aachaarya hajaari prasaad Dwivedi

hajaari prasaad Dwivedi
chitr:Hazari Prasad Dwivedi.JPG
janm: 19 August 1907
dube-ka-chhapra gram baliya Bhaarat
mrutyu: 1979
Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: lekhak, aalochak, praadhyaapak
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: upanyaas

hajaari prasaad Dwivedi (19 August 1907 - 19 May 1979) hindi ke maulik nibndhakaar, utkrusht samaalochak evam saanskrutik vichaaradhaara ke pramukh upanyaasakaar the.

anukram

jeevan parichay

aachaarya hajaari prasaad Dwivedi ka janm 19 August 1907 mein baliya jile ke 'dube-ka-chhapra' naamak gram mein hua tha. unka parivaar jyotish vidya ke liye prasiddh tha. unke pita pan॰ anmol Dwivedi sanskrut ke prakaand pandit the. Dwivedi ji ki praarambhik shiksha gaanv ke school mein hi hui aur vaheen se unhonne middle ki pareeksha paas ki. iske pashchaat unhonne intar ki pareeksha aur jyotish vishay lekar aachaarya ki pareeksha utteern ki. shiksha praapti ke pashchaat Dwivedi ji shaanti niketan chale gaye aur kai varshon tak vahaan hindi vibhaag mein kaarya karte rahe. shaanti-niketan mein raveendranaath thaakur tatha aachaarya kshitimohan sen ke prabhaav se saahitya ka gahan adhyayan aur usaki rachana praarambh ki.

Dwivedi ji ka vyaktitv bada prabhaavashaali aur unka svabhaav bada saral aur udaar tha. ve hindi, angreji, sanskrut aur baangla bhaashaaon ke vidvaan the. bhaktikaaleen saahitya ka unhein achha gyaan tha. Lucknow vishvavidyaalaya ne unhein di.lit. ki upaadhi dekar unka vishesh sammaan kiya tha.

rachanaaen

Dwivedi ji ki pramukh rachanaaeain nin‍aam hain-

aalochna/saahit‍aayetihaas

  • soor saahit‍aaya (1936)
  • hin‍aadi saahit‍aaya ki bhoomika (1940)
  • praacheen Bhaarat mein kalaatmak vinod (1940)
  • kabeer (1942)
  • naath sanpradaaya (1950)
  • hin‍aadi saahit‍aaya ka aadikaal (1952)
  • aadhunik hin‍aadi saahit‍aaya par vichaar (1949)
  • saahit‍aaya ka marm (1949)
  • meghadoot: ek puraani kahaani (1957)
  • laalit‍aaya meemaansa (1962)
  • saahit‍aaya sahachar (1965)
  • kaalidaas ki laalit‍aaya yojana (1967)
  • madh‍aayakaaleen bodh ka s‍aavaroop (1970)
  • aalok parv (1971)

nibandh sangrah

  • ashok ke fool (1948)
  • kal‍aapalata (1951)
  • vichaar aur vitrk (1954)
  • vichaar pravaah (1959)
  • kutaj (1964)
  • aalok parv (1972)

upan‍aayaas

  • baanabhatt ki aat‍aamakatha (1947)
  • chaaru chandralekh(1963)
  • punarnava(1973)
  • anaamadaas ka potha(1976)

an‍aaya

  • sankship‍aat pruth‍aaveeraaj raaso (1957)
  • sandesh raasak (1960)
  • mrut‍aayunjaya raveen‍aadr (1970)
  • mahaapurushon ka s‍aamaran (1977)

varnya vishay

Dwivedi ji ke nibandhon ke vishay bhaarateeya sanskruti, itihaas, jyotish, saahitya vividh dharmon aur sanpradaayon ka vivechan aadi hai. vargeekaran ki drushti se Dwivedi ji ke nibandh do bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiye ja sakte hain - vichaaraatmak aur aalochanaatmak. vichaaraatmak nibandhon ki do shreniyaan hain. pratham shreni ke nibandhon mein daarshanik tatvon ki pradhaanata rahati hai. dviteeya shreni ke nibandh saamaajik jeevan sambandhi hote hain. aalochanaatmak nibandh bhi do shreniyon mein baantein ja sakte hain. pratham shreni mein aise nibandh hain jinmein saahitya ke vibhinn angon ka shaastreeya drushti se vivechan kiya gaya hai aur dviteeya shreni mein ve nibandh aate hain jinmein saahityakaaron ki krutiyon par aalochanaatmak drushti se vichaar hua hai. Dwivedi ji ke in nibandhon mein vichaaron ki gahanata, nireekshan ki naveenata aur vishleshan ki sookshmata rahati hai.

bhaasha

Dwivedi ji ki bhaasha parimaarjit khadi boli hai. unhonne bhaav aur vishay ke anusaar bhaasha ka chayanit prayog kiya hai. unki bhaasha ke do roop dikhlaai padte hain - (1) praaainjal vyaavahaarik bhaasha, (2) sanskrutanishth shaastreeya bhaasha. pratham roop Dwivedi ji ke saamaanya nibandhon mein milta hai. is prakaar ki bhaasha mein urdoo aur angreji ke shabdon ka bhi samaavesh hua hai. dviteeya shaili upanyaason aur saiddhaantik aalochna ke kram mein parilkshit hoti hai. Dwivedi ji ki vishay pratipaadan ki shaili adhyaapakeeya hai. shaastreeya bhaasha rachane ke dauraan bhi pravaah khandit naheen hota.

shaili

Dwivedi ji ki rachanaaon mein unki shaili ke nimnalikhit roop milte hain -

(1) gaveshanaatmak shaili Dwivedi ji ke vichaaraatmak tatha aalochanaatmak nibandh is shaili mein likhe gaye hain. yeh shaili Dwivedi ji ki pratinidhi shaili hai. is shaili ki bhaasha sanskrut pradhaan aur adhik praanjal hai. vaakya kuchh bade-bade hain. is shaili ka ek udaaharan dekhiye - lok aur shaastr ka samanvaya, graahasth aur vairaagya ka samanvaya, bhakti aur gyaan ka samanvaya, bhaasha aur sanskruti ka samanvaya,nirgun aur sagun ka samanvaya, katha aur tatv gyaan ka samanvaya, braahman aur chaandaal ka samanvaya, paanditya aur apaanditya ka samanvaya, raamacharit maanas shuroo se aakhir tak samanvaya ka kaavya hai.

(2) varnanaatmak shaili Dwivedi ji ki varnanaatmak shaili atyant svaabhaavik evam rochak hai. is shaili mein hindi ke shabdon ki pradhaanata hai, saath hi sanskrut ke tatsam aur urdoo ke prachalit shabdon ka bhi prayog hua hai. vaakya apekshaakrut bade hain.

(3) vyangyaatmak shaili Dwivedi ji ke nibandhon mein vyangyaatmak shaili ka bahut hi safal aur sundar prayog hua hai. is shaili mein bhaasha chalti hui tatha urdoo, faarasi aadi ke shabdon ka prayog milta hai.

(4) vyaas shaili Dwivedi ji ne jahaan apne vishay ko vistaarapoorvak samajhaaya hai, vahaan unhonne vyaas shaili ko apnaaya hai. is shaili ke antargat ve vishay ka pratipaadan vyaakhyaatmak dhang se karte hain aur ant mein usaka saar de dete hain.

mahatvapoorn kaarya

Dwivedi ji ka hindi nibandh aur aalochanaatmak kshetr mein mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. ve uchch koti ke nibandhakaar aur safal aalochak hain. unhonne soor, kabeer, tulasi aadi par jo vidvattaapoorn aalochanaaen likhi hain, ve hindi mein pehle naheen likhi gain. unka nibandh-saahitya hindi ki sthaai nidhi hai. unki samast krutiyon par unke gahan vichaaron aur maulik chintan ki chhaap hai. vishv-bhaarati aadi ke dvaara Dwivedi ji ne sanpaadan ke kshetr mein paryaapt safalta praapt ki hai.

maanavataavaad aur Dwivedi ji

aachaarya Dwivedi ji ke saahitya mein maanavata ka parisheelan sarvatr dikhaai deta hai. unke nibandh tatha upanyaason mein yeh drushti vishesh roop se prateet hoti hai.

sammaan

hajaari prasaad Dwivedi ko saahitya evam shiksha ke kshetr mein san 1957 mein padm bhooshan se sammaanit kiya gaya.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaan

sandarbh