aadhunik hindi padya ka itihaas

aadhunik kaal 1850 se hindi saahitya ke is yug ko mein Bhaarat mein raashtreeyata ke beej ankurit hone lage the. svatantrata sangraam lada aur jeeta gaya. chhaapekhaane ka aavishkaar hua, aavaagaman ke saadhan aam aadmi ke jeevan ka hissa bane, jan sanchaar ke vibhinn saadhanon ka vikaas hua, redio, ti vi va samaachaar patra har ghar ka hissa bane aur shiksha har vyakti ka maulik adhikaar. in sab paristhitiyon ka prabhaav hindi saahitya par anivaaryat: pada. aadhunik kaal ka hindi padya saahitya pichhli sadi mein vikaas ke anek padaavon se gujra. jismein anek vichaar dhaaraaon ka bahut teji se vikaas hua. jahaan kaavya mein ise chhaayaavaadi yug, pragativaadi yug, prayogavaadi yug,nayi kavita yug aur saathottari kavita in naamon se jaana gaya, chhaayaavaad se pehle ke padya ko bhaarateindu harishchandr yug aur mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi yug ke do aur yugon mein baanta gaya. iske vishesh kaaran bhi hain.

anukram

bhaarateindu harishchandr yug ki kavita (1850-1900)

isvi san 1850 se 1900 tak ki kavitaaon par bhaarateindu harishchandr ka gahra prabhaav pada hai. ve hi aadhunik hindi saahitya ke pitaamah hain. unhonne bhaasha ko ek chalta hua roop dene ki koshish ki. aapke kaavya-saahitya mein praacheen evam naveen ka mel lakshit hota hai. bhaktikaaleen, reetikaaleen paramparaaen aapke kaavya mein dekhi ja sakti hain to aadhunik nootan vichaar aur bhaav bhi aapki kavitaaon mein paae jaate hain. aapne bhakti-pradhaan, shrrungaar-pradhaan, desh-prem-pradhaan tatha saamaajik-samasya-pradhaan kavitaaen ki hain. aapne brajabhaasha se khadeeboli ki or hindi-kavita ko le jaane ka prayaas kiya. aapke yug mein anya kai mahaanubhaav aise hain jinhonne vividh prakaar hindi saahitya ko samrudhd kiya. is kaal ke pramukh kavi hain-

  • bhaartendu harishchandr
  • prataap Narayan mishr
  • badreenaaraayan chaudhari 'premaghan'
  • raadhaacharan Goswami
  • ambika datt vyaas

pan mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi yug ki kavita (1900-1920)

san 1900 ke baad do dashakon par pan mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ka poora prabhaav pada. is yug ko iseeliye Dwivedi-yug kehte hain. 'sarasvati' patrika ke sampaadak ke roop mein aap us samay poore hindi saahitya par chhaae rahe. aapki prerana se braj-bhaasha hindi kavita se hatati gayi aur khadi boli ne usaka sthaan le liya. bhaasha ko sthir, parishkrut evam vyaakaran-sammat banaane mein aapne bahut parishram kiya. kavita ki drushti se vah itivruttaatmak yug tha. aadarshavaad ka bolabaala raha. Bhaarat ka ujjval ateet, desh-bhakti, saamaajik sudhaar, svabhaasha-prem vagairah kavita ke mukhya vishay the. neetivaadi vichaaradhaara ke kaaran shrrungaar ka varnan maryaadit ho gaya. katha-kaavya ka vikaas is yug ki visheshata hai. bhaasha khuradari aur saral rahi. madhurata evam saralata ke gun abhi khadi-boli mein aa naheen paae the. sarvashri maithileesharan gupt, ayodhyaasinh upaadhyaaya 'hariaudh', shreedhar paathak, Ramnaresh tripaathi aadi is yug ke yashasvi kavi hain. jagannaathadaas 'ratnaakar' ne isi yug mein braj bhaasha mein saras rachanaaen prastut keen. is yug ke pramukh kavi-

  • ayodhya Singh upaadhyaaya 'hariaudh'
  • raamacharit upadhyaaya
  • jagannaath das ratnaakar
  • gaya prasaad shukl 'sanehi'
  • shreedhar paathak
  • Ram naresh tripaathi
  • maithileesharan gupt
  • lochan prasaad paandeya
  • siyaaraamasharan gupt

chhaayaavaadi yug ki kavita (1920-)

san 1920 ke aaspaas hindi mein kalpanaapoorn svachhand aur bhaavuk kavitaaon ki ek baadh I. yeh Europe ke romaantisijm se prabhaavit thi. bhaav, shaili, chhand, alankaar sab drushtiyon se ismein nayaapan tha. Bhaarat ki raajaneetik svatantrata ke baad lokapriya hui is kavita ko aalochakon ne chhaayaavaadi yug ka naam diya. chhaayaavaadi kaviyon ki us samay bhaari katu aalochna hui parantu aaj yeh nirvivaad tathya hai ki aadhunik hindi kavita ki sarvashreshth upalabdhi isi samay ke kaviyon dvaara hui. jayashankar prasaad, niraala, sumitraanandan pant, mahaadevi varma is yug ke pradhaan kavi hain.

uttar-chhaayaavaad yug-(1936-1943)

yeh kaal bhaarateeya raajaneeti mein bhaari uthal-puthal ka kaal raha hai. raashtreeya aur antarraashtreeya, kai vichaaradhaaraaon aur aandolanon ka prabhaav is kaal ki kavita par p dau॰ dviteeya vishvayuddh ke bhayaavah parinaamon ke prabhaav se bhi is kaal ki kavita bahut had tak prabhaavit hai. nishkarshat:raashtravaadi, Gandhivadi, viplavavaadi, pragativaadi, yathaarthavaadi, haalaavaadi aadi vividh prakaar ki kavitaayein is kaal mein likhi gayi. is kaal ke pramukh kavi hain--

  • maakhanalaal chaturvedi
  • baalakrushn sharma 'naveen'
  • subhadra kumaari chauhaan
  • raamadhaari Singh 'dinkar'
  • harivansh rai 'Bachchan'
  • bhagavateecharan varma
  • Narendra sharma
  • raameshvar shukl 'anchal'
  • shivmangal Singh 'suman'
  • naagaarjun
  • kedaaranaath Agrawal
  • trilochan
  • raangeyaraaghav

pragativaadi yug ki kavita (1936)

chhaayaavaadi kaavya buddhijeeviyon ke madhya hi raha. jan-jan ki vaani yeh naheen ban saka. saamaajik evam raajanaitik aandolanon ka seedha prabhaav is yug ki kavita par saamaanyat: naheen pada. sansaar mein samaajavaadi vichaaradhaara teji se fail rahi thi. sarvahaara varg ke shoshan ke virudhd janamat taiyaar hone laga. iski pratichhaaya hindi kavita par bhi padi aur hindi saahitya ke pragativaadi yug ka janm hua. 1930 ke baad ki hindi kavita aisi pragatisheel vichaaradhaara se prabhaavit hai. 1936 mein "pragatisheel lekhak sangh" ke gathan ke saath hindi saahitya mein maarksavaadi vichaaradhaara se prerit pragativaadi aandolan ki shuruaat hui .iska sabse adhik dooragaami prabhaav hindi aalochna par padau॰ maarksavaadi aalochakon ne hindi saahitya ke samooche itihaas ko varg-sangharsh ke dॄshtikon se punarmoolyaankan karne ka prayaas aarambh kiya. pragativaadi kaviyon me naagaarjun, kedaaranaath Agrawal aur trilochan ke saath nayi kavita ke kavi muktibodh aur shamasher ko bhi rakkha jaata hai.


prayogavaad-nayi kavita yug ki kavita (1943-1960)

doosare vishvayudhd ke pashchaat sansaar bhar mein ghor niraasha tatha avasaad ki lahar fail gayi. saahitya par bhi iska prabhaav pada. 'ajnyaeya' ke sanpaadan mein 1943 mein 'taar saptak' ka prakaashan hua. tab se hindi kavita mein prayogavaadi yug ka janm hua aisi maanyata hai. isi ka viksit roop nayi kavita kahalaata hai. durbodhata, niraasha, kuntha, vaiyaktikta, chhandaheenata ke aakshep is kavita par bhi kiye gaye hain. vaastav mein nayi kavita nayi ruchi ka pratibinb hai. is dhaara ke mukhya kavi hain-


is prakaar aadhunik hindi khadi boli kavita ne bhi alp samay mein upalabdhi ke uchch shikhar sar kiye hain. kya prabandh kaavya, kya muktak kaavya, donon mein hindi kavita ne sundar rachanaaen praapt ki hain. geeti-kaavya ke kshetr mein bhi kai sundar rachanaaen hindi ko mili hain. aakaar aur prakaar ka vaividhya barabas hamaara dhyaan aakarshit karta hai. sangeet-roopak, geet-naataya vagairah kshetron mein bhi prashansaneeya kaarya hua hai. kavita ke baahya evam antarang roopon mein yugaanuroop jo naye-naye prayog nitya-prati hote rahate hain, ve hindi kavita ki jeevani-shakti evam sfoorti ke parichaayak hain.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain