aadhunik kaal

hindi saahitya ka aadhunik kaal tatkaaleen raajanaitik gatividhiyon se prabhaavit hua. isko hindi saahitya ka sarvashreshth yug maana ja sakta hai, jismein padya ke saath-saath gadya, samaalochana, kahaani, naatak va patrakaarita ka bhi vikaas hua.

san 1800 vi. ke uparaant Bhaarat mein anek Europeeya jaatiyaan vyaapaar ke liye aain. unke sampark se yahaan paashchaatya sabhyata ka prabhaav padna praarambh hua. videshiyon ne yahaan ke deshi raajaaon ki paarasparik foot se laabh uthaakar apne pair jamaane mein safalta praapt ki. jiske parinaam-svaroop yahaan par british saamraajya ki sthaapana hui. angrejon ne yahaan apne shaasan kaarya ko suchaaru roop se chalaane evam apne dharm-prachaar ke liye jan-saadhaaran ki bhaasha ko apnaaya. is kaarya ke liye gadya hi adhik upayukt hoti hai. is kaaran aadhunik yug ki mukhya visheshata gadya ki pradhaanata rahi. is kaal mein hone vaale mudran kala ke aavishkaar ne bhaasha-vikaas mein mahaan yogadaan diya. svaami dayaanand ne bhi aarya samaaj ke granthon ki rachana raashtrabhaasha hindi mein ki aur angrej mishnariyon ne bhi apni prachaar pustakein hindi gadya mein hi chhapavaain. is tarah vibhinn maton ke prachaar kaarya se bhi hindi gadya ka samuchit vikaas hua.

is kaal mein raashtreeya bhaavana ka bhi vikaas hua. iske liye shrrungaari brajabhaasha ki apeksha khadi boli upayukt samajhi gayi. samay ki pragati ke saath gadya aur padya donon roopon mein khadi boli ka paryaapt vikaas hua. bhaarateindu babu harishchandr tatha babu ayodhya prasaad khatreene khadi boli ke donon roopon ko sudhaarane mein mahaan prayatn kiya. unhonne apni sarvatonmukhi pratibha dvaara hindi saahitya ki samyak sanvardhana ki.

is kaal ke aarambh mein raaja Lakshman Singh, bhaarateindu harishchandr, jagannaath das ratnaakar, shreedhar paathak, raamachandr shukl aadi ne brajabhaasha mein kaavya rachana ki. inke uparaant bhaarateindu ji ne gadya ka samuchit vikaas kiya aur aachaarya mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ne isi gadya ko praanjal roop pradaan kiya. iski satpreranaaon se anya lekhakon aur kaviyon ne bhi anek bhaanti ki kaavya rachana ki. inmein maithileesharan gupt, raamacharit upaadhyaaya, Nathuram sharma shankar, la. Bhagwan deen, Ramnaresh tripaathi, jayashankar prasaad, gopaal sharan Singh, maakhan laal chaturvedi, anoop sharma, Ramkumar varma, shyaam Narayan paandeya, dinkar, subhadra kumaari chauhaan, mahaadevi varma aadi ka naam vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai. Bhaarat ki svatantrata praapti ke prabhaav se hindi-kaavya mein bhi svachhand (atukaant) chhandon ka prachalan hua.

is kaal mein gadya-nibandh, naatak-upanyaas, kahaani, samaalochana, tulanaatmak aalochna, saahitya aadi sabhi roopon ka samuchit vikaas hua. is yug ke pramukh saahityakaar nimnalikhit hain-

samaalochak

aachaarya Dwivedi ji, padm Singh sharma, vishvanaath prasaad mishr, aachaarya raamachandr shukl, daaktar Ramkumar varma, shyaamasundar das, Dr raamaratan bhatanaagar aadi hain.

kahaani lekhak

premachand, vinod shankar vyaas, prasaad, pant, guleri, niraala, kaushik, sudarshan, jaineindr, hrudayesh aadi.

upanyaasakaar

premachand, prataapanaaraayan shreevaastav, prasaad, ugr, hrudayesh, jaineindr, bhagavateecharan varma, vrundaavan laal varma, gurudatt aadi.

naatakakaar

prasaad, seth govind das, govind vallabh pant, lakshmi Narayan mishr, udaya shankar bhatt, Ramkumar varma aadi hain.

nibandh lekhak

aachaarya Dwivedi, maadhav prasaad shukl, raamachandr shukl, babu shyaamasundar das, padm Singh, adhyaapak poornasinh aadi hain.

is yug ka kshetr atyadhik vistrut hone ke kaaran ise alag alag anek lekhon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai-

anukram

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain