William vardsvarth

William vardsvrth (7 April,1770-23 April 1850) ek pramukh romachak kavi the aur unhone semyul telar kolarij ki sahaayata se aङareji sahitya me sayukt prakaashan geetaatmak gathaageet ke saath romanchak yug k aarambh kiya. vardsvarth ki prasidh rachana 'the prelyud' he jo ki ek ardh-aatm charitaatmak kavit maana jaata hai. vardsvarth 1843 se 1850 me apni mrityu tak Britain ke mahaakavi the.[1]

praarambhik jeevan

John vardsavarth aur ain kooksan ke 5 bachcho me se doosare, William vardsvarth ka janm 7 April 1770 ko kaukaramaauth, kanbaralaind, England ke uttar pashchim kshetr me hua tha. unke pita James lauthar, arl of lonsdel ke kaanooni pratinidhi the aur apne sampark se chhote sheher ke baङae makaan mein rahte the. unki mrutyu 1783 mein hui thi. vardsavarth ke pita aksar vyaapaar ke sambandh mein ghar se baahar rehte the, haalaanki use padhane ke liye protsaahit karte the aur vishesh roop se miltan, sheksapiyr aur speinsar dvaara rachit kavita pratibdh, iske atirikt use apne pita ke pustakaalaya ka upayog karne ke liye anumati di gayi thi. unke chaar bhaai-bahan the. dorothi vardsavarth, jisse vein sabse zyaada kareeb the, vah ek kaveetri thi. richrd, sabse jyeshth, vakeel the, John alॆ aafai ऎbaragevani jahaaj ke kaptaan the aur Christopher, Cambridge ke triniti college ka master tha. unki maaain ke mrutyu ke baad, 1778 mein, unke pita ne unhe hauksheed graamar skoollan, kaashaayar (ab kambreeya me) aur dorothi ko yaurkashaayar mein rishtedaaron ke saath rahane bhej diya tha. vah aur vardsavarth 9 saalon tak ek doosare se naheen mil paae. kaukaramaauth mein kam gunavatta ke ek chhote se vidyaalaya mein padhane ke baad, haukasheed shiksha saath vardsavarth ka pehla gambhir anubhav tha. kaukaramaauth vidyaalaya ke pashchaat, unhe painarith mein uchch shreni ke parivaaron ke bachchon ke liye banaae gaye vidyaalaya bheja gaya tha. vardsavarth nein ek lekhak ke roop mein apni shuruaat 1787 mein kiya jab Europeeya patrika mein unki kavita prakaashit hui. usi varsh vah seint jauns college, Cambridge jaane lage aur 1791 mein unhein bee॰ae॰ ki degree praapt hui. pehle do saal ki garmiyon ki chhuttiyon ke liye vein haukasheed laut aate the aur aksar apne paridrushya ki sundarata ke liye prasiddh sthaanon par jaakar, paryatan chalakar apni chhuttiyaan bitaate the. 1790 mein, unhone Europe ki ek paidal yaatra kiya, fir vistrut roop mein aalps ki yaatra ki, France, Switzerland aur Italy ke aaspaas ke ilaakon ki yaatra ki.[2]

pehla prakaashan aur geetaatmak gaathaageet

san 1793 mein vardsavarth dvaara likhi gayi kavita sangrah 'N ivningan vakai' aur 'diskriptiv skechas' pehli baar prakaashit hui. 1795 mein resli kailavatॆ se unhe 900 viraasat mein mila taaki vein lekhak banane ka lakshya poora kar sakein. us varsh, samaraset mein unki mulaakaat saimyul Taylor kaularij se hui.. vein dono jaldi ek kareebi dost ban gaye. 1797 mein vardsavarth aur unki bahan dorothi bas kuchh hi meal door neeche ka stovi mein kolerij ke ghar se, alfoksatan house, samaraset mein sthaanaantaran kiya. saath mein, vardsavarth aur (dorothi se antardrushti ke saath) kolerij geetaatmak gaathaageet (1798), angreji premapoorn aandolan mein ek mahatvapoorn kaam ka utpaadan kiya. vardsavarth ke sabse prasiddh kavitaaon mein se ek, "tintॆn ebyaya ", aur kaulerij ki "raaim aafai enshiyant merinr prakaashit hui. geetaatmak gaathaageet ke liye is prastaavana premapoorn saahityik siddhaant ka ek keindreeya kaam maana jaata hai. ise mein, vardsavarth vah kavita ke ek nae prakaar ke tatvon, "asli mard ki bhaasha" aur jyaada athaaraveen sadi ki kavita ka kaavya shaili ka prayog na karne ki charcha karatein hain. is kavita mein, vardsavarth ne 'kavita' ki apni prasiddh paribhaasha diya hai "shaktishaali bhaavanaaon ki sahaj atipravaah: yeh shaanti mein yaad aaya bhaavana se apne mool leta hai." geetaatmak gaathaageet ki ek chauthi aur antim sanskaran 1805 mein prakaashit hui thi.[3]

saahityik sammaan

vardsavarth ko 1838 mein, daraham vishvavidyaalaya se civil law ki degree praapt hui aur agle saal Oxford vishvavidyaalaya se bhi vahi sammaan praapt hui. san 1842 mein sarkaar ne unhe 300 ki raashi ke naagrik suchi penshan se sammaanit kiya tha. 1843 mein, Robert saudi ke mrutyu ke baad, vein raaj-kavi ban gaye. praarambhik roop se unhone yeh sammaan lene se inkaar kar diya, yeh keh ke ki vein bahut budhe hai, lekin pradhaanamantri Robert peel ke aashvaasan dene par unhone sammaan svikaar kar liya.

mrutyu

William vardsavarth ki mrutyu 23 April 1850 mein, parifuffusashoth ke gambheer hone se hui thi aur unhein gresmer ke seint osavaald church mein dafnaaya gaya tha. unki mrutyu ke kai maheenau baad, unki patni mairi ne unke dvaara likhi gayi aatm-kathaatmak kavita ' the prelyud' prakaashit kiya. 1850 mein yeh kavita ruchi jagaane mein vifal raha, haalaanki ab yeh kavita unki sarvotkrusht rachana maani jaati hain.[4]

pramukh rachanaaeain

  • saaiman li
  • vi aar sevan
  • laains ritn in arli sprigan
  • laains kmposd a fyoo maails abav tintarn aibe
  • geetaatmak gaathaageet ki prastaavana
  • od too duty (1807)
  • the solitri reepar
  • landan 1802
  • the world ij too mach vit as
  • maai heart leeps ap
  • daifodils (I vaandard lonali aij a chaaild)
  • the prelyood
  • gaaid too the leks (1810)

anukram

sandarbh