aadivaasi (bhaarateeya)

udeesa ke janajaateeya kutiya kondh samooh ki ek mahila

aadivaasi shabd do shabdon aadi aur vaasi se mil kar bana hai aur iska arth mool nivaasi hota hai. Bhaarat ki janasankhya ka ek bada hissa aadivaasiyon ka hai. puraatan lekhon me aadivaasiyon ko atvika aur vanavaasi bhi kaha gaya hai (sanskrut granthon mein). samvidhaan mein aadivaasiyon ke liye anusoochit janajaati pad ka upayog kiya gaya hai. Bhaarat ke pramukh aadivaasi samudaayon mein santhaal, gond, munda, khadiya, ho, bodo, bheel, khaasi, sahariya, garaasiya, meena, uraanv, birhor aadi hain.

mahaatma Gandhi ne aadivaasiyon ko girijn (pahaad par rahane vaale log) kah kar pukaara hai. jis par vaamapanthi maanavijnyaaaniyon ne savaal uthaaya hai ki k‍aaya maidaan mein rahane vaalon ko maidaani kaha jaata hai? aadivaasi ko dakshinpanthi log vanavaasi ya jangali kehkar pukaarate hain. is tarah ke naamon ke peechhe buniyaadi roop se yeh dhaarana kaam kar rahi hoti hai ki aadivaasi desh ke mool nivaasi hain ya naheen tatha aarya yaheen ke mool nivaasi hain ya baahar se aae hain? jabki nishchit roop se aadivaasi hi Bhaarat ke moolanivaasi hain.

aamtaur par aadivaasiyon ko Bhaarat me janajaateeya logon ke roop me jaana jaata hai. aadivaasi mukhya roop se bhaarateeya raajyon udeesa, madhya pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, pashchim Bengal me alpasankhyak hai jabki bhaarateeya poorvottar raajyon mein yeh bahusankhyak hain, jaise mijoram. Bhaarat sarkaar ne inhein Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ki paanchavi anusoochi mein " anusoochit janajaatiyon " ke roop mein maanyata di hai. aksar inhein anusoochit jaatiyon ke saath ek hi shreni " anusoochit jaatiyon aur janajaatiyon " me rakha jaata hai jo kuchh sakaaraatmak kaarravaai ke upaayon ke liye paatr hai.

aadivaasi nrutya

aadivaasiyon ka apna dharm hai. ye prakruti poojak hain aur jungle, pahaad, nadiyon evam soorya ki aaraadhana karte hain. aadhunik kaal mein jabaran baahya sampark mein aane ke falasvaroop inhonne hindu, isaai evam islaam dharm ko bhi apnaaya hai. angreji raaj ke dauraan badi sankhya mein ye isaai bane to aajaadi ke baad inke hioondakaran ka prayaas teji se hua hai. parantu aaj ye swayam ki dhaarmik pehchaan ke liye sangathit ho rahe hain aur Bhaarat sarkaar se janaganana mein apne liye alag se dhaarmik code ki maang kar rahe hain.

maana jaata hai ki hinduon ke Dave Bhagwan Shiv bhi mool roop se ek aadivaasi devata the lekin aaryon ne bhi unhein devata ke roop me sveekaar kar liya.

raamaayan ke rachayita maharshi vaalmeeki bhi ek koli aadivaasi the.[tathya vaanchhit]

Bhaarat mein aadivaasiyon ko do vargon mein adhisoochit kiya gaya hai. anusoochit janajaati aur anusoochit aadim janajaati.

bahut se chhote aadivaasi samooh aadhunikeekaran ke kaaran ho rahe paaristhitiki patan ke prati kaafi samvedansheel hain. vyavasaayik vaaniki aur gahan krushi donon hi un jangalon ke liye vinaashakaari saabit hue hain jo kai shataabdiyon se aadivaasiyon ke jeevan yaapan ka srot rahe the.

anukram

aadivaasi bhaashaaen

Bhaarat mein sabhi aadivaasi samudaayon ki apni vishisht bhaasha hai. bhaashaavijnyaaaniyon ne Bhaarat ke sabhi aadivaasi bhaashaaon ko mukhyat: teen bhaasha parivaaron mein rakha hai. Dravid, aastrik aur cheeni-tibbati. lekin kuchh aadivaasi bhaashaaen bhaaropeeya bhaasha parivaar ke antargat bhi aati hain. aadivaasi bhaashaaon mein 'bheeli' bolne vaalon ki sankhya sabse jyaada hai jabki doosare number par 'gondi' bhaasha aur teesare number par 'santaali' bhaasha hai.

Bhaarat ki 114 mukhya bhaashaaon mein se 22 ko hi samvidhaan ki aathaveen anusoochi mein shaamil kiya gaya hai. inmein haal-filhaal shaamil ki gayi santaali aur bodo hi maatr aadivaasi bhaashaaen hain. anusoochi mein shaamil santaali (0.62), sindhi, nepaali, bodo (sabhi 0.25), mitaai (0.15), dogari aur sanskrut bhaashaaen ek pratishat se bhi kam logon dvaara boli jaati hain. jabki bheeli (0.67), gondi (0.25), tulu (0.19) aur kudukh 0.17 pratishat logon dvaara vyavahaar mein laae jaane ke baad bhi aathaveen anusoochi mein darj naheen ki gayi hain. (janaganana 2001)

bhaarateeya raajyon mein ekamaatr jhaarakhand mein hi 5 aadivaasi bhaashaaon - santaali, mundaari, ho, kudukh aur khadiya - ko 2011 mein dviteeya raajyabhaasha ka darja pradaan kiya gaya hai.

aadivaasi saahitya

aadivaasiyon ka maukhik saahitya atyant samruddh hai. purakha (lok) kathaaon, geeton, kahaavaton aur muhaavaron ki vaachik parampara aadivaasi samudaayon mein bhari-poori hai. apni is vaachik parampara ko aadivaasi 'purakha saahitya' (vandana tete, 2012) kehte hain jabki hindi mein inhein 'lok saahitya' evam angreji mein 'fok literature' kaha jaata hai.

Bhaarat ke aadivaasi bhaashaaon mein kam se kam 1500 se adhik lekhak hain jo niyamit roop se saahitya rach rahe hain. akele santaali mein hi lekhakon ki sankhya 1000 se oopar hai. fir bhi kaha jaata hai ki aadivaasi saahitya naheen hai. har saal jhaarakhand aur desh ke doosare aadivaasi kshetron mein lagbhag 100 pustakon ka prakaashan aur lokaarpan hota hai. raashtreeya star par deshaj aur aadivaasi lekhakon ke kai bade sangathan hain jinmein jhaarakhandi bhaasha saahitya sanskruti akhada, all India santaali raaitars association, kudukh litreri society, aadivaasi saahitya sammelan Maharashtra aadi pramukh hain. jo moolanivaasiyon aur aadivaasiyon ke netrutv mein sanchaalit hain. samudaaya star par bhi har samudaaya ka apna saahityik sangathan hai. jaise, munda saahitya sabha, bodo saahitya sabha aadi. srot: * aadivaasi saahitya

Bhaarat ki pramukh janajaatiyaaain

chanda samiti ne san 1960 mein anusoochati jaatiyon ke anrtagat kisi bhi jaati ko shaamil karne ke liye 5 maanak nirdhaarit kiya:

  • 1. bhaugolik ekaakeepan
  • 2. vishisht sanskruti
  • 3. pichhdaapan
  • 4. sankuchit svabhaav
  • 5. aadim jaati ke lakshan

Bhaarat mein 461 janajaatiyaan hain, jismein se 424 janajaatiyon Bhaarat ke saat kshetron mein banti hui hain:

uttari kshetr

(Jammu-Kashmir, uttaraanchal, Himachal pradesh)

jatiyaaain: lepacha, bhootiya, thaaroo, buksa, John saari, khaampati, kanota.

in sab mein mangol jaati ke lakshan milte hain. jaise:- tirchhi chhoti aankhe (chaaineej, tibbati), peela rang, seedhe baal, chehara chauda, chapata naak.

poorvottar kshetr

ye sabhi jaatiyaan mangolaaid hain.

  • Darjiling va sikkim mein lepacha,
  • aroonaachal pradesh : bhaari, mismi, dafala,
  • asam, manipur : Hummer
  • manipur va tripura mein vuki,
  • mijoram : lusaai,
  • aroonaachal pradesh : monapaas, sheraduk pace.

poorvi kshetr

  • udeesa mein:- juaang, khod, bhoomij, khariya.
  • jhaarakhand mein:- munda, santhaal, birhor ho.
  • santhaal:- Bhaarat ki sabse badi janajaati. santhaaliya bhaasha ko samvidhaan mein maanyata praapt hain.
  • pashchim Bengal mein:- unraav, santhaal, munda

pehchaan : rang kaala, chaukaleti kalar, lamba sir, chaudi chhoti va chapati naak, halke ghungharaale baal. yeh sabhi proto ostelaaid prajaati se sanbadhit hain.

madhya kshetr

gaud, baiga, Maria, aboojh Maria.

ye sabhi prajaatiyaan chhatteesagadh, Madhya Pradesh, poorvi Andhra-pradesh mein nivaas karte hain. ye sabhi proto ostelaaid prajaati se sanbadhit hain.

pashchimi Bhaarat mein

  • Gujarat, Rajasthan, pashchimi Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra : bheel, meena, garaasiya, daamor, sahariya, kanjar, saansi
  • Gujarat ki janajaatiyaaain : mahaadev, kaali, baali, dabala

dakshin Bhaarat mein

  • Kerala:- kota, bagaada, toda. (toda mein bahupati pratha prachalit hai.)
  • kuroonba, kaadar, cheinchu, pooliyaan, naayak, chetti ye sabhi janajaatiyaan neegriye se sanbadhit hain.
  • visheshataayein:- kaala rang, bade hoth

dvipeeya kshetr

  • andamaan-nikobaar- jaakha, aange, sentalis, sempiyn (shompen)

yeh jaatiyaan neegriye prajaati se sanbadhit hain. ye lupt hone ke kagaar par hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

aadivaasi patra-patrikaaen

  • johaar sahiya (aadivaasiyon ki lokapriya maasik patrika naagapuri-saadari bhaasha mein)
  • johaar disum khabar (12 aadivaasi bhaashaaon mein prakaashit Bhaarat ka ekamaatr paakshik akhbaar)
  • akhada (11 aadivaasi evam kshetreeya bhaashaaon mein prakaashit traimaasik patrika)