aachaarya

praacheen kaal mein aachaarya ek shiksha sambandhi pad tha. upanayan sanskaar ke samay baalak ka abhibhaavak usako aachaarya ke paas le jaata tha. vidya ke kshetr mein aachaarya ke paas bina vidya, shreshthata aur safalta ki praapti naheen hoti (aachaaryaaddhi vidya vihita saadhishthan praapayateeti.-chhaandogya 4-9-3). uchch koti ke pradhyaapakon mein aachaarya, guru evam upaadhyaaya hote the, jinmein aachaarya ka sthaan sarvottam tha. manusmruti (2-141) ke anusaar upaadhyaaya vah hota tha jo ved ka koi bhaag athva vedaang (shiksha, kalp, vyaakaran, nirukt, chhand tatha jyotish) vidyaarthi ko apni jeevika ke liye shulk lekar padhaata tha. guru athva aachaarya vidyaarthi ka sanskaar karke usako apne paas rakhata tha tatha uske sampoorn shikshan aur yogakshem ki vyavastha karta tha (manu: 2-140). 'aachaarya' shabd ke arth aur yogyata par savistaar vichaar kiya gaya hai. nirukt (1-4) ke anusaar usako aachaarya isliye kehte hain ki vah vidyaarthi se aachaarashaastron ke arth tatha buddhi ka aachayan (grahan) karaata hai. aapastanb dharmasootr (1.1.1.4) ke anusaar usako aachaarya isliye kaha jaata hai ki vidyaarthi usase dharm ka aachayan karta hai. aachaarya ka chunaav bade mahatva ka hota tha. 'vah andhakaar se ghor andhakaar mein pravesh karta hai jiska apanayan avidvaan‌ karta hai. isliye kuleen, vidyaasanpann tatha samyak‌ prakaar se santulit buddhivaale vyakti ko aachaarya pad ke liye chunana chaahiye.' (aap.dh.soo. 1.1.1.11-13). yam (veeramitrodaya, bhaag 1, pru. 408) ne aachaarya ki yogyata nimnalikhit prakaar se batalaai hai : 'satyavaak‌, dhrutimaan‌, daksh, sarvabhootadayaapar, aastik, vedanirt tatha shuchiyukt, vedaadhyayanasanpann, vruttimaan‌, vijiteindriya, daksh, utsaahi, yathaavrutt, jeevamaatr se sneh rakhanevaala aadi' aachaarya kahalaata hai. aachaarya aadar tatha shraddha ka paatr tha. shvetaashvataropanishd (6-23) mein kaha gaya hai : jiski ishvar mein param bhakti hai, jaise ishvar mein vaise hi guru mein, kyonki inki krupa se hi arthon ka prakaash hota hai. shareerik janm denevaale pita se bauddhik evam aadhyaatmik janm denevaale aachaarya ka sthaan bahut ooaincha hai (manusmruti 2. 146).

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  • aachaarya (bahuviklpi)

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