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a devanaagari lipi ka pehla varn tatha sanskrut, hindi, maraathi, nepaali aadi bhaashaaon ki varnamaala ka pehla akshar evam dhvani hai. yeh ek svar hai. yeh kanthya varn hai.. iska uchchaaran sthaan kanth hai. iski dhvani ko bhaashaavijnyaaan mein shva kaha jaata hai.

yeh sanskrut tatha Bhaarat ki samast praadeshik bhaashaaon ki varnamaala ka pratham akshar hai. ibraali bhaasha ka 'alef', yoonaani ka 'alfa' aur laatini, itaaleeya tatha angreji ka A (A) iske samakaksh hain.

aksharon mein yeh sabse shreshth maana jaata hain. upanishdon mein iski badi mahima likhi hai. tantrashaastr ke anusaar yeh varnamaala ka pehla akshar isaliye hai kyonki yeh srushti utpann karne ke pehle srushtivrt ki aakul avastha ko soochit karta hai.[1]

shreemadbhagvadgeeta mein Krishna swayam ko aksharon mein akaar kehte hain- 'aksharaanaamakaarosmi'.

uchchaaran

paanini ke anusaar iska uchchaaran kanth se hota hai. uchchaaran ke anusaar sanskrut mein iske athaarah bhed hain:-

  • (1) saanunaasik :
hrasv udaatt anudaatt svarit
deergh udaatt anudaatt svarit
plut udaatt anudaatt svarit
  • (2) nirnunaasik :
hrasv udaatt anudaatt svarit
deergh udaatt anudaatt svarit
plut udaatt anudaatt svarit

hindi tatha anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein a ke praaya do hi uchchaaran hrasv tatha deergh hote hain. keval parvateeya pradeshon mein, jahaaain door se logon ko bulaana ya sambodhan karna hota hai, plut ka prayog hota hai. in uchchaaranon ko kramash a, a2 aur a3 se vyakt kiya ja sakta hai. deergh karne ke liye a ke aage ek khadi rekha jod dete hain jisse usaka aakaar aa ho jaata hai. sanskrut tatha usase sambaddh sabhi bhaashaaon ke vyanjan mein a samaahit hota hai aur usaki sahaayata se hi unka poorn uchchaaran hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, k= k+ a; kh= kh+ a, aadi. vaastav mein sabhi vyanjanon ko vyakt karne vaale aksharon ki rachana mein a prastut rahata hai. a ka prateek khadi rekha (.) hai jo vyanjan ke dakshin, madhya ya oopari bhaag mein vartamaan rahati hai, jaise k mein madhya mein hai; kh, g, gh mein dakshin bhaag mein tatha ङ , chh , t aadi mein oopari bhaag mein hai.

a svar ki rachana ke baare mein varnoddhaaratantr mein ullekh hai. ek maatra se ho rekhaaeain milti hain. ek rekha dakshin or se ghoomkar oopar sankuchit ho jaati hai; doosari baain or se aakar daahini or hoti hui maatra se mil jaati hai. iska aakaar praaya is prakaar sangathit ho sakta hai.

chauthi shati E. poo. ki braahmi se lekar naveen shati E. ko devanaagari tak iske bahut se roop milte hain.

arth evam prayog

'a' ka prayog avyaya ke roop mein bhi hota hai. tatpurush samaas mein nakaar ka lop hokar keval akaar rah jaata hai; arini ko chhodkar svar ke poorv a ka an ho jaata hai. tatpurush mein a ka prayog nimnalikhit chhah vibhinn arthon mein hota hai

(1) saadrushya- abraahman. iska arth hai braahman ko chhodkar uske sadrush doosra varn, (kshatriya, vaishya aadi).

(2) abhaav- apaap. paap ka abhaav.

(3) anyatv- aghat. ghat chhodkar doosra padaarth, pat, peeth aadi.

(4) alpata- anudari. chhote petavaali.

(5) apraashastya- akaal. bura kaal, viptkaal aadi.

(6) virodh- asur. sur ka virodhi, raakshas aadi.

isi tarah a ka prayog sambodhan (a!), vismaya (a:), adhikshep (tirskaar) aadi mein hota hai.

tatsaadrushyamabhaavashch tadanyatvan tadalpata.
apraashastyan virodhashch narnyathaaa shat prakeertita..

a (punling, sanjnyaa) arth mein vishnu ke liye prayukt hota hai. kaheen-kaheen akaar se brahma ka bhi bodh hota hai. tantrashaastr ke anusaar a mein brahma, vishnu aur Shiv tatha unki shaktiyaaain vartamaan hain. tantr mein a ke paryaaya srushti, shreekanth, megh, keerti, nivrutti, brahma, vaamaadyaj, saarasvat, amrut, har, narakaati, lalaat, ekamaatrik, kanth braahman, vaageesh tatha pranavaadi bhi paae jaate hain. pranav ke (a+ u+ m) teen aksharon mein a pratham hai. yog saadhana mein pranav (aae3m) aur visheshat: uske pratham akshar a ka vishesh mahatva hai. chitt ekaagr karne ke liye pehle poore o3m ka uchchaaran na kar uske beejaakshar a ka hi jap kiya jaata hai. aisa vishvaas kiya jaata hai ki iske jap se shareer ke bheetari tatv kaf, vaayu, pitt, rakt tatha shukr shuddh ho jaate hain aur isse samaadhi ki poornaavastha ki praapti hoti hai.

sandarbh