu/~jrg/TelescopeHistory/Early_Period.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-02-03.
  6. "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public". The Royal Society. http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/news.asp?id=3880.
  7. [11] ^ kohen, aaibi (1970).vaigyaanik jeevani ka shabd kosh, khand 11, p.43. New York: Charles skribner ke putr
  8. [12] ^ vestafaul (1993) peepi 16-19
  9. white 1997, pi. 22.
  10. [14] ^ Michael white, aaijaik nyootan (1999) prushth 46
  11. [15] ^ sanskaran. Michael haaskins (1997).Cambridge ne khagol vigyaan ke itihaas ko chitrit kiya, pi. 159.159. Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya press.
  12. Newton, Isaac in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
  13. [18] ^ ^ vestafaul 1980, peepi 538-539
  14. [19] ^ baul 1908, pi. 356ff
  15. [20] ^ white 1997, pi. 151
  16. [22] ^ baul 1908, pi. 324
  17. [23] ^ baul 1908, pi. 325
  18. [24] ^ white 1997, pi 170
  19. [25] ^ white 1997, pi 170
  20. [26] ^ white 1997, pi 168
  21. Keynes, John mainard (1972). "Newton, The Man". The Collected Writings of John mainard Keynes Volume X. MacMillan St. Martin's Press. pp. 363–4.
  22. [31] ^ nyootan ne jaahir taur par apne rasaayan vigyaan ke anusandhaan ko parityakt kar diya. dekho Westfall, Richard S. (1983) [1980]. "Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 530–1.
  23. [33] ^ Dobbs, J.T. (December 1982). "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". Isis 73 (4): 511. doi:10.1086/353114. optiks uddhrut
  24. [35] ^ edelaglaas eight al., metar end maaind, I S bi N 0940262452. pi. 54
  25. [36] ^ vestafaul 1980. adhyaaya 11.
  26. [37] ^ vestafaul 1980. peepi 493-497 fatiyo ke saath dosti par, peepi 531-540 nyootan ke brekadaaun par.
  27. [41] ^ white 1997, pi. 232
  28. [42] ^ white 1997, pi. 317
  29. [43] ^ "nyootan ke chunaav ke liye raani ki 'bahut badi sahaayata' thi use naait ki upaadhi dena, yeh sammaan unhein na to vigyaan mein yogadaan ke liye diya gaya aur na hi takasaal ke liye unke dvaara di gayi sevaon ke liye diya gaya. balki 1705 mein chunaav mein daleeya raajaneeti mein yogadaan ke liye diya gaya." vestafaul 1994 pi 245
  30. [45] ^ vestafaul 1980, pi. [44][44]
  31. [46] ^ vestafaul 1980, pi. 595
  32. "Newton, Isaac (1642-1727)". Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Newton.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-30.
  33. fred L Wilson, vigyaan ka itihaas: nyootan saaiting:delambre, M."Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. le comte J L lagrang. " Oeuvres de Lagrange I peris, 1867, pi. ex ex.
  34. [53] ^ "sandesh jise nyootan dena chaahate the, haalaanki unhonne praacheen logon se udhaar liya tha, unhein koi jarurat naheen thi ki ve chhote vyakti jaise huk ke vichaaron ko churaaeain, huk shaareerik roop se to bauna tha hi saath hi maanasik taur bheebauna hi tha," John gribban (2002) science: ai history 1543-2001, pi 164
  35. [54] ^ "aakhiri vaakya mein nyootan ne huk ke charitra ke tej, dveshi, vikrut svabhaav ke liye kaha.........vah shaareerik roop se to vikrut hai hi saath hi charitra se bhi itna gir gaya hai ki vah baune jaisa hi deekhata hai" white 1997, pi 187
  36. [55] ^ sar aajaik nyootan ke jeevan, lekhan aur khojon ki yaadein (1855) sar David broostar ke dvaara (khand II. adhyaaya 27)
  37. a aa "Monuments & Gravestones: Sir Isaac Newton". Westminster Abbey. http://www.westminster-abbey.org/history-research/monuments-gravestones/people/12186. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-20. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  38. "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide". Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/index.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-17.
  39. a aa i E Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32: 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. http://www.isaac-newton.org/heretic.pdf.
  40. Pfizenmaier, T.C. (1997). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80.
  41. Yates, Frances A. (1972). The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. London: Routledge.
  42. Tiner, J.H. (1975). Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Milford, Michigan, U.S.: Mott Media.
  43. [75] ^ John pi. miyer, a marginal jyoo, vi. 1, peepi. 382-402 30 ya 33 saal kam karne ke baad, 30 sabse adhik samaan judgeon ke liye.
  44. 76nyootan se richrd beintale 10 December 1692, taarn bul eight al mein. (1959-77), khand 3, pi. 233.
  45. [77] ^ optiks, doosra sanskaran 1706. prashn 31.
  46. [78] ^ H ji alekjeindar (sanskaran) laaibanits-Clark patraachaar, maanachestar university press, 1998, pi. sanskaran 11
  47. Jacob, Margaret C. (1976). The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. Cornell University Press. pp. 37,44.
  48. Westfall, Richard S. (1958). Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press. pa॰ 200.
  49. Haakonssen, Knud. "The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". In Martin Fitzpatrick ed.. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pa॰ 64.
  50. Frankel, Charles (1948). The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. New York: King's Crown Press. pa॰ 1.
  51. Germain, Gilbert G.. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology. pa॰ 28.
  52. prinsipiya, book III; mein uddhrut; nyootan ki filosofi of nechar: unke lekhan se chayan, pi. 42, sanskaran. H S thaayar, haafnar pustakaalaya shreshth granthon ke liye, New York, 1953.
  53. sar aaijaik nyootan ki khojon lekhan, jeevan ki yaadon mein udhrut vaastavik dharm ki paandulipi, sar David broostar, edinbarg ke dvaara, 1850, mein uddhrut; ibid, pi. 65
  54. [91] ^ vebb, aar ke Ed. nud haakonasen. "di emaar jeins of reshanal disseint." prabodhan aur dharm:athaarahavein sadi mein Britain mein vaajib asantosh. Cambridge university press, Cambridge: 1996. pee19.
  55. [92] ^ H ji alekjeindar (sanskaran) laaibanits-Clark patraachaar, maanachestar university press, 1998, pi.sanskaran 14.
  56. vestafaul, richrd S vigyaan aur dharm, satrahaveen sadi mein, England. pi 201.
  57. [94] ^ maarakvaard, odo . bojhil aur abojhil manushya evam uddaan mein abhiyojaneeya; siddhaant ke maamalon ke vidaai samaaroh mein raabart M. vaales traans.London: Oxford you pi 1989.
  58. yaakoob, maargaret si. nyutoniyn aur angreji kraanti: 1689-1720. pi 100-101.
  59. "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse". The Associated Press. 19 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070629231937/http://www.christianpost.com/article/20070619/28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-01.
  60. [99] ^ kaassels, elan. aadhunik vishv mein vichaaradhaara aur antararaashtreeya sambandh. pi 2.
  61. [100] ^ "haalaanki yeh prabodhan ke kaarakon mein se ek tha, ek aadeshit ganiteeya varnan upalabdh karne mein nyutoniyn bhautiki ki safalta, jisne athaaraveen shataabdi mein is aandolan ke falane foolane mein spasht bhoomika nibhaayi." John gibban (2002) vigyaan: ek itihaas 1543-2001, pi 241
  62. [101] ^ white 1997, pi. 259
  63. [102] ^ white 1997, pi. 267
  64. [104] ^ white 1997, pi 269
  65. [105] ^ vestafaul 1994, pi 229
  66. [106] ^ white 1997, pi 269
  67. [107] ^ vestafaul 1980, peepi. 571-5
  68. [110] ^ baul 1908, pi. 337
  69. [113] ^ white 1997, pi. 86.
  70. [114] ^ I. barnaard kohen aur George E. smith, sanskaran. Cambridge kampeniyn too nyootan (2002) pi.6.
  71. Conduitt, John. "Keynes Ms. 130.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge". Newtonproject. http://www.newtonproject.ic.ac.uk/texts/viewtext.php?id=THEM00167&mode=diplomatic. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-30.
  72. "Brogdale - Home of the National Fruit Collection". Brogdale.org.uk. http://www.brogdale.org.uk/nfc_home.php. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-20.
  73. "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree". http://www.brogdale.org.uk/image1.php?varietyid=1089. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-10.
  74. [121] ^ nyootan ki raasaayanik kaarya jo varnit kiya gaya aur indiyaana vishvavidyaalaya mein 11 January 2007 ko online sanshodhit kiya gaya.

sandarbh

  • Ball, W.W. Rouse (1908). A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. New York: Dover.
  • Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. New York: Free Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-02-905190-8. [124]yeh achhi tarah se pralekhit kaam, vishesh roop se, purvaachaarya sambandhi nyootan ke gyaan ke sambandh mein mahatvapoorn jaankaari upalabdh karaata hai.


atirikt adhyayan

  • Herivel, J. W. (1965). The Background to Newton's Principia. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Keynes, John mainard (1963). Essays in Biography. W. W. Norton & Co. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-393-00189-X. [148]keyens ne nyootan mein kaafi roochi li aur nyootan ke kai niji kaagajaat par kabja kar liya.
  • Koyré, A. (1965). Newtonian Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • nyootan, aaijaik I barnaard kohen dvaara sanpaadit nechural filosofi, mein patra aur kaagajaat .Harvard university press, 1958,1978. I S bi N 0-674-46853-8.
  • nyootan, aaijaik (1642-1727) di prinsipiya: ek naya anuvaad, I barnaard kohen ke dvaara nirdeshit I S bi N 0-520-08817-4 California vishvavidyaalaya (1999).
  • Pemberton, H. (1728). A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. London: S. Palmer.
  • Shamos, Morris H. (1959). Great Experiments in Physics. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc..
  • shaaple, haralo, S repport aur H rightai trejari of science ; "nyutoniya" peepi.147-9;"diskavareej" pi pi. 150-4.haarpar end brothers, New York, (1946).
  • Simmons, J. (1996). The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. Sydney: The Book Company.
  • Stukeley, W. (1936), Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life, London: Taylor and Francis (ai eh white dvaara sanpaadit; moolat: 1752 mein prakaashit)
  • Westfall, R. S. (1971). Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. London: Macdonald.

nyootan aur dharm

  • dobbs, betti jo tetar di jaanoos feses of jeeniys:nyootan ke vichaar mein rasaayan vidya ki bhoomika (1991), rasaayan vidya ko eriyn vaad se sambandhit karta hai.
  • bal, James E. aur richrd H. Popkin, eds. nyootan aur dharm: sandarbh, prakruti aur prabhaav. (1999), 342 pi pi. peepi. xvii +325. nayi khuli paandulipiyon ka upayog karne vaale 13 kaagajaat
  • raamaati, ayval. " di hidn truth of kriyeshan: nyootanas methad of flaksiyns" vigyaan ke itihaas ke liye british journal 34:417-438.JSTOR mein. tark deta hai ki, unki kalan ka ek brahmavaijnyaaanik aadhaar tha.


  • snobelen, Stefan di. "'god of gods, end lord of laurds.' prinsipiya ke liye aaijaik nyootan ke saamaanya teeka ka dharmashaastr." osiris, doosari shrrunkhala, khand 16, (2001), peepi JSTOR mein 169-208.
  • snobelen, Stefan di."aaijaik nyootan, vidhrmik: di stretejeej of a nikodemaait." vigyaan ke itihaas ke liye british journal 32:381-419. JSTOR mein
  • faaijanameyar, Thomas si.""kya aaijaik nyootan ek eriyn the?," journal of di history of aaidiyaaj , khand 58, sankhya 1 (January, 1997), peepi. 57-80 JSTOR mein
  • vestafaal, richrd S nevar eight rest: a baayograafi of aaijaik nyootan, khand 2 Cambridge you press, 1983. 908 peepi. pramukh vidvaanon ki jeevani ansh aur paathya ki khoj
  • vils, mauris. aarketipl harase sadiyon ke dauraan eriynavaad. (1996) 214 pi pi,18 vi sadi mein adhyaaya 4 ke saath England; pi pi 77-93 nyootan par ansh aur paathya ki khoj

praathamik srot

  • nyootan, aaijaik di prinsipiya: methemetikl prinsipls of nechural filosofi. ameriki California press ke you (1999). 974 peepi.
    • brekenarij, J brus. di ki too nyootan's daayanemiks: di kepalar problam end di prinsipiya:kitaab ke sekshan 1, 2 aur 3 ka angreji anuvaad ismein hai, ek nyootan's methemetikl prinsipls of nechural filosofi ke pehle sanskaran se hai.

you of ameriki California press, 1996 299 peepi.

  • nyootan, aaijaik di optikl pepars of aaijaik nyootan. khand 1: di optikl lekchars, 1670-1672. Cambridge you press, 1984. 627 peepi.
    • nyootan, aaijaik. optiks (chautha sanskaran,1730) online edition
    • nyootan, I. (1952).prakaashiki, ya paraavartan, apavartan, parivartan aur prakaash ke rang ke vishay mein ek nibandhanyooyaurk: dovar prakaashan.
  • nyootan, I.sar aaijaik nyootan ki methe metikl prinsipls of nechural filosofi aur his system of di world, tr. A maute, rev. floriyn kaajori. Berkeley: California vishvavidyaalaya press.(1934).
  • Whiteside, D. T. (1967–82). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - 8 khand
  • nyootan, aaijaik. di korasapondeins of aaijaik nyootan, sanskaran.H dabalyoo tarnabul aur anya, 7 khand (1959-77).
  • nyootan's filosofi of nechar: selekshans fraum his raaitings H S thaayar ke dvaara sanpaadit, (1953), online sanskaran
  • aaijaik nyootan, sar, J edlesatan; Roger kots, " sar aaijaik nyootan aur professor kots ke patraachaar, jismein anya prakhyaat vyaktiyon ke patra shaamil hain", London, John dablyoo paarkar, vest streind; kembrij, John deeghatan, 1850. -Google books.
  • maklaurin, si. (1748).sar aaijaik nyootan ki daarshanik khojon ka lekhaajokha, chaar pustakon mein.London: A millar aur J nauras
  • nyootan, I. (1958).aaijaik nyootan ke kaagajaat aur paatr nechural filosofi par tatha sambandhit dastaavej, sanskaran. aaibi kohen tatha aar . i schofiyeld .Cambridge: Harvard university press.
  • nyootan, I. (1962).aaijaik nyootan ke aprakaashit vaigyaanik dastaavej: vishvavidyaalaya pustakaalaya, Cambridge mein portsamaauth sangrah se chayanit, sanskaran. ai.aar. hall aur M bi. hall.Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
  • nyootan, I. (1975).aaijaik nyootan ka 'chandrama ki gati ka siddhaant' (1702) .London: daavasan.

baahari kadiyaaain

Parliament of England
poorvaadhikaari
Robert Brady
Member of Parliament for Cambridge University
with Robert Sawyer

1689–1690
uttaraadhikaari
Edward Finch
poorvaadhikaari
Anthony Hammond
Member of Parliament for Cambridge University
with Henry Boyle

1701–1702
uttaraadhikaari
Arthur Annesley
sarkaari kaaryaalaya
poorvaadhikaari
Thomas Neale
Master of the Mint
1700 – 1727
uttaraadhikaari
John Conduitt


|PLACE OF BIRTH=Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England |DATE OF DEATH=31 March 1727 |PLACE OF DEATH=Kensington, London, England }}