aagam (jain)

jinvaani (shrut gyaan)

aagam shabd ka prayog jain dharm ke mool granthon ke liye kiya jaata hai. keval gyaan, manaparyav gyaani, avadhi gyaani, chaturdashapoorv ke dhaarak tatha dashapoorv ke dhaarak muniyon ko aagam kaha jaata hai. kaheen kaheen navapoorv ke dhaarak ko bhi aagam maana gaya hai. upachaar se inke vachanon ko bhi aagam kaha gaya hai. jab tak aagam bihaari muni vidyamaan the, tab tak inka itna mahatva naheen tha, kyonki tab tak muniyon ke aachaar vyavahaar ka nirdeshan aagam muniyon dvaara milta tha. jab aagam muni naheen rahe, tab unke dvaara rachit aagam hi saadhana ke aadhaar maane gaye aur unamein nirdisht nirdeshan ke anusaar hi jain muni apni saadhana karte hain.

aagam shabd ka upayog jain darshan mein saahitya ke liye kiya jaata hai. shrut, sootr, sutan, granth, siddhaant, deshana, prajnyaaapana, upadesh, aapt vachan, jin vachan, aitihya, aamnaaya aadi sabhi aagam ke paryaayavaachi shabd hai. aagam shabd "aa" upasarg aur gam dhaatu se nishpann hua hai. 'aa' upasarg ka arth samantaat arthaat poorn aur gam dhaatu ka arth gati praapt hai arthaat jisse vastu tattv (padaarth ke rahasya) ka poorn gyaan ho vah aagam hai athva ye bhi kaha ja sakta hai ki aapt purush (arihant, teerthankar ya kevali) jineshvar roop mein jo gyaan ka upadesh dete hai un shabdon ko ganadhar (unke pramukh shishya) jinki lipi baddh roop mein rachana karte hai un sootron ko aagam kehte hai.

anukram

vargeekaran

aagam saahitya bhi do bhaagon mein vibhkt hai: angapravisht aur angabaahm.

ang

angon ki sankhya 12 hai. unhein ganipitk ya dvaadashaangi bhi kaha jaata hai:

  • 1- aachaaraang
  • 2- sootrakrutaang
  • 3- sthaanaang
  • 4- samavaayaaaing
  • 5- bhagavati
  • 6- jnyaaata
  • 7- upaasak dashaang
  • 8- antakrut‌ dasha
  • 9 -anutaropapaatikdasha
  • 10- prashn vyaakaran
  • 11- vipaak
  • 12- drushtivaad

inmein drushtivaad ka poornat: vichhed ho chuka hai. shesh gyaarah angon ka bhi bahut sa ang vichhit ho chuka hai.

angabaahm

iske atirikt jitne aagam hain ve sab angabaahm hain; kyonki angapravisht keval ganadharakrut aagam hi maane jaate hain. ganadharon ke atirikt shrut kevali, purvadhar aadi gyaani purushon dvaara rachit aagam angabaahm maana jaata hai.

aagamon ki maanyata ke vishay mein bhinn bhinn paranparaaeain hain. diganbar aamnaaya mein aagametar saahitya hi hai, ve aagam lupt ho chuke, aisa maanate hain. shvetaanbar aamnaaya mein ek parampara 84 aagam maanati hai, ek parampara uparyukt 45 aagamon ko aagam ke roop mein sveekaar karti hai tatha ek parampara mahaanisheeth oshaniryukti, pindaniryukti tatha 10 prakeern sootron ko chhodkar shesh 32 ko sveekaar karti hai.

iska mool kaaran ye hai ki shvetaambar parampara anusaar aachaarya devardhigneekshama shraman ne 84 aagamon ko lipibddh kiya tha kintu samay ke saath kai aagam svat: nasht ho gaye, kuchh mugl shaasakon ke raaj mein nasht kar diye gaye evam kai aagam itne prabhaavashaali the ki unke smaran se devataagan aa jaate the, at: aisi vidya ke durupyog se bachane hetu geetaarth saadhuon ne use bhandaarasth kar diya.

vishay ke aadhaar par aagamon ka vargeekaran

Bhagwan mahaaveer se lekar aaryarakshit tak aagamon ka vargeekaran naheen hua tha. pravaachak aaryarakshit ne shishyon ki suvidha ke liye vishay ke aadhaar par aagamon ko chaar bhaagon mein vargeekrut kiya.

  • 1-charanakaranaanuyog
  • 2-dravyaanuyog
  • 3-ganitaanuyog
  • 4-dharmakathaanuyog

charanakaranaanuyog

ismein aachaar vishyak saara vivechan diya gaya hai. aachaar pratipaadak aagamon ki sanjnyaa charanakaranaanuyog ki gayi hai. jain darshan ki maanyata hai ki naanass saaro aayaaro gyaan ka saar aachaar hai. gyaan ki saadhana aachaar ki aaraadhana ke liye honi chaahiye. is pehle anuyog mein aachaaraang, dashavaikaalik aadi aagamon ka samaavesh hota hai.

dravyaanuyog

lok ke shaashvat dravyon ki meemaansa tatha daarshanik tathyon ki vivechana karanevaale aagamon ke vargeekaran ko dravyaanuyog kaha gaya hai.

ganitaanuyog

jyotish sambandhi tatha bhang (vikalp) aadi ganit sambandhi vivechan iske antargat aata hai. chandraprajnyaapti, sooryaprajnyaapti aadi aagam ismein samaavisht hote hain.

dharmakathaanuyog

drushtaant upama katha saahitya aur kaalpanik tatha ghatit ghatnaaon ke varnan tatha jeevan-charitra-pradhaan aagamon ke vargeekaran ko dharmakathaanuyog ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai.

in aachaar aur taatvik vichaaron ke pratipaadan ke atirikt iske saath saath tatkaaleen samaaj, arth, raajya, shiksha vyavastha aadi aitihaasik vishyon ka praasangik niroopan bahut hi praamaanik paddhati se hua hai.

bhaarateeya jeevan ke aadhyaatmik, saamaajik tatha taatvik paksh ka aakalan karne ke liye jainaagamon ka adhyayan aavashyak hi naheen, kintu drushti denevaala hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain