aag

jungle ki aag

aag dahanasheel padaarthon ka teevr okseekaran hai, jisse ushma, prakaash aur anya anek raasaayanik pratikaarak utpaad jaise kaarban daaioksaaid and jal.[1] utpann hote hain. okseekaran se utpann gas aayaneekrut hokar plaajma.[2] paida karte hain. dahanasheel padaarth mein sannihit ashuddhi ke kaaran jvaala ke rang aur aag ki teevrata mein antar ho sakta hai. saamaanya roop mein aag daah paida karta hai jismein bhautik roop se padaarthon ko kshatigrast karne ki kshamata hai.

aag ki rasaayan

The fire tetrahedron

dahanasheel padaarth paryaapt okseejan ki upasthiti mein jab paryaapt ushma, jo shrrunkhalaabaddh pratikriya ko suchaaroo roop se chalaane mein saksham ho, sampark mein aata hai, to aag paida hoti hai. inmein se kisi ek ki anupasthiti se aag paida naheen ho sakti hai.

agar aag ekabaar jal jaati hai yaani shrrunkhalaabaddh pratikriya shuroo ho jaati hai to jab tak okseejan aur dahanasheel padaarth ki upasthiti rahati hai tab tak vah jalati aur failati rahati hai. aag ko okseejan aur indhan mein se kisi ek ko alag kar bujhaaya ja sakta hai. aag par paani ki paryaapt bauchhaar padti hai to indhan ko okseejan ki upasthiti mein baadha padti hai aur aag bujh jaati hai. aag par kaarban-daaioksaaid ke prayog se bhi aag bujha ja sakti hai. jungle ki aag bujhaane ke liye mukhya jvaala se door chhoti chhoti jvaala paida kar indhan ki aapoorti band ki jaati hai.

anukram

parichay

agni raasaayanik drushti se agni jeevajanit padaarthon ke kaarban tatha anya tatvon ka aakseejan se is prakaar ka sanyog hai ki garami aur prakaash utpann hon. agni ki badi upayogita hai jaade mein haath-pair seinkane se lekar parmaanu bam dvaara nagar ka nagar bhasm kar dena, sab agni ka hi kaam hai. isi se hamaara bhojan pakata hai, isi ke dvaara khanij padaarthon se dhaatueain nikaali jaati hain aur isi se shakti utpaadak engine chalte hain. bhoomi mein dabe avasheshon se pata chalta hai ki praaya pruthvi par manushya ke praadurbhaav kaal se hi use agni ka gyaan tha. aaj bhi pruthvi par bahut si jangali jaatiyaaain hain jinki sabhyata ekdam praarambhik hai, parantu aisi koi jaati naheen hai jise agni ka gyaan na ho.

utpatti

aadim manushya ne pattharon ke takaraane se utpann chingaariyaaain ko dekha hoga. adhikaansh vidvaanon ka mat hai ki manushya ne sarvapratham kade pattharon ki ek-doosare par maarkar agni utpann ki hogi.

gharshan (ragadne ki) vidhi se agni baad mein nikli hogi. pattharon ke hathiyaar ban chukane ke baad unhein sudaul, chamakeela aur teevr karne ke liye ragada gaya hoga. ragadne par jo chingaariyaan utpann hui hongi usi se manushya ne agni utpann karne ki gharshan vidhi nikaali hogi.

gharshan tatha takkar in donon vidhiyon se agni utpann karne ka dhang aajkal bhi dekhne mein aata hai. ab bhi avashyakata padne par ispaat aur chakamak patthar ke prayog se agni utpann ki jaati hai. ek vishesh prakaar ki sookhi ghaas ya rui ko chakamak ke saath sataakar pakad lete hain aur ispaat ke tukade se chakamak par teevr prahaar karte hain. takkar se utpann chingaari ghaas ya rui ko pakad leti hai aur usi ko fooaink-fooainkakar aur fir patali lakdi tatha sookhi pattiyon ke madhya rakhakar agni ka vistaar kar liya jaata hai.

gharshanavidhi se agni utpann karne ki sabse saral aur prachalit vidhi lakdi ke patare par lakdi ki chhad ragadne ki hai.

ek-doosari vidhi mein lakdi ke takhte mein ek chhichhla chhed rahata hai. is chhed par lakdi ki chhadi ko mathani ki tarah veg se nachaaya jaata hai. praacheen Bhaarat mein bhi is vidhi ka prachalan tha. is yantr ko arani kehte the. chhadi ke tukade ko uttara aur takhte ko adhara kaha jaata tha. is vidhi se agni utpann karna Bhaarat ke atirikt lanka, sumaatra, Australia aur dakshini Africa mein bhi prachalit tha. uttari amareeka ke Indian tatha madhya amareeka ke nivaasi bhi yeh vidhi kaam mein laate the. ek vaar Charles daaravin ne taahiti (dakshini prashaant mahaasaagar ka ek dweep jahaaain sthaaneeya aadivaasi hi basate hain) mein dekha ki vahaaain ke nivaasi is prakaar kuchh hi second mein agni utpann kar lete hain, yadyapi swayam use is kaam mein safalta bahut samay tak parishram karne par mili.

faaras ke prasiddh granth shaahanaama ke anusaar husen ne ek bhayankar sarpaakaar raakshasi se yuddh kiya aur use maarane ke liye unhonne ek bada patthar feinka. vah patthar us raakshas ko na lagkar ek chattaan se takaraakar choor ho gaya aur is prakaar sarvapratham agni utpann hui.

uttari amareeka ki ek dantakatha ke anusaar ek vishaal bhainse ke daudne par uske khuron se jo takkar pattharon par lagi usase chingaariyaaain nikleen. in chingaariyon se bhayankar daavaanal bhadak utha aur isi se manushya ne sarvapratham agni li.

agni ka manushya ki saanskrutik tatha vaigyaanik unnati mein bahut bada bhaag raha hai. laitin mein agni ko pyooras arthaat‌ pavitra kaha jaata hai. sanskrut mein agni ka ek paryaaya paavak bhi hai jiska shabdaarth hai 'pavitra karanevaala'. agni ko pavitra maankar usaki upaasana ka prachalan kai jaatiyon mein hua aur ab bhi hai.

satat agni

agni utpann karne mein pehle saadhaaranat itni kathinaai padti thi ki aadikaaleen manushya ek baar utpann ki hui agni ko nirantar prajjvalit rakhane ki cheshta karta tha. yoonaan aur faaras ke log apne pratyek nagar aur gaarve mein ek nirantar prajvalit agni rakhate the. rom ke ek pavitra mandir mein agni nirantar prajvalit rakhi jaati thi. yadi kabhi kisi kaaranavash mandir ki agni bujh jaati thi to bada apashakun maana jaata tha. tab pujaari log praacheen vidhi ke anusaar pun agni prajvalit karte the. san‌ 1830 ke baad se diyaasalaai ka aavishkaar ho jaane ke kaaran agni prajvalit rakhane ki pratha mein shithilta aa gayi. diyaasalaaiyon ka upayog bhi gharshan vidhi ka hi udaaharan hai; antar itna hi hai ki usamein faasforas, shora aadi ke sheegra jalne vaale mishran ka upayog hota hai.

praacheen manushya jangali jaanvaron ko bhagaane, ya unase surakshit rahane ke liye agni ka upayog baraabar karta raha hoga. vah jaade mein apne ko agni se garam bhi rakhata tha. vastut jaise-jaise janasankhya badhi, log agni ke hi sahaare adhikaadhik thande deshon mein ja base. agni, garam kapda aur makaanon ke kaaran manushya aise thande deshon mein rah sakta hai jahaaain sheet ritu mein usek saradi se kasht naheen hota aur jalavaayu adhik svaasthyaprad rahati hai.

vidyut kaal mein agni

motarakaar ke injanon mein petrol jalaane ke liye bijli ki chingaari (spaark) ka upayog hota hai, kyonki aisi chingaari abheesht kshanon par utpann ki ja sakti hai. makaanon mein kabhi-kabhi bijli ke taar mein kharaabi aa jaane (short sarkit) se aag lag jaati hai. taal (lenj) tatha avatal (kaunakev) darpan se soorya ki rashmiyon ko ekatrit karke bhi agni utpann ki ja sakti hai. grees tatha cheen ke itihaas mein in vidhiyon ka ullekh hai.

aag bujhaana

aag bujhaane ke liye saadhaaranat sabse achhi reeti paani udelana hai. baaloo ya mitti daalne se bhi chhoti aag bujh sakti hai. door se agni par paani daalne ke liye rakaabadaar panp achha hota hai. chhoti-moti aag ko thaali ya paraat se dhakakar bhi bujhaaya ja sakta hai.

aarambh mein aag bujhaana saral rahata hai. aag badh jaane par use bujhaana kathin ho jaata hai. praarambhik aag ko bujhaane ke liye yantr milte hain. ye lohe ki chaadar ke baratan hote hain, jinmein sode (sodiym kaarabonet) ka ghol rahata hai. ek sheeshi mein aml rahata hai. baratan mein ek khooainti rahati hai. thonkane par vah bheetar ghuskar aml ki sheeshi ko tod deti hai. tab aml sode ke ghol mein pahuainchakar kaarban daaiaaksaaid gas utpann karta hai. iski daab se ghol ki dhaar baahar veg se niklati hai aur aag par daali ja sakti hai.

adhik achhe aag bujhaane vaale yantron se saabun ke jhaag (fen) ki tarah jhaag niklata hai jismein kaarban daaiaaksaaid gas ke bulabule rahate hain. yeh jalati hui vastu par pahuainchakar use is prakaar chha leta hai ki aakseejan ki kami ke kaaran aag bujh jaati hai.

oopar ki ghundi ko thonkane se bheetar aml (tejaab) ki sheeshi foot jaati hai jo baratan ke bheetar bhare soda ke ghol se pratikriya karke kaarban daaiaaksaaid gas banaati hai. is gas ki daab se ghol ki vegavati dhaar niklati hai.

iske muainh ko paani bhari baalti mein daalkar aur rakaab ko pair se dabaakar haindal chalaane par tund (tonti) se paani ki dhaar niklati hai jo door se hi aag par daali ja sakti hai.

godaam, dookaan aadi mein svayanchal saavdhaan (otomaitik alaarm) laga dena uttam hota hai. aag lagne par ghanti bajne lagti hai. jahaaain telephone rahata hai vahaaain aisa prabandh ho sakta hai ki aag lagte hi apne aap agnidl (faayar briged) ko soochana mil jaae. isse bhi achha vah yantr hota hai jinmein se, aag lagne par, paani ki fuhaar apne aap chhootane lagti hai.

pratyek bade shahar mein sarkaar ya myunisipailiti ki or se ek agnidl (fire briged) rahata hai. ismein vaitanik karmachaari niyukt rahate hain jinka kartavya hi aag bujhaana hota hai. soochana milte hi ye log motor se agni sthaan par pahuainch jaate hain aur apna kaarya karte hain. saadhaaranat aag bujhaane ka saara saamaan unki gaadi par hi rahata hai; udaaharanat paani se bhari tanki, panp, kainavas ka pipe (hoj), is pipe ke muainh par lagne waali tonti (naujl), seedhi (jo bina deevaar ka sahaara liye hi tirchhi khadi rah sakti hai aur ichhaanusaar ooainchi, neechi ya tirchhi ki tatha ghumaai ja sakti hai), bijli ke tej roshani aur laaudaspeekar aadi. jahaaain paani ka pipe naheen rahata vahaaain ek anya laari par keval paani ki bada tanki rahati hai. kai videshi shaharon mein sarkaari prabandh ke atirikt beema kanpaniyaaain aag bujhaane ka apna niji prabandh bhi rakhati hain. jahaaain sarkaari agni dal naheen rahata vahaaain bahudha svayansevakon ka dal rahata hai jo vachanabaddh rahate hain ki muhalle mein aag lagne par turant upasthit honge aur upachaar kareinge. bahudha sarkaar ki or se unhein shiksha mili rahati hai aur aavashyak saamaan bhi unhein sarkaar se upalabdh hota hai.

aag lagne par turant agnidl ko soochana bhejani chaahiye (ho sake to telephone se) aur turant spasht shabdon mein bataana chaahiye ki aag kahaaain lagi hai.

sandarbh