aadhunikta

aadhunikta shabd aamtaur par uttar-paaramparik, uttar-madhyayugeen aitihaasik avadhi ko sandarbhit karta hai, jo saamantavaad (bhoo-vitranavaad) se poonjeevaad, audyogeekaran dharmanirpekshavaad, yuktikran, raashtra-raajya aur usaki ghatak sansthaaon tatha nigraani ke prakaaron ki or kadam badhaane se chihnit hota hai (baarkar 2005, 444). avadhaarana ke aadhaar par, aadhunikta ka sambandh aadhunik yug aur aadhunikta se hai, lekin yeh ek vishisht avadhaarana ka nirmaan karti hai. jabki inlaaitenameint, pashchimi darshan mein ek vishisht aandolan ki or ishaara karta hai, aadhunikta keval poonjeevaad ke udaya ke saath sambandhit saamaajik judaav ko sandarbhit karti hai. aadhunikta, bauddhik sanskruti ki pravruttiyon ko bhi sandarbhit kar sakti hai, vishesh roop se un aandolanon ko jo dharmanirpeksheekaran aur uttar-audyogik jeevan ke saath jude hue hain, jaise ki maarksavaad, astitvavaad aur saamaajik vigyaan ki aupachaarik sthaapana. is sandarbh mein, aadhunikta ko 1436-1789 ke saanskrutik aur bauddhik aandolanon ke saath joda gaya hai jiska vistaar 1970 ke dashak tak ya uske baad tak hua hai (taulmin 1992, 3-5)

anukram

sambandhit shabd

angreji shabd "modern" (aadhunik) (modo se bana laitin modarnas, "bas abhi") ka prayog 5 veen shataabdi se milta hai, jo mool roop se isaai yug ko butaparast yug se alag karne ke sandarbh mein hai, iske baavajood is shabd ka saamaanya upayog 17 veen shataabdi mein hi hona shuroo hua jo ki kvaaral of di enshiyent end di maudarns se vyutpann hua tha - jisme yeh bahas ki gayi thi ki: "kya aadhunik sanskruti shaastreeya (yoonaani-roman) sanskruti se behtar hai?" - aur yeh bahas 1690 ke dashak ke aarambh mein academy fraankais ke beech saahityik aur kalaatmak vivaad thi.

in prayogon ke anusaar, "aadhunikta" ka taatparya tha haal ke ateet ka tyaag karna, ek nai shuruaat ka paksh lena aur aitihaasik mool ki punarvyaakhya karna. iske alaava, "aadhunikta" aur "aadhunik" ke beech antar 19 veen sadi (2007 delaanti) tak naheen ubhara tha.

aadhunikta ke charan

maarshal barman ki ek pustak (barman 1983,[page needed]) ke anusaar aadhunikta ko teen paaramparik charanon mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai (jise Peter osaborn dvaara kramash: "aaranbhik", "shaastreeya," aur "uttar," kaha gaya hai (1992, 25):

  • aaranbhik aadhunikta: 1500-1789 (ya 1453-1789 paaramparik itihaas lekhan mein)
  • shaastreeya aadhunikta: 1789-1900 (hobsabaum yojana mein deergh 19 veen sadi (1789-1914) se sambandhit)
  • uttar aadhunikta: 1900-1989

lyotaard aur baudreelaard jaise lekhakon ka maanana ​a​ahai ki aadhunikta 20 veen sadi ke madhya athva uttaraardh mein samaapt ho gayi aur is prakaar aadhunikta ke baad ki avadhi ko uttar-aadhunikta (1930 ka dashak/1950 ka dashak/1990 ka dashak -vartamaan) varnit kiya gaya hai. anya siddhaantakaaron ne, baharahaal 20 veen sadi ke ant se lekar vartamaan samay ki avadhi ko aadhunikta ka hi ek anya charan maana hai; is charan ko bauman dvaara "taral" aadhunikta ya gideins dvaara "uchch" aadhunikta kaha jaata hai (dekhein: uttar-aadhunikta ka vivran).

aadhunikta ki paribhaasha

raajaneetik drushti se

raajaneetik roop se, aadhunikta ka aarambhik charan nikolo mekiyevili ki kruti ke saath shuroo hota hai jismein madhyayugeen aur arastoo shaili se raajaneeti ka vishleshan karne ko khule taur par khaarij kar diya gaya jo is baat par tulanaatmak vichaar karta hai ki cheejon ko kaise hona chaahiye aur iski bajaaye yathaarthavaadi vishleshan ka paksh liya gaya ki vaastav mein cheejein kis sthiti mein hain. unhonne yeh bhi prastaav kiya ki raajaneeti ka uddeshya hai apne maukon ya bhaagya ko niyantrit karna aur dooradarshita par bharosa karna vaastav mein buraai ki or le jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, mekiyevali ne tark diya hai ki raajaneetik samudaaya ke bheetar hinsak vibhaajan aparihaarya hain, lekin yeh shakti ka srot bhi ho sakta hai jis par kaanoon nirmaataaon aur netaaon ko bharosa karna chaahiye aur kuchh maayanon mein ise protsaahit tak karna chaahiye (straas 1987) .

mekiyevali ki sifaarishon ne kabhi-kabhi raajaaon aur raajakumaaron par apna prabhaav daala, lekin antat: ise raajatantr ke bajaaye svatantr ganaraajyon ka paksh lene ke roop mein dekha jaane laga.(Rahe 2006, p. 1) badle mein mekiyevali ne Francis bekan (Kennington 2004, chpt. 4), marchaamont needam (Rahe 2006, chpt. 1), heringtan, (Rahe 2006, chapt. 1), John miltan (Bock, Skinner & Viroli 1990, chapt. 11), David hyoom, (Rahe 2006, chapt. 4) aur kai anya ko prabhaavit kiya (straas 1958).

mahatvapoorn aadhunik raajaneetik siddhaant jo naveen mekiyeveli yathaarthavaad se utpann hue hain unamein shaamil hai meindevile ka prabhaavashaali prastaav ki "ek kushal raajaneta ke nipun prabandhan dvaara niji dhoortata ko naagrik laabh mein badla ja sakta hai" (unke febal of the beej ka antim vaakya) aur sarkaar mein "shakti ka samvaidhaanik vibhaajan", jise sarvapratham spasht roop se monteskyu dvaara prastaavit kiya gaya tha. in donon siddhaanton ko adhikaansh aadhunik lokatantr ke samvidhaan mein shaamil kiya gaya hai. yeh dekha gaya hai ki jabki mekiyevali ke yathaarthavaad ka moolya yuddh aur raajaneetik hinsa mein dekha gaya, uske sthaayi prabhaav ko "niyantrit" kiya gaya taaki upayogi sangharsh ko jaanaboojh kar jitna sambhav ho aupachaarik raajaneetik sangharsh mein parivrtit kiya jaae aur aarthik "sangharsh" ko mukt, niji udyamon ke beech protsaahit kiya jaae ( Rahe 2006, chapt. 5, mainsafild 1989).

Thomas hobs se shuroo karte hue, aise prayaas kiye gaye taaki bekan aur dekaart dvaara prastaavit aadhunik bhautik vigyaan ke tareekon ka upayog kiya ja sake aur jise maanavata aur raajaneeti par laagoo kiya ja sake (barns 1987). hobs ki kaaryapranaali drushtikon ke vikaas ke ullekhaneeya prayaas mein shaamil hain loke (Goldwin 1987), spinoja (Rosen 1987), giaamabatista viko (1984 xli) aur rooso (1997 bhaag 1). David hyoom ne pehli baar bekan ke vaigyaanik tareeke ko raajaneetik vishyon par laagoo karne ki koshish ki (hyoom 1896 [1739], parichay) aur is prayaas mein hobs ke drushtikon ke pahaluon mein se kuchh ko asveekaar kiya.

aadhuniktaavaadi ganatantravaad ne dach vidroh (1568-1609) (Bock, Skinner & Viroli 1990, chpt. 10,12), angreji gruh yuddh (1642-1651) (Rahe 2006, chpt. 1), ameriki kraanti (1775-1783) (Rahe 2006, chpt. 6-11) aur fraanseesi kraanti (1789 -1799) (Orwin & Tarcov 1997, chpt. 8) ke dauraan ganatantr ki sthaapana ko khule taur par prabhaavit kiya.

aadhuniktaavaadi raajaneetik soch ka ek doosra charan rooso se shuroo hota hai, jisne maanavata ki svaabhaavik vivekasheelata aur saamaajikta par prashn kiya aur prasthaapit kiya ki maanav prakruti ko pehle jitna lacheela samjha jaata tha vah usase adhik lacheela hai. is tark ke aadhaar par jo cheej ek achhi raajaneetik vyavastha ya ek achhe aadmi ka nirmaan karti hai vah poori tarah se us sanjog maarg par nirbhar hai jiska anugaman logon ne poore itihaas ke dauraan kiya hai. is vichaar ne imenual can't, edamand bark aur anya logon ki raajaneetik (aur saundarya) soch ko prabhaavit kiya aur isne aadhuniktaavaadi raajaneeti ki mahatvapoorn sameeksha ko prerit kiya. roodhivaadi paksh par, bark ne tark diya ki is samajh ne satarkata aur kraantikaari parivartan se bachaav ko protsaahit kiya. haalaanki is soch ne maanav sanskruti mein adhik mahatvaakaankshi aandolanon ko bhi prerit kiya, shuruaat mein svachhandataavaad aur itihaasavaad aur antat: kaarl maarks ke saamyavaad ko aur raashtravaad ke aadhunik roopon ko jo fraanseesi kraanti se prerit tha, jismein apne charam roop mein jarman naaji aandolan shaamil tha. (Orwin & Tarcov 1997, chpt. 4)

saamaajik drushti se

maiks vebar ke the protesteint ethik end the spirit of kaipitlijm ke mool jarman sanskaran ka aavaran

aadhunikta ki saamaajik samasyaaon ke seedhi pratikriya svaroop ubhare vishay samaajashaastr mein (hairis 2000, 325), yeh shabd aam taur par inlaaitenameint yug ke falasvaroop saamaajik sthiti, prakriyaaon aur upadeshon ko sandarbhit karta hai. sabse buniyaadi sandarbh mein, enthoni gideins aadhunikta ka varnan is roop mein karte hain

... aadhunik samaaj, ya audyogik sabhyata ke liye ek aashulipi shabd. adhik vistaar mein chitrit kiye jaane par, iska sambaddh (1) vishv ke prati ek khaas drushtikon se hai, aise vishv ka vichaar rakhana jo parivartan ke liye taiyaar hai, maanav hastakshep dvaara; (2) aarthik sansthaanon, vishesh roop se audyogik utpaadan aur ek baajaar arthavyavastha ka parisar; (3) raajaneetik sansthaaon ki ek nishchit shrrunkhala, jismein shaamil hai raashtra-raajya aur jan lokatantr. mote taur par in visheshataaon ke parinaam ke roop mein, aadhunikta kisi poorv saamaajik vyavastha ki tulana mein adhik gatisheel hai. yeh ek samaaj hai - adhik takaneeki roop se sansthaaon ka parisar hai - jo, kisi poorv sanskruti ke vipreet, ateet ke bajaaye bhavishya mein jeeta hai (gideins, 1998, 94).

aadhunikta "ek pragatisheel bal ki or nirdeshit hai jo maanav jaati ko ajnyaaanata aur tarkaheenata se mukt karaane ka vaada karti hai" (rojenaaoo 1992, 5). nai saamaajik aur daarshanik sharton ke saath, tathaapi, maulik nai chunautiyaan paida hui. aadhunikta ka yug saamaajik roop se audyogeekaran aur shram vibhaajan dvaara charitaarth hota hai aur daarshanik roop se "nishchitta ki haani aur yeh ehsaas ki nishchitta ko kabhi sthaapit naheen kiya ja sakta, kabhi bhi naheen" (delaanti 2007). nishchitta ki is haani ke kendra mein dharm ki haani hai. 19 veen sadi ke vibhinn buddhijeeviyon ne, jinmein shaamil hain ogast kaumte se lekar kaarl maarks aur sigmand fraayad ne dharmanirpeksheekaran ke maddenajr vaigyaanik aur/ya raajaneetik vichaaradhaaraaon ko pesh karne ki koshish ki. aadhunikta ko "vichaaradhaara ki umr" ke roop mein varnit kiya ja sakta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

For Marx, what was the basis of modernity was the emergence of capitalism and the revolutionary bourgeoisie, which led to an unprecedented expansion of productive forces and to the creation of the world market. Durkheim tackled modernity from a different angle by following the ideas of Saint-Simon about the industrial system. Although the starting point is the same as Marx, feudal society, Durkheim emphasizes far less the rising of the bourgeoisie as a new revolutionary class and very seldom refers to capitalism as the new mode of production implemented by it. The fundamental impulse to modernity is rather industrialism accompandied by the new scientific forces. In the work of Max Weber, modernity is closely associated with the processess of rationalization and disenchantment of the world. (Jorge Larraían 2000, 13)

thiyodor edorno aur jigmunt baaooman jaise siddhaantakaaron ne prastaavit kiya ki aadhunikta inlaaitenameint ke keindreeya tatvon se prasthaan ka pratinidhitv karti hai aur yeh alagaav bhaavana ki naapaak prakriyaaon, jaise ki vastu prem aur haulokaast ki or badhti hai (edorno 1973; baaooman 1989). samakaaleen mahatvapoorn siddhaant, vebar dvaara moolat: paribhaashit yuktikran ko tulana svaroop adhik nakaaraatmak shabdon mein prastut karte hain. yuktikran ki prakriyaaen - jaise ki vikaas ki khaatir vikaas - kai maamalon mein inka aadhunik samaaj par ek nakaaraatmak aur amaanaveeya prabhaav ho sakta hai.

aarthik vaishveekaran ke baare mein bahas ke parinaamasvaroop sabhyataaon ke tulanaatmak vishleshan aur "vaikalpik aadhuniktaaon" ka uttar upaniveshavaadi drushtikon, shmuel aaijnastaat ne "bahu aadhunikta" ki avadhaarana ko pesh kiya (2003; delaanti 2007 bhi dekhein). ek "bahuvachan sthiti" ke roop mein aadhunikta is saamaajik drushtikon aur pariprekshya ke kendra mein hai, jo vishesh roop se ek sarvadesheeya paribhaasha ke liye Europeeya pashchimi sanskruti ko ingit karti hai aur is prakaar "aadhunikta pashchimeekaran naheen hai aur iski pramukh prakriyaaen aur gatisheelata sabhi samaaj mein pai ja sakti hain (delaanti 2007).

vaigyaanik drushti se

14 veen sadi mein, koparniks, kepalar, gaileeliyo aur doosaron ne bhautiki aur khagolashaastr ke prati ek nai drushtikon viksit ki jisne logon ke sochane ke tareeke ko badla. koparniks ne saur pranaali ke nae model prastut kiye jo maanavata ke ghar pruthvi ko ab kendra mein naheen rakhate. kepalar ne bhautiki ki charcha karne ke liye ganit ka istemaal kiya aur prakruti ki niymittaaon ka is tarah varnan kiya. gaililiyo ne ganit ka prayog karte hue mukt giraav mein samaan tvaran ka saboot pesh kiya.(Kennington 2004, chpt. 1,4)

Francis bekan ne vishesh roop se apne novam orgenaam mein vigyaan ke prati nae prayogaatmak aadhaarit drushtikon ki maang ki, jisne aupachaarik ya antim kaaranon ke gyaan ki jarurat par jor naheen diya aur isliye bhautikvaadi tha, jo demokrits aur epikyuras ke praacheen darshan ki tarah tha. lekin usane ek vishay yeh bhi joda ki vigyaan ko maanavata ki khaatir prakruti ko niyantrit karne ki koshish karni chaahiye aur ise sirf samajhne ke liye naheen samjha jaana chaahiye. in donon baaton ke sandarbh mein vah mekiyevaali ki madhyayugeen shaastreeya roodhivaadita ki poorv ki aalochna se prabhaavit tha aur uske is prastaav se ki netaaon ko apne bhaagya ko khud niyantrit karna chaahiye (Kennington 2004, chpt. 1,4) .

gaileeliyo ki nai bhautiki aur bekan, donon se prabhaavit hote hue, rene dekaart ne sheegra hi tark diya ki ganit aur jyaamiti ne aisa model pradaan kiya hai ki vaigyaanik gyaan ko kaise chhote charanon mein banaaya ja sakta hai. unhonne khule taur par yeh bhi tark diya ki maanav ko swayam mein ek jatil machine ke roop mein samjha ja sakta hai(Kennington 2004, chpt. 6) .

aaijaik nyootan ne dekaart se prabhaavit hote hue aur bekan ki hi tarah prayogaatmak kadam ka chunaav karte hue theth udaaharan pradaan kiya ki kaise ek taraf kaateejiyn ganit, jyaamiti aur saiddhaantik nigman aur doosari taraf bekoniyaai prayogaatmak avlokan aur aagaman, ek saath milkar prakruti ki niymittaaon ki vaastavik samajh mein badi sahaayata kar sakte hain (di'aalembart 2009 [1751]; henari 2004).

kalaatmak drushti se

fraans mein aadhuniktaavaadi raajaneetik soch pehle se hi vyaapak roop se gyaat thi, rooso dvaara maanav prakruti ka pun: pareekshan karne ke parinaamasvaroop khud tark ke moolya par ek nae sire se aalochna shuroo ho gayi jisne badle mein kam buddhivaadi maanav gatividhiyon ki or prerit kiya, vishesh roop se kala ki or. iska praarambhik prabhaav 18 veen aur 19 veen sadi mein un aandolanon par pada jise ham jarman aadarshavaad aur svachhandataavaad ke roop mein jaante hain. aadhunik kala isliye aadhunikta ke baad ke charanon mein hi maani jaati hai. (Orwin & Tarcov 1997, chpt. 2,4)

is kaaran se kala ka itihaas, "aadhunikta" ko aadhunik yug aur aadhuniktaavaad shabd se alag kar ke dekhta hai - vah ise ek asatat "shabd ke roop mein dekhta hai jiska prayog us saanskrutik avastha ke liye kiya jaata hai jismein navaachaar ki prakat hone waali param aavashyakta jeevan, kaarya aur vichaaron ki ek praathamik shart ban jaati hai". aur kala mein aadhunikta "aadhunik hone ki avastha se kaheen adhik hai, ya puraane aur nae ke beech virodh se adhik hai" (smith 2009).

"the painter of modern life" (1864) nibandh mein Charles baudaleyar ek shaabdik paribhaasha dete hain: "aadhunikta se mera matlab hai kshanabhangur, bhagoda, aakasmik" (baudaleyar 1964, 13).

paribhaashit aadhunikta

samaajashaastr mein upalabdh vaichaarik paribhaashaaon mein se, aadhunikta ko "'saboot' drushya sanskruti aur vyaktigat drushyata ke joonoon dvaara chihnit" aur paribhaashit kiya gaya hai, (lepart 2004, 19). aam taur par, aadhunikta ka gathan karne vaale bade paimaane par saamaajik ekeekaran mein shaamil hai:

  • maal ki vardhit aavaajaahi, poonji, log aur poorv ki asatat aabaadi ke beech jaankaari aur falasvaroop sthaaneeya kshetr se pare prabhaav
  • chal aabaadi ke aupachaarik saamaajik sangathan ki vruddhi, "sarkit" ka vikaas jis par ve aur unka prabhaav chalte hain aur saamaajik maanakeekaran jo saamaajik-aarthik gatisheelata ke liye anukool hai
  • samaaj ke tabakon ki vardhit visheshajnyaata arthaat shram vibhaajan aur kshetron ki antar-nirbharata

inhein bhi dekhein

  • aadhunikeekaran
  • yuktisangat (samaajashaastr)
  • shahareekaran
  • audyogeekaran
  • jan samaaj
  • uttar-aadhunikta
  • haaipar-aadhunikta
  • traans aadhunikta
  • antim daur ka aadhuniktaavaad
  • doosari aadhunikta
  • islaam aur aadhunikta

sandarbh

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aage padhein

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