aadi-Dravid bhaasha

aadi-Dravid bhaasha (angreji: Proto-Dravidian language, proto-dravidiyn) dravidiyn bhaashaaon ka aadi roop tha.[1]

anukram

pariklpit bhaasha

paribhaasha ke anusaar aadi bhaashaaeain pariklpit bhaashaaeain hain, jinhein bhaashaavidon ke dvaara pun: nirmit kiya gaya hai aur iseeliye kisi bhi aadi bhaasha ke aitihaasik record upalabdh naheen hain. proto-dravidiyn ke maamale mein bhi kuchh aisa hi hai. Dravid bhaashaaon mein tulanaatmak bhaashaai shodh ki kami ke kaaran, proto-dravidiyn ke vyaakaran, yug, ya sthaan ke baare mein adhik vivran gyaat naheen hai.[2]

vibhedan

aisa maana jaata hai ki 500 isa poorv ke aas paas proto-uttari dravidiyn, proto-kendreeya dravidiyn aur proto-dakshini dravidiyn ke beech vibhedan hua. haalaanki kuchh bhaashaavidon ka tark hai ki iske up-vargon ke beech vibhedan ka ansh ek praarambhik vibhaajan ko ingit karta hai.[3] vid shabd vigyaan ka shabd kosh sabhi Dravid bhaashaaon ki ekamaatr pustak hai, ismein proto-dravidiyn shabdon ki ek soochi hai, jinke baare mein isse jyaada koi spashteekaran upalabdh naheen hai; isliye ek pratibhaashaali bhaashaavid ke liye proto-dravidiyn kaafi sambhaavnaaen prastut karti hai.

pun: nirmit bhaasha

yahaaain ham pun: nirmit proto-dravidiyn bhaasha ki sahaj visheshataaon ke baare mein charcha kareinge.

aitihaasik svar vigyaan

svar : proto dravidiyn mein paanch laghu aur paanch deergh svar hain: *a, , *i, , *u, , *e, , *o, . anukram *ai aur *au ko *ay aur *av (ya *aw) maana jaata hai.[4]

vyanjan : proto dravidiyn ko nimnalikhit vyanjanon ke saath punarnirmit kiya gaya hai (subrahmanyam 1983: p40, jvelebi 1990, krushnamoorti 2003):

oshth (Labial) dant (Dental) vatsarya (Alveolar) moordhanya

(Retroflex)

taaloo (Palatal) kanthya (Velar) svarayantramukhi (Glottal)
naasa (Nasal) *m *n *ṉ *ṇ *ṅ
plosiv (Plosive) *p *t *ṯ *ṭ *c *k
friketiv (Fricative) *ḻ (*ṛ, *r̤) (*h)
flep (Flap) *r
eproksimeint (Approximant) *v *l *ḷ *y

vatsarya band dhvani*ṯ kai putri bhaashaaon mein vatsarya tril ke roop mein viksit hota hai. /r/ band dhvani kota aur toda mein abhi bhi pai jaati hai (subrahmanyam 1983). malayalam mein aaj bhi mool (vatsarya) band dhvani doharaav mein pai jaati hai (aaibiaaidi). puraani tamil mein anya band dhvaniyon ki tarah spasht roop se uchchaaran kiya jaane wala svar hai. anya shabdon mein, *ṯ (ya *ṟ) bina spasht svar ke antim shabd ke roop mein viksit naheen hui (aaibiaaidi).

kanthya naasika *ṅ proto dravidiyn mein *k se pehle viksit hui. isliye ise aadya Dravid mein ek alag uchchaaran naheen maana jaata hai. haalaanki, mool anukram *ṅak se *ṅ ke saraleekaran ke kaaran malayalam, gondi, konda aur peingo bhaashaaon mein iske uchchaaran ki sthiti abhi bhi bani hui hai. (subrahmanyam 1983)

svarayantramukhi friketiv *h ko Bh. ke dvaara prastaavit kiya gaya hai. krushnamoorti puraani tamil aayatam (Āaaytam) aur anya dravidiyn tulanaatmak svaron ka lekhaajokha dete hue (krushnamoorti 2003).

janmabhoomi

saamaanya yug ki shuruaat ke baad se dravidiyn bhaashaaon ko mukhya roop se dakshini Bhaarat mein paaya gaya hai. atkalon ke anusaar dravidiyn bhaashaaon ka janm kumaari kandam naamak ek pauraanik mahaadveep mein hua, ya academic kshetr mein bade paimaane par maana jaata hai ki inka janm sindhu ghaati sabhyata mein hua tha. (haalaanki baloochistaan, Pakistan-jo kabhi sindhu ghaati ka hi ek hissa tha- mein boli jaane waali bhaasha braahui ke saath dravidiyn bhaashaaon ki samaanata ko spasht karna abhi baaki hai).

iraavaatham mahaadevan jinhein tamil aur sanskrut donon bhaashaaon ka gyaan hai, ne kai dashakon tak aaiveesi lipi par adhyayan kiya, unhonne 1998 mein ek saakshaatkaar mein kaha ki aaiveesi lipi ka arth ab tak spasht naheen hua hai. Michael vitjel ke anusaar, vedon ke praarambhik staron mein bhi jyaada dravidiyn shabd naheen hain, yahaaain tak ki aisa kaha ja sakta hai ki dravidiyn ka prabhaav rigved ke baad ki avadhi mein teji se badha. nibandh "sabsatret leingvejes in old indo-aaryan" mein profesar vitjel kehte hain, "kyonki ham praarambhik aaravi par dravidiyn prabhaav ko naheen pehchaan sakte hain, iska arth yeh hai ki kam se kam Punjab mein poorv-rigvedeeya sindhu sabhyata ki bhaasha (paira)-ostro-eshiyaatik prakruti ki thi.

nots

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  • krushnamoorti, bi, Dravid bhaashaaen, Cambridge university press, 2003. aaiesabeeen 0-521-77111-0
  • subrahmanyam, pi S, dravidiyn tulanaatmak svar vigyaan, annaamalaai vishvavidyaalaya, 1983.
  • jvelebil, kaamil., Dravid bhaashaavijnyaaan: ek parichay ", peeaaielasi (bhaashaavijnyaaan aur sanskruti ka paandicheri sansthaan), 1990
  • S senagupta eight al.: Bhaarat mein uchch rejolyooshan ke vaai gunasootr ke vitran ki poleriti aur asthaanikta deshi aur videshi donon prakaar ke vistaar ki pehchaan karti hai aur kendreeya Asiaee pestrolist par sookshm aanuvanshik prabhaav ko darshaati hai. hyooman jenetiks ki ameriki journal, 2006, pi. 202-221 [1]

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