aadivaasi

Brazil ke kayopo (Kayapo tribe) aadivaasiyon ke mukhiya

saamaanyat: "aadivaasi" (aiborijinl) shabd ka prayog kisi bhaugolik kshetr ke un nivaasiyon ke liye kiya jaata hai jinka us bhaugolik kshetr se gyaat itihaas mein sabse puraana sambandh raha ho. parantu sansaar ke vibhinn bhoobhaagon mein jahaaain alag-alag dhaaraaon mein alag-alag kshetron se aakar log base hon us vishisht bhaag ke praacheenatam athva praacheen nivaasiyon ke liye bhi is shabd ka upayog kiya jaata hai. udaaharanaarth, "Indian" amareeka ke aadivaasi kahe jaate hain aur praacheen saahitya mein dasyu, nishaad aadi ke roop mein jin vibhinn prajaatiyon samoohon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai unke vanshaj samasaamayik Bhaarat mein aadivaasi maane jaate hain. aadivaasi ke samaanaarthi shab‍aadon mein aiborijinl, indijins, deshaj, mool nivaasi, janajaati, vanavaasi, jangali, girijn, barbar aadi prachalit hain. inmein se har ek shab‍aad ke peechhe saamaajik va raajaneetik sandarbh hain.

adhikaansh aadivaasi sanskruti ke praathamik dharaatal par jeevanayaapan karte hain. ve saamanyat: kshetreeya samoohon mein rahate hain aur unki sanskruti anek drushtiyon se svayanpoorn rahati hai. in sanskrutiyon mein aitihaasik jijnyaaasa ka abhaav rahata hai tatha oopar ki thodi hi peedhiyon ka yathaarth itihaas kramash: kinvadantiyon aur pauraanik kathaaon mein ghul mil jaata hai. seemit paridhi tatha laghu janasankhya ke kaaran in sanskrutiyon ke roop mein sthirta rahati hai, kisi ek kaal mein honevaale saanskrutik parivartan apne prabhaav evam vyaapakata mein apekshaakrut seemit hote hain. paranparaakeindrit aadivaasi sanskrutiyaaain isi kaaran apne anek pakshon mein roodhivaadi si deekh padti hain. uttar aur dakshin amareeka, Africa, Australia, Asia tatha anek dveepon aur dveepasamoohon mein aaj bhi aadivaasi sanskrutiyon ke anek roop dekhe ja sakte hain.

anukram

Bhaarat ke aadivaasi

Bhaarat mein anusoochit aadivaasi samoohon ki sankhya 700 se adhik hai. san 1951 ki janaganana ke anusaar aadivaasiyon ki sankhya 1,91,11,498 thi jo 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar 8,43,26,240 ho gayi. yeh desh ki janasankhya ka 8.2 pratishat hai.

prajaateeya drushti se in samoohon mein neegrito, proto-aastrelaayad aur mangolaayad tatv mukhyat: paae jaate hain, yadyapi katipya nrutatvavettaaon ne neegrito tatv ke sambandh mein shankaaeain upasthit ki hain. bhaashaashaastr ki drushti se unhein aastro-Asiaee, Dravid aur tibbati-cheeni-parivaaron ki bhaashaaeain bolanevaale samoohon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai. bhaugolik drushti se aadivaasi Bhaarat ka vibhaajan chaar pramukh kshetron mein kiya ja sakta hai : uttarapoorveeya kshetr, madhya kshetr, pashchimi kshetr aur dakshini kshetr.

uttar poorveeya kshetr ke antargat himaalaya anchal ke atirikt tista upatyaka aur brahmaputr ki yamuna-padya-shaakha ke poorvi bhaag ka pahaadi pradesh aata hai. is bhaag ke aadivaasi samoohon mein guroong, linboo, lepacha, aaka, daafala, abor, miri, mishmi, singapi, mikir, Ram, kavaari, gaaro, khaasi, naag, kuki, lushaai, chakama aadi ullekhaneeya hain.

madhyakshetr ka vistaar uttar-pradesh ke mirjaapur jile ke dakshini or raajamahal parvatamaala ke pashchimi bhaag se lekar dakshin ki godaavari nadi tak hai. santhaal, munda, uraanv, ho, bhoomij, khadiya, birhor, juaang, khond, savara, gond, bheel, baiga, korakoo, kamaar aadi is bhaag ke pramukh aadivaasi hain.

pashchimi kshetr mein bheel, meena, thaakoor, katakari aadi aadivaasi nivaas karte hain. madhya pashchim Rajasthan se hokar dakshin mein sahyaadri tak ka pashchimi pradesh is kshetr mein aata hai. godaavari ke dakshin se kanyaakumaari tak dakshini kshetr ka vistaar hai. is bhaag mein jo aadivaasi samooh rahate hain unamein cheinchoo, konda, Reddy, raajagond, koya, kolaam, kota, kuroonba, badaaga, toda, kaadar, malaayan, mushuvan, uraali, kanikkar aadi ullekhaneeya hain.

nrutatvavettaaon ne in samoohon mein se anek ka vishd shaareerik, saamaajik tatha saanskrutik adhyayan kiya hai. is adhyayan ke aadhaar par bhautik sanskruti tatha jeevanayaapan ke saadhan saamaajik sangathan, dharm, baahya sanskruti, prabhaav aadi ki drushti se aadivaasi Bhaarat ke vibhinn vargeekaran karne ke anek vaigyaanik prayatn kiye gaye hain. is parichyaatmak rooparekha mein in sab prayatnon ka ullekh tak sambhav naheen hai. aadivaasi sanskrutiyon ki jatil vibhinnataaon ka varnan karne ke liye bhi yahaaain paryaapt sthaan naheen hai.

yadyapi praacheen kaal mein aadivaasiyon ne bhaarateeya parampara ke vikaas mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan kiya tha aur unke katipya reeti rivaaj aur vishvaas aaj bhi thode bahut parivrtit roop mein aadhunik hindu samaaj mein dekhe ja sakte hain, tathaapi yeh nishchit hai ki ve bahut pehle hi bhaarateeya samaaj aur sanskruti ke vikaas ki pramukh dhaara se pruthak ho gaye the. aadivaasi samooh hindu samaaj se na keval anek mahatvapoorn pakshon mein bhinn hai, varan unke in samoohon mein bhi kai mahatvapoorn antar hain. samasaamayik aarthik shaktiyon tatha saamaajik prabhaavon ke kaaran bhaarateeya samaaj ke in vibhinn angon ki doori ab kramash: kam ho rahi hai.

aadivaasiyon ki saanskrutik bhinnata ko banaae rakhane mein kai kaaranon ka yog raha hai. manovaigyaanik dharaatal par unamein se anek mein prabal "janajaati-bhaavana" (traaibal feeling) hai. saamaajik-saanskrutik-dharaatal par unki sanskrutiyon ke gathan mein keindreeya mahatva hai. asam ke naaga aadivaasiyon ki naramundapraapti pratha bastar ke muriyon ki ghotul sanstha, toda samooh mein bahupatitv, koya samooh mein gobali ki pratha aadi ka un samoohon ki sanskruti mein bada hi mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. parantu ye sansthaaeain aur prathaaeain bhaarateeya samaaj ki pramukh pravruttiyon ke anukool naheen hain. aadivaasiyon ki sankalan-aakhetak-arthavyavastha tatha usase kuchh adhik viksit asthir aur sthir krushi ki arthavyavasthaaeain abhi bhi paranparaasveekrut pranaali dvaara laai jaati hain. parampara ka prabhaav unapar nae aarthik moolyon ke prabhaav ki apeksha adhik hai. dharm ke kshetr mein jeevavaad, jeevivaad, pitrupooja aadi hindu dharm ke sameep laakar bhi unhein bhinn rakhate hain.

aaj ke aadivaasi Bhaarat mein par-sanskruti-prabhaavon ki drushti se aadivaasiyon ke chaar pramukh varg deekh padte hain. pratham varg mein par-sanskruti-prabhaavaheen samooh hain, doosare mein par-sanskrutiyon dvaara alpaprabhaavit samooh, teesare mein par-sanskrutiyon dvaara prabhaavit, kintu svatantr saanskrutik astitvavaale samooh aur chauthe varg mein aise aadivaasi samooh aate hain jinhonne par-sanskrutiyon ka sveekaran is maatra mein kar liya hai ki ab ve keval naamamaatr ke liye aadivaasi rah gaye hain.

kamaar dampatti khet se lautate hue

Bhaarat ke pramukh aadivaasi samudaaya

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sansthaaeain

aadivaasi adhyayan

patrikaaeain

antarajaal evam dooradarshan