aagneya shail

grenaait (ek aagneya chattaan) chennai me, Bhaarat.

aagneya chattaan (jarman: Magmatisches Gestein, angreji: Igneous rock) ki rachana dharaatal ke neeche sthit tapt evam taral chattaani padaarth, arthaat maigma, ke satah ke oopar aakaar laava pravaah ke roop mein nikal kar athva oopar uthane ke kram mein baahar nikal paane se pehle hi, satah ke neeche hi thandhe hokar in pighle padaarthon ke thos roop mein jam jaane se hoti hai. at: aagneya chattaanein pighle hue chattaani padaarth ke thandhe hokar jam jaane se banti hain.[1] ye ravedaar bhi ho sakti hai aur bina kanon ya rave ke bhi.[2] ye chattaanein pruthvi par paayi jaane waali anya do pramukh chattaanon, avasaadi aur roopaantarit ke saath milkar pruthvi par paayi jaane waali chattaanon ke teen pramukh prakaar banaati hain.

pruthvi ke dharaatal ki utpatti mein sarvapratham inka nirmaan hone ke kaaran inhein 'praathamik shail' bhi kaha jaata hai. aisa isliye bhi kaha jaata hai ki yahi ve pehli chattaanein hain jo pighle hue chattaani padaarth se banti hain[3]jabki avasaadi ya roopaantarit chattaanein in aagneya chattaanon ke tootane ya taap aur daab ke prabhaav aakaar mein badalne se se banti hain.[4]

inke do mukhya prakaar hain. jvaalaamukhi udagaar ke samay bhoogarbh se nikaalne wala laava jab dharaatal par jamkar thanda ho jaane ke pashchaat aagneya chattaanon mein parivrtit ho jaata hai to ise bahirbhedi ya jvaalaamukheeya chattaan kaha jaata hai. iske vipreet jab oopar uthata hua maigma dharaatal ki satah par aakar baahar nikalne se pehle hi jameen ke andar hi thanda hokar jam jaata hai to is prakaar antarbhedi chattaan kehte hain. [5]

chooainki, jmeeni satah se neeche banane waali aagneya chattaanein dheere-dheere thandi hokar jamati hai, ye ravedaar hoti hain, kyonki maigmaai padaarth ke anuon ke ek doosare ke saath sanyojit hokar kristal ya rave banaane hetu kaafi samay mil jaata hai. iske theek ulat, jab maigma laava ke roop mein jvaalaamukhi udagaar ke samay baahar nikal kar thandha hokar jamata hai to rave banane ke liye paryaapt samay naheen milta aur is prakaar bahirbhedi aagneya chattaanein kaaaincheeya ya gair-ravedaar (glassy) hoti hain.[6]

aagneya chattaanon mein paraton aur jeevaashmon ka poornat: abhaav paaya jaata hai. apraveshyata adhik hone ke kaaran in par raasaayanik apakshaya ka bahut kam prabhaav padta hai, lekin yaantrik evam bhautik apakshaya ke kaaran inka vightan va viyojan praarambh ho jaata hai. grenaait, besaalt, gaibro, obseediyn, daayoraait, doloraait, endesaait, peridotaait, felasaait, pichston, pyumaais ityaadi aagneya chattaanon ke pramukh udaaharan hai.

anukram

bhoovaijnyaaanik mahatva

pruthvi ki papadi ke oopari 16 kilometer (10 meal) me lagbhag 90% se 95% tak aagneya chattaanein aur kaayaantarit chattaanein paayi jaati hain. [7]

inka mahatva isliye hai kyonki:

  1. inki rachana aur raasaayanik sangathan pruthvi ke antaratam aur maintal ke baare mein jaankaari upalabdh karaata hai.
  2. pruthvi par vivrtanik ghatnaaon ko jaankaari deti hain.
  3. inmein bahumoolya khanij ayask paae jaate hain.

vargeekaran

aagneya chattaanon ghatna, banaavat, khanij, raasaayanik sanrachana aur aagneya shareer ki jyaamiti ki vidha ke anusaar vargeekrut ki jaati hai|

aagneya shail ke antarbhedi rup

aagneya chattaanon ka nirmaan
  • baitholith
  • laikolith
  • faikolith
  • lopolith
  • sil
  • daaik

bahirbhedi aagneya chattaanein

ek mishrit jvaalaamukhi ke vibhinn bhaag (oordhvaadhar paimaana badhaaya gaya hai):
1. vishaal maigma koshth
2. aadhaarashail
3. naali (pipe)
4. aadhaar
5. sil
6. bhitti (daaik)
7. jvaalaamukhi dvaara utsarjit raakh ki paratein
8. paarshv
9. jvaalaamukhi dvaara utsarjit laava ki paratein
10. gala
11. parajeevi shanku
12. laava pravaah
13. nikaas
14. vivr (kretar)
15. raakh ke baadal

aagneya shail ke prakaar

sandarbh

  1. Igneous Rocks jiyoloji.com par (angreji mein)
  2. aagneya chattaan, britaanika ensaaiklopeediya par, (angreji mein)
  3. aagneya chattaanein, http://www.columbia.edu/ par (angreji mein)
  4. Gesteinkreislauf rock chakr par (jarman mein)
  5. Okrusch, Martin; Siegfried, Matthes (2009). Mineralogie: Eine Einfüahrung in die spezielle Mineralogie, Petrologie und Lagerstäattenkunde (8. san॰). Wüarzburg: Springer. pa॰ 189-219. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-3-540-78200-1.
  6. Igneous rocks bi. bi. si. par (angreji mein)
  7. Prothero, Donald R.; Schwab, Fred (2004). Sedimentary geology : an introduction to sedimentary rocks and stratigraphy (2nd san॰). New York: Freeman. pa॰ 12. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-7167-3905-0.