aadhunik bhautiki

19veen shataabdi mein bhautikvijnyaaani yeh vishvaas karte the ki naveen mahatvapoorn aavishkaaron ka yug praaya: samaapt ho chuka hai aur saiddhaantik roop se unka gyaan poornata ki seema par pahuainch gaya hai kintu naveen paramaanaveeya ghatnaaon ki vyaakhya karne ke liye puraane siddhaanton ka upayog kiya gaya, tab is dhaarana ko bada dhakka laga aur aasha ke vipreet falon ki praapti hui. jab maiks plaank ne tapt Krishna pindon ke vikirn ki pravruti ki vyaakhya chirsammat bhautiki ke aadhaar par karni chaahi, tab ve safal nahi hue. is gutthi ko sulajhaane ke liye unako yeh kalpana karni padi ki dravyakan prakaash-oorja ka utsarjan evam avashoshan avibhaajya ikaaiyon mein karte hain. yeh ikaai kvaantam kahalaati hai. chirsammat bhautiki ki ek anya vifalta prakaash-vaidyut prabhaav ki vyaakhya karte samay saamane I. is prabhaav mein prakaash ke kaaran dhaatuon se ilektraanon ka utsarjan hota hai. iski vyaakhya karne ke liye aainstaain ne plaank ki kalpana ka sahaara liya aur yeh pratipaadit kiya ki prakaash oorja kanikaaon ke roop mein sancharit hoti hai. in kanikaaon ko fotaun kaha jaata hai. yadi prakaash tarang ki aavruti v ho to usase sambaddh fotaun ki oorja E=hν hoti hai. h ko plaank sthiraank kehte hain

1905 i0 mein aainsteen ne vishisht aapekshikta naamak ek ati kraantikaari siddhaant ka pratipaadan kiya. iske anusaar shoonya mein prakaash ka veg sthiraank hai aur yeh kisi bhi veg ki charam seema hai. dravya ho athva oorja kisi ke liye bhi isse teevratar veg sambhav naheen. is siddhaant ke anusaar lanbaai tatha samay donon aapekshik hain. inki maatraaeain prekshak ki gati ki disha mein sikuda hua prateet hoga. yahaaain tak ki prakaashaveg se gati karne par dand ki lanbaai shoonya ho jaayagi. isi prakaar samay ka failaav hota hai evam prakaash ki gati se chalne par yeh failaav itna hoga ki pratyek kshan failakar aseemit ho jaaega, arthaat samay rook jaayaga. aainstaain ke siddhaant ka ek chamaatkaarik ang hain ki urja aur dravyamaan donon ka ek doosare mein parivartan sambhav hai. in donon ka sambandh sootr E = mc2 se darshaaya jaata hai. yahaaain E oorja hai, m dravyamaan aur c shoonya mein prakaash ka veg.

aaistaain ne vyaapak aapekshikta siddhaant ka bhi pratipaadan kiya. yeh siddhaant vaastav mein gurutvaakarshan ka siddhaant hai. iske dvaara nikaale gaye parinaam nyootan ke gurutvaakarshan siddhaant se praapt parinaam mein apekshit sudhaar prastut karte hain.

chirsammat bhautiki saamaanya sthitiyon se sambandh rakhata hai: prakaash ke veg ki apeksha bahut kam veg tatha paramaanuon ke aakaar se bahut bade aakaar (dooriyaaain). kintu aadhunik bhautiki ka sambandh bahut adhik veg tatha chhoti dooriyon se hai.

19veen shataabdi ka mool siddhaant daaltan ka paramaanuvaad tha. parmaanu dravya ke avibhaajya kan samajhe jaate the. inke dvaara gaison dravon evam thos padaartho ki sanrachana, raasaayanik abhikriyaaeain dravyon ke gun ityaadi ki vishd vyaakhya ki jaati thi. san 1867 mein je0 je0 taumasan ne lambi nali ko nirvaat kar usamein se teevr vibhvaantar par vidyutaddhaara pravaahit ki. is tarah unhonne parmaanu ke ek ghatak ilektraun, ka astitv siddh kiya aur spasht kiya ki pratyek ilektraun rin vidyut se aaveshit rahata hai aur uske aavesh aur dravyamaan sthir hote hain. jemaan ne paramaanuon ke spectrum ko chunbakeeya kshetr dvaara pravaahit hote dikhlaaya. is prakaar parmaanu ki vidyunmaya rachana ki pratishtha hui. parmaanu ka avibhaajyatv samaapt ho gaya aur vaigyaaniko ki drushti iske bheetar pahuainchi.

1911-13 i0 mein radaraford ne ailfa kanon ke prakeernan (scattering) dvaara yeh siddh kiya ki parmaanu ke bheetar sabhi dhan aavesh kendra se 10-12 seinmee0 doori ke bheetar ekatrit rahate hain. is keindreeya bhaag ko keindrak kehte hain. 1913 i0 mein neels bor ne chirsammat bhautiki ke siddhaanton ko chhodkar, kvaantam siddhaant par aadhaarit abhidhaaranaaon ka pratipaadan kiya aur parmaanu ki rachana evam prakaash ki utpatti ko samajhaaya. is kalpana ke anusaar haaidrojan ke kendra mein ek dhanaaaveshit kan rahata hai, jisko protraun kehte hain. iske chaaron or ek ilektraun chakkar kaatata rahata hai.

jaisa oopar bataaya ja chuka hai, aainstaain ne prakaash tarangon ke saath oorja kan, arthaat kvaantam, ko sambaddh kiya tha. kuchh prayog prakaash ke tarangavat hone ki tatha kuchh fotaanavat hone ki pushti karte the. prakaash ka yeh dvait vyavahaar bahut ulajhanapoorn tha. 1924 i0 mein prakruti ki samamiti ko aadhaar maankar Louis the braugli (Louis de Broglie) ne socha ki ho na ho prakaash ki hi tarah dravyakan bhi dvait vyavahaar karte hon. unhonne pratyek dravyakan se sabaddh ek tarang ki kalpana ki aur yeh siddh kiya ki is tarang ka tarangadaidhrya plaank sthiraank aur kan ke sanveg ke anupaat ke baraabar hota hai is kalpana ki praayogik pushti devisn (Davisson) aur garamar (Germer) ityaadi ne ki. shredingar (Schrodinger) ne 1926 i0 mein is vichaar ko sudrudh ganiteeya aadhaar pradaan kiya. iske siddhaant ko tarang yaantriki (wave mechanics) kehte hain. iske mool sameekaran mein ek raashi psaai jnya ka prayog hota hai maiks baurn ke anusaar psaai se kisi sthaan par kan upasthiti ki sambhaavana nikaali ja sakti hai. chirsammat bhautiki mein saiddhaantik roop se kisi pind aur gati ko nishchayaatmak roop se vyakt kiya ja sakta tha. uske anusaar yadi kisi pind ki praarabhik sthiti tatha usaka veg gyaat ho, to us gati aur sthaan ka har samay ke liye poora vishleshan sambhav hai. aadhunik bhautiki ke anusaar niyam nishchayaatmak naheen hote, vah keval sanbhaavanaaeain vyakt karte hain. is sambandh mein haaijenaverkh (Heisenberg) ne anishchitta ka siddhaant pratipaadit kiya hai. is siddhaant ke anusaar sanveg aur sthiti, donon ek saath bilkul theek theek naheen naape ja sakte. yadi kisi ek samay mein ek ko yathaarth parishuddhata se maapa jaaya, to doosari raashi ekdam anishchit hogi. donon raashiyon ki anishchittaaon ki maatraaon ka gunanafal kam se kam plaank sthiraank ke baraabar hoga.

isi se sambaddh bor ka poorak niyam hai, jiske anusaar dravya ka kanaatmak aur tarangavat vyavahaar ek doosare ka virodhi naheen, balki poorak hai. kisi bhi prayog dvaara ye donon vyavahaar ek naheen darshaae ja sakte. ye donon roop ek sikke ke do pahaloo ke samaan hain, jo ek saath naheen dekhe ja sakte.

1896 i0 mein henari baikarel ne dekha ki Uranium se kuchh adrushya kirnein niklati hain, jo fotograafik plate par apna prabhaav daalati hain. sheegra hi pro॰ kyoori tatha shreemati kyoori ne kuchh anya tatvon rediym, poloniym aadi, ki khoj ki, jinse is prakaar ki adrushya kirnon ka teevr utsarjan hota hai. is gun ka naam rediyoaiktivta ya rediyodharmita diya gaya. prayog karne par gyaat hua ki ye kirnein teen prakaar ki hoti hain, jinhein alfa, beeta aur gaama kiran kaha jaata hai. rediyoaiktiv tatv ka taap evam daab kam, adhik karne se usaki anya bhautik avastha mein parivartan kar dene se usaka kisi anya tatv ke saath raasaayanik sanyog karne se, ya chunbakeeya kshetr aadi lagaane se tatv ki rediyoaiktivta ki teevrata par koi asar naheen padta. isse yeh nishkarsh niklata hai ki rediyoaiktivta nyookliys ka gun hai aur iska ilektraun vinyaas se koi sambandh naheen hai.

san 1932 mein nyootraun ki khoj ki gayi jo protraun se kuchh bhaari aur ek anaaveshit mool kan hai. ab yeh maana jaata hai ki nyookliys ke bheetar nyootraun tatha protraun dono hote hain. halke tatvon mein nyootraun tatha protronon ka anupaat aadhe ka hota hai aur bhaari tatvon ke nyookliys mein nyootraunon ki sankhya protaunon ki sankhya se jyaada hoti hai. chooainki parmaanu mein upasthit ilektraunon ki sankhya ke baraabar hoti hai. parmaanu ki gati ka adhyayan kar yeh siddh kiya ki ek hi tatv ke paramaanuon ke dravyamaan bhi ek doosare se bhinnata rakh sakte hain. in vibhinn dravyamaanon ke paramaanuon ko samasthaanik (Isotope) kaha jaata hai ailfa rediyoaiktivta mein nyookliys se aayanit hiliym parmaanu ka utasarjan hota hai. ismein do protaun aur do nyootraun hote hain aur iske ailfa kan kehte hai. nyookliys mein jab ek nyootraun protraun mein, ya ek protraun nyootraun mein, roopaantarit hota hai, to ek ilektraun (ya paujitraun) aur ek nyootrino ki utpatti hoti hai. yahi beeta rediyoaiktivta kahalaati hai. nyootrino ek anaaveshit evam ilektraun se bhi kaafi halka (lagbhag shoonya dravamaan ka) mool kan hai, jo bahut samay tak vaigyaaniko ke prekshan se bacha raha. iska pata sarvapratham 1953 i0 mein laga. nyookliys ki uttejit avastha mein jab parivartan hota hai, to gaama kirnein niklati hain, jo eksakirn ke samaan par unase adhik oorjaavali, vidyuchchunbakeeya tarangein hain. aaveshit kanon ki oorja badhaane ke liye vaijnyaaaniko ne yantron ka nirmaan kiya, jo tvarak (accelerator) kahalaate hain. adhik oorja vaale in kanon ki sahaayata se nyookleeya abhikriyaaon ka aur mool kanon ki utpatti evam unke gunadharmo ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. kuchh pramukh tvarak saaiklotraun, beetaatraun tatha sinkotraun hain.

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke pehle vaigyaaniko ne pata chalaaya ki kuchh bhaari nyookliyso (Uranium aadi) par nyootraunon ki bauchhaar karne se, nyukliys do halake nyookliyson mein toot jaata hai aur atyadhik maatra mein oorja utpann hoti hain. Uranium ke vikhandan (fission) ki aniyantrit shrunkhalaabaddh abhikriya (uncontrolled chain reaction) ka upayog parmaanu bam banaane mein kiya gaya 1950 i0 ke baad taap nyookleeya abhikriya (thermo-nuclear reaction) ka pata laga, jismein aur bhi adhik maatra mein oorja utpann hoti hai. is abhikriya mein halake nyookliyson ka ek bhaari nyookliys mein sanlayan (fusion) kiya jaata hai. vaigyaaniko ka anumaan hai ki soorya evam anya taaron ki oorja ka strot yeh abhikriya hai.

parmaanu oorja ke vikaasakram ko rachanaatmak dishaaon ki or modne ke prayatn mein riaiktar ka nirmaan hua, jismein vikhandan ki shrrukhanlaabaddh abhikriya ko niyantrit kar oorja utpann ki jaati hai. riaiktar ki madad se samasthaanik utpaadit kiye jaate hain, jinka rogachikitsa, krushi, vanaspati vigyaan aur puraattatv anusandhaan mein tatha anurekhak (tracer) ke roop mein bahut adhik prayog kiya jaata hai.

nyookleeya bhautiki ke adhyayan ke saath kausmik kirnon ka adhyayan bhi juda hua hai. praathamik kausmik kirnon ka adhiktar bhaag bahut adhik oorjaavaale protraun hote hain. iske atirikt kuchh ailfa kan bhi vidyamaan rahate hain. antariksh se aakar ye protaun pruthvi ke vaayumandal mein vibhinn gaison ke nyookliyson se takaraate hain aur falasvaroop anya aaveshit kan tatha atyadhik oorjaavaali gaama kirnein utpann hoti hai, jinhein dviteeyak kausmik kirnein kaha jaata hain kausmik kirnon ke udgam ke baare mein vaigyaaniko mein matabhed hain, par inke adhyayan se kai mool kanon ka pata chala hai, jinka prakruti ke rahasyon ke udghaatan mein kaafi yogadaan raha hai. mool kanon mein kuchh kan hain paujeetraun (jo dhan aaveshit ilektraun hai) tatha myooon jo rin athva dhan aaveshit hote hain aur ilektraun se 207 guna bhaari hote hain. pai mesaan, jo ilektraun se 273 guna bhaari hote hain, rin aaveshit, dhanaaveshit evam anaaveshit teen prakaar ke hote hain. myooon tatha paaimesaan asthaayi mool kan hain.

yeh ullekhaneeya hai ki prakruti ne poori srushti ki rachana kul teen mool kanon prautraun nyootraun aur ilektraun ko lekar ki hai. anya mool kanon ka sthaayi dravya ki rachana mein kya yogadaan hai, yeh abhi gyaat naheen. vaigyaaniko ka mat hai ki dravyon ki sabhi gyaat paarasparik kriyaaon, arthaat pindon mein laganevaale sabhi prakaarake balon, ki vyaakhya mool roop se keval chaar anyonya kriyaaon (interactions) dvaara ki ja sakti hai inke bhaag hain :

1. gurutveeya anyonya kriya,

2. vidyuchunbakeeya anyonya kriya,

3. prabal anyonya kriya, tatha

4. durbal anyonya kriya.