aadarasoochak

aadarasoochak (honorific) aisa shabd ya vaakyaansh hota hai jo kisi ke liye prayog karne se uske liye ijjt ya sammaan ki bhaavana prakat karta hai. hindi, urdoo, punjabi aur anya hind-aarya bhaashaaon ke 'ji' ('maulavi ji'), 'saahab' ('Doctor saahab') aur 'jaan' ('bhaai jaan') shabd iske udaaharan hain. kabhi-kabhi yeh shabd sammaanit vastuon ke liye bhi prayog hote hain, masalan sikh saangat ko saamoohik roop se 'khaalasa ji' aur lanka ke desh ko 'Sri Lanka' kaha jaata hai. kuchh aadarasoochak poore naam ke sthaan par prayog kiye jaate hain. udaaharan ke liye 'haaain, shukl ji' ke sthaan par 'ji haaain, saahab' ya keval 'ji, saahab' ya 'haaain ji' kaha ja sakta hai.[1]

anukram

vibhinn bhaashaaon aur sanskrutiyon ke aadarasoochak

uttar bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein

  • hindi mein shri/shreemaan (purushon ke liye), shreemati (vivaahit striyon ke liye) va kumaari (avivaahit mahilaaon aur ladkiyon ke liye) naam ke aage lagaaye jaate hain. iske alaava 'jaan' ('ammi jaan'), 'pandit' ('pandit neharu'), 'mahaashaya', 'janaab', 'hujoor' aur 'jajamaan' jaise kai anya aadarasoochak bhi hindi-urdoo mein prayog hote hain.
  • urdoo va kuchh anya uttar bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein mein striyon ko khaatoon kaha jaata hai, masalan 'habba khaatoon' ek prasiddh Kashmiri kavayitri theen. Kashmiri mein 'mahaaraaja' ko chhota karke 'maahara' aur 'hajrat' ko chhota karke 'haj' ke roopon mein bhi prathaapoorvak purushon ke liye prayog kiya jaata tha haalaanki yeh parampara ab kamzor ho rahi hai.[2]
  • urdoo mein 'aadar' ko 'ehataraam' bhi kehte hain aur purushon ko aadar dikhne ke liye unke naam ke aage 'mohataram' shabd lagaaya jaata hai. isi tarah striyon ke liye 'mohatarama' hota hai, masalan 'mohatarama benajeer bhutto'.
  • gujaraati mein 'bhaai' (purushon ke liye) aur 'ben' ('bahan' ka ek roop, striyon ke liye) lagaane ki pratha hai, masalan 'sakeena ben' aur 'gopaal bhaai'.
  • maraathi mein striyon ke naam ke peechhe 'baai' lagaane ki pratha hai, masalan Jhansi ki raani maraatha-mool ki theen aur unhein 'lakshmeebaai' kehte the. dakshini hindi kshetron mein bhi yeh pratha hai. purushon ke naam ke peechhe 'Rao' (uchchaaran 'raao' jaisa) lagaaya jaata hai, udahaaran ke liye 'maadhav Rao'.
  • bangaali va poorvi hindi kshetron mein purushon ke naam ke peechhe 'babu' lagte hain, masalan 'subhaash babu'. aur bhi aadar jatalaane ke liye 'mohaashoya' ('mahaashaya' ka roop) ya usaka chhota shabd 'moshaaya' lagaaya jaata hai jis se kisi aadaraneeya purush ko 'babu moshaaya' kaha jaata hai.

dakshin bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein

  • tamil mein purushon ke liye 'tiru' aur shaadeeshuda auraton ke liye 'tirumati' prayog hote hain. yeh 'shri' va 'shreemati' ke tamil roop hain. aksar naam ke peechhe ijjt darshaane ke liye 'aavargal' ya 'vaal' shabd lagte hain, masalan 'dalaai laama aavargal'.
  • kannad mein naam ke peechhe 'avaaru' lagaaya jaata hai. masalan 'vishveshvaraiyyaah' ko 'vishveshvaraiyyaah avaaru' kaha jaata hai.
  • telugu mein purushon ke naam ke peechhe 'gaaroo' lagte hain, masalan 'shreeraamulu' naam ko ijjtapoorvak shaili mein 'shreeraamulu gaaroo' kaha jaata hai.

angreji mein

angreji ke sabse aam aadarasoochak naamon se pehle daale jaate hain: purushon ke liye 'mistar' (Mr.), shaadeeshuda striyon ke liye 'misij' (Mrs.) aur kuvaaainri striyon va ladkiyon ke liye 'miss' (Miss). vartamaanakaal mein 'misij' aur 'miss' shabdon ke sthaan par sabhi mahilaaon aur ladkiyon ko 'mij' (Ms.) kehna adhik susanskaarit maana jaata hai. pichhle jmaane mein purushon ke naam ke peechhe 'eskvaayar' (Esq.) lagaane ki pratha thi.

kisi desh ya raajya ke raaja-raani ko 'yor maijesti' (Your Majesty) aur shaahi parivaar se samabandhit logon ko 'yor haaines' (Your Highness) bulaana paaramparik hai. dalaai laama jais maanya dhaarmik netaaon-guruon ko 'yor holeenes' (Your Holiness) aur adaalaton mein nyaayaadheeshon ko 'yor onar' (Your Honor) kaha jaata hai.

hindi ki tarah 'haaain saahab' jaisa 'yes sar' (Yes Sir, purushon ke liye), 'yes maim' ya 'yes maidam' (Yes Ma'am ya Yes Madam, striyon ke liye) aur 'yes miss' (Yes Miss, bachchiyon aur yuvatiyon ke liye) bhi angreji mein upalabdh hain.

faarasi mein

Iran ki faarasi bhaasha mein purushon ko 'aaga' aur striyon ko 'khaanum' kehne ki pratha hai. inmein bindu-vaale 'kh' ke uchchaaran aur bindu-vaale 'g' ke uchchaaran par dhyaan dein kyonki yeh bindu-rahit 'kh' aur 'g' se jra alag hain aur 'khraab' aur 'greeb' ke pehle aksharon jaise uchchaarit kiye jaate hain. yeh aadarasoochak aksar anya upaadhiyon se pehle bhi lagaaye jaate hain, masalan kisi mahila Doctor ko 'khaanum Doctor' bulaaya ja sakta hai. 'aaga' shabd usi 'aaka' ka Irani roop hai jiska arth 'maalik' ya 'svaami' hota hai aur lokakatha mein chiraag ke jinn dvaara apne maalik ke liye prayog hota hai.[3]

speni mein

speni mein bahut se aadarasoochak prayog hote hain:

  • 'senyor' (señaaor) purushon ke liye, 'senyora' (señaaora) mahilaaon ke liye aur 'senyoreeta' (señaaorita) ladkiyon ke liye aam hain.
  • purushon ke liye 'kaabaayero' (caballero) ka prayog 'mahaashaya' ke baraabar hai.
  • adhyaapakon, kala-nipun logon aur bahut shikshit logon ko 'maaestro' (maestro) kehte hain. injineer, nirmaanashaastr ya kisi vyaavasaayik hunar mein maahir vyakti ko aksar lisenasiyaado (licenciado) kaha jaata hai.
  • dakshin America mein badi umr ke purush ko 'don' (don) aur stri ko 'donya' (doñaa) kehne ki pratha hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Indian English, Pingali Sailaja, pp. 87, Edinburgh University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-7486-2595-6, ... an honorific suffix -ji, from Hindi, or its equivalent in other languages, is used. This is transferred to Indian English as well, as in, Doctor-ji said that he would be fine ...
  2. Kashmir and Its People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society, M. K. Kaw, pp. 315, APH Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-81-7648-537-1, ... The honorific terms maahraa. haz, jinaab, and sAA are very frequently used as terms of address ...
  3. Law of Desire: Temporary Marriage in Shii'i Iran, Shahla Haeri, pp. 223, Syracuse University Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8156-2483-7, ... Khanum means 'lady' or 'Mrs.' ...