William blek

William Blake

William Blake in an 1807 portrait by Thomas Phillips.
janm 28 November 1757
London, England
mrutyu 12 August 1827(1827-08-12) (umr 69)
London, England
vyavasaaya Poet, Painter, Printmaker, copy editing
shaili Visionary, Poetry
saahityik aandolan Romanticism
ullekhaneeya kaarya Songs of Innocence and of Experience, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, The Four Zoas, Jerusalem, Milton a Poem

William blek (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) ek angrej kavi, chitrakaar tatha print rachayita the. apne jeevanakaal mein unhein khyaati naheen mili, kintu ab unhein romaintik yug ki kavita aur chaakshush kalaaon ke kshetr ki ek mahaan aaranbhik hasti ke roop mein maana jaata hai. unke bhavishyadarshi kaavya ke baare mein kaha gaya hai ki vah “aangreji bhaasha ka aisa kaavya hai jise usaki khoobiyon ke anupaat se kam padha gaya”.[1] unki chaakshush kalaatmakata ko lekar ek samakaaleen kala sameekshak ko yeh ghoshit karna pada ki “adoor-door tak Britain ne aisa mahaanatam kalaakaar kabhi utpann naheen kiyaa”.[2] haalaanki ve London mein rahate the, teen varsh ki avadhi ko chhodkar unka saara jeevan felafaim mein beeta[3] unhonne ek vividhtaapoorn aur prateekaatmak roop se samruddh saahitya ki rachana ki jisne “aishvar ki kaayaa”,[4] athva “asvayan maanaveeya astitva” ki kalpana ko angeekaar kiya.[5]

apne samakaaleenon dvaara, svabhaavagat vichitrataaon ke kaaran sanaki ke roop mein maane jaane vaale blek ko baad ke sameekshakon ne unki abhivyanjakata tatha rachanaadharmita ke kaaran aur unki rachanaaon ki daarshanik tatha rahasyavaadi antardhaara ke kaaran uchch sammaan diya. 18veen shataabdi mein vyaapak upasthiti ke kaaran unke chitr aur kaavya ko romaintik aandolan tatha “poorv-romaintikvaada”[6] ka hissa maana gaya. baaibal ke prashansak lekin England ke church ke virodhi, blek French aur American aadarshon aur kraantiyon dvaara prabhaavit the[7] saath hi unapar Jacob baum (Jakob Böahme) imainuel svidenabarg (Emanuel Swedenborg) jaise vichaarakon ka bhi prabhaav pada.[8]

in gyaat prabhaavon ke baavajood blek ke krutitv ki ekalata ke kaaran unhein kisi varg mein rakhana kathin ho jaata hai. 19veen shataabdi ke vidvaan William rojetti (William Rossetti) ne blek ko “agloriys lyuminri arthaat tejasvi prakaashapunja”[9] tatha “aek aisa vyakti jo na apne poorvavartiyon dvaara nivaarit kiya gaya, na hi apne samakaaleenon ke saath vargeekrut kiya gaya aur na hi jiska apne baad ke gyaat athva sahaj hi anumeya rachanaakaaron dvaara sthaan liya gaya” ke roop mein chitrit kiya.[10]

itihaasakaar Peter maarshal ne blek ko unke samakaaleen William gaudavin ke saath aadhunik araajakataavaad ke agradooton mein se ek kaha.[11]

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

rachayita ka aadyaroop blek ke kaam mein ek parichit chhavi hai. yahaaain, demeeyoorajik aakruti urijen duniya ke aage praarthana karta hai, jahaaain usane jaali kaam kiye hain. the song of los, blek aur unki patni dvaara chitrit illyuminetid books (illuminated books) ki shrrunkhala mein teesara hai, jise saamoohik roop se konteeneintal profiseej kaha jaata hai.

William blek ka janm 28 November 1757 ko London, England, mein 28 braudastreet ke ek madhyavargi parivaar mein hua tha. ve saat bachchon mein teesare the[12][13] jinmein se do ki shishu- avastha mein hi maut ho gayi thi. blek ke pita James ek[13]hojiyr the. William ne schooli shiksha naheen pai thi aur unhein ghar par hi unki maan Cathrine right aarmitej blek dvaara shikshit kiya gaya tha.[14] blek parivaar deseintar (bhinnamataavalanbi/raajadharm virodhi) tha aur maana jaata hai ki unka sambandh moraiviyn church se tha. blek ke jeevan par baaibal ka praarambhik aur gahra asar pada tatha yeh unke sampoorn jeevanakaal mein prerana ka srot bana raha.

blek ne apne pita dvaara khareed kar laae gaye yoonaani puraavastuon ke chitron ki pratiyon ka ankan shuroo kiya jo ek aisa kaam tha jise un dinon vaastavik chitrakaari ki tulana mein adhik pasand kiya jaata tha. in chitron mein blek ne raafel, maaikalaenjelo, maarten heemsakark (Marten Heemskerk) tatha albraikht dyoorar (Albrecht Düarer) ki krutiyon ke jariye pehli baar klaasikl kalaaroopon ka parichay paaya. unke maata-pita unke hathi svaabhaav ko achhi tarah jaante the, isliye school bhejane ke bajaae unhein chitrakala ki kakshaaon mein daakhil karaaya gaya. unhonne atyant utkanthaapoorvak apne pasand ke vishyon ka adhyayan kiya. is avadhi ke dauraan, blek kavita ke kshetr mein bhi anveshan kar rahe the; unke praarambhik kaarya ben Johnson tatha edamand spenasar ki jaankaari darshaate hain.

baisaayar ke saath apreintisship

4 August 1772 ko blek, 7 varshon ke liye nakkaash jaims baisaayar of great queen street (engraver James Basire of Great Queen Stree) ke apreintis ban gaye.[13] is avadhi ke aakhir mein 21 saal ki umr mein ve ek vyaavasaayik nakkaash ban gaye. blek ke apreintisship ke dauraan donon ke beech kisi prakaar ka gambhir matabhed tatha jhagade ka vivran maujood naheen hai. haalaanki Peter ekroyd (Peter Ackroyd) dvaara likhi jeevani mein yeh likha gaya hai ki blek ko baad mein baisaayar ke naam ko kala virodhiyon ki soochi mein shaamil karna pada- aur fir ise kaat dena pada.[15] iske alaava nakkaashi karne ki baisaayar ki shaili us samay puraane fashion ka maana gaya[16] tatha aur is fashion viheen roop mein blek ka nirdesh uske dvaara kaam paane mein athva baad ke jeevan mein pehchaan paane mein nukasaanadeh saabit hua hota.

do saal baad baisaayar ne apne apreintis ko London ke gothik church se chitron ki nakal banaane ke liye bheja (sambhav hai ki yeh kaam blek tatha unke sahayogi apreintis jaims paarkar ke beech jhagade ko khatm karne ke liye kiya gaya ho) aur vestaminstar aibe mein unke anubhavon ke kaaran unki apni kala-shaili tatha unke apne vichaaron ka nirmaan hua; unke samay mein aibe ko kavach vaale sooton, range hue antyeshti ki moortiyon se chitrit kiya gaya tha aur kai rangon ke mom ki krutiyon se alankrut kiya gaya tha. ekrauyad likhte hain ki “asarvaadhik taatkaalik [chhaap] dhundhali chamak aur rang vaale ho gaye hote".[17] dopahar ke baad ki lambi avadhi mein, blek aibe mein rekhaachitr banaaya karte the, kabhi-kabhi vestaminstar school ke ladke unke kaam mein baadha daalte the, ek dopahar ko ek ne blek ko itna sataaya ki blek ne us ladke ko dhakka dekar manch se neeche jameen par gira diya, “ajahaan ki vah bhayaanak chot ke saath gira”.[18] blek ne aibe mein aur bhi drushya dekhe, sanyaasiyon aur paadariyon ka ek bada juloos, jab unhonne “saade geet aur christmas geeton ke gaayana” sune.

royal ekedami

8 October 1779 ko blek straind ke paas old saumaraset house ki royal ekedami ke chhaatr ban gaye.s jabki unke adhyayan ki sharton ke anusaar unhein bhugataan naheen karna tha, par unase ummeed ki gayi ki ve apni saamagriyon ki chhah saal ki avadhi ke dauraan khud aapoorti karein. vahaan, unhonne us baat ke khilaaf vidroh kar diya, jise vah roobeins (Rubens) jaise faishanebal kalaakaaron, jinki school ke pehle adhyaksh joshuaa renaulds (Joshua Reynolds) dvaara himaayat ki gayi thi, ki adhoori shaili ke roop mein maanate the. samay ke saath blek ko kala ke prati renauld ka najariya aruchikr lagne laga, khaaskar “ajenaral trutha” (saamaanya satya) tatha “ajenaral byootee” (saamaanya saundarya) ke prati usaki lalak. renaulds ne apne diskaursej mein likha ki “aamoortan, saamaanyeekaran tatha vargeekaran ke prati jhukaav, maanav mastishk ka vishesh vaibhav hai”; blek ne apni niji prati ki paarshv tippani mein is prakaar pratikriya di, ki “asaamaanyeekaran karna bevakoofi hai”; vishishteekrut karna pratibha ka ikalauta vaishishtya hai".[19] blek, renaulds ki prakat vinmrata ko bhi naapasand karte the jise ve paakhand maanate the. renaulds ke faishanebal tailachitron ke viruddh blek unke aaranbhik prabhaavon, maaikalaenjelo tatha raafel, ki kalaasikl sateekata ko pasand kiya.

David bindmain (David Bindman) ne sujhaav diya ki blek ka renaulds ke prati virodh ka kaaran adhyaksh ki rai utani naheen thi (blek ki tarah renaulds ne bhi itihaas ke chitraankan ko bhoodrushyon tatha vyakti chitron ke banispat jyaada mahatva diya) jitna ki “aunake vichaaron ko kaaryaroop mein parint naheen karne ke paakhand ke prati unki khilaafata”.[20]nishchit roop se blek royal ekedami mein pradarshani ke liye anichhuk naheen the, jismein unhonne 1780 tatha 1880 ke beech 6 avsaron par krutiyon ko jama kiya.

gaurdan rauyats

blek ke pratham jeevaneekaar elekjaindar Gilchrist (Alexander Gilchrist) ne yeh vivran diya hai ki 1780 mein blek, baisaayar ki dookaan ki or great queen street par ja rahe the, jab ve ek ugr bheed ki chapet mein aa gaye jisne London ke nyooget jail ko tod daala.[21] unhonne jail ke darvaajon par faavadon aur kulhaadiyon se hamla kiya, bhavan mein aag laga di aur andar band kaidiyon ko chhuda liya. is hamle ke dauraan afavaah udi ki blek bheed mein sabse aage the. ye hamle roman kaitholijm ke khilaaf pratibandh lagaane vaale parliament ke ek bill ke virodh mein hue the, jise baad mein gaurdan rauyats ke naam se jaana gaya. unhonne George III ki sarkaar ke kaanoonon tatha pratham police bal ke gathan ke khilaaf vidroh ko hava di.

Gilchrist ke is baat par jor dene ke baavajood, ki blek ko balapoorvak bheed mein shaamil kiya gaya tha, kuchh jeevani lekhakon ne yeh daleel di hai ki unhonne bheed ka anusaran aaveg poorvak kiya, athva ek kraantikaari kaarya ke roop mein iska samarthan kiya.[22] doosari or jerom maikagan (Jerome McGann) yeh kehte hain ki balave pratikriyaavaadi the aur un ghatnaaon ne blek ke man mein “aghrunaa” bhar di hongi.[23]

vivaah tatha praarambhik career

nrutya karti hui pariyon ke saath oberon, titeniya aur pak (1786)

varsh 1782 mein blek John flaiksamain (John Flaxman) se mile, jo unke sanrakshak bane aur Cathrine bauuchar, jo unki patni bani. us samay blek us sanbadh se Uber rahe the, jo shaadi mein parint naheen ho saka. unhonne apne dil tootane ki kahaani Cathrine aur unke maata-pita ko sunaai, iske baad unhonne Cathrine se poochha, “akya tum mujhe dukhi karogi?” jab unhonne nishchayaatmak roop mein javaab diya to blek ne ghoshana ki, “amain tumhein pyaar karta hoon." blek ne Cathrine se 18 August 1782 ko, baitarasi ke seint mairi church mein shaadi kar li, jo unase 5 saal chhoti theen. shikshit Cathrine ne apne vivaah samjhaute par 'ex' ('X') ke saath hastaakshar kiya. mool vivaah pramaan patra ko abhi bhi church mein dekha ja sakta hai, jahaan ek yaadagaar rangeen-kaanch ko 1976 se 1982 ke beech sthaapit kiya tha.[24] baad mein Cathrine ko likhna-padhna sikhaane ke alaava, blek ne unhein ek nakkaash ke roop mein prashikshit kiya. jeevan bhar unke liye Cathrine bahumoolya varadaan saabit huin, jinhonne unki prasiddh krutiyon ko print karne aur kai museebaton mein unke utsaah ko banaae rakhane mein madad ki.

is samay George kambaralaind (George Cumberland), jo national gailari ke sansthaapakon mein se ek the bkel ki krutiyon ke prashansak bane. blek ki kavitaaon ka pehla sangrah poetikl skechij varsh 1783 mein prakaashit hua.[25] apne pita ki mrutyu ke baad William aur unke bhaai Robert ne 1784 mein ek print ki dookaan khol li aur kraantikaari prakaashak jausef jaunsan ke saath kaam karna shuru kiya. jaunsan ka ghar us samay ke bhinnamaton vaale kuchh agrani angrej buddhijeeviyon: brahmavidya ke vidvaan aur vaigyaanik Joseph pristle, daarshanik richrd price, kalaakaar John henari fyuseli,[26] aaranbhik naareevaadi mairi vulastanakraaft (Mary Wollstonecraft) aur ameriki kraantikaari Thomas pen ka milan sthal tha. William vardsavarth aur William gaudavin ke saath-saath blek ko French aur ameriki kraantiyon se badi ummeedein thi aur ve French kraantikaariyon ke saath apni ekajutata pradarshit karne ke liye freejiyn kaip pahanate the, lekin raubaspiyr tatha France mein aatank ke shaasan ki utpatti ke kaaran niraash hue. 1784 mein blek ne apni adhoori paandulipi N aaileind in the moon ki rachana ki.

blek ne mairi vulastanakraaft rachit orijinl storeej fraum rial life (1788;1791) ko chitrit kiya. laingik samaanata aur vivaah sanstha par donon ke vichaar saajhe lagte hain, lekin is baat ka koi pramaan naheen milta hai ki donon ki vaastav mein bheint hui thi. 1793 ke vijns of the dautars of elbiyaun mein blek ne aaropit yaun shuchita aur bina prem ke vivaah ki kroor visangati ki ninda ki aur aatmasantushti ko poorn karne ke striyon ke adhikaar ka paksh liya.

rileef eching

1788 mein, 31 varsh ki umr mein, blek ne rileef eching ke saath prayog karna aarambh kiya, jo aisi vidhi thi jiska prayog ve apne adhiktar kitaabon, chitron, parchon aur, beshak, apni kavitaaon jinmein unki lambi 'fraufeseej' aur unki sarvashreshth rachana the "baaibal" shaamil thi, ke nirmaan mein kiya. is prakriya ko ilyumineted printing ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai aur isse nirmit rachanaaon ko ilyumineted kitaab athva prints kaha gaya. ilyumineted printing mein shaamil hai kavitaaon ke shabdon ko taanbe ki pattikaaon par kalam athva brash ki madad se likhna, jismein amlarodhi maadhyam ka prayog kiya jaata tha. chitran pehle ki chitrit paandulipiyon ki tarah shabdon ke saath-saath dikhaai padte the. tab ve taanbe ki pattiyon ko aml mein nikshaarate the taaki anupachaarit taanba ghul jaae aur rileef mein dijaayan chhap jaae (isliye iska naam pada).

yeh eching (nikshaaran) ki saamaanya vidhi ke vipreet hoti hai, jahaan dijaayan ki panktiyon ko aml ke sampark mein rakha jaata hai aur pattika ko intaigliyo vidhi dvaara print kiya jaata tha. rileef eching (jise blek ne the gost og aibel mein "steeriyotaaip" kaha hai) ka uddeshya unki sachitr pustakon ko intaigliyo ki tulana mein aur adhik teevr gati se taiyaar karna tha. steeriyotaaip prakriya ka aavishkaar 1725 mein kiya gaya tha, jismein ek kaashth nakkaashi se ek dhaatui Caste ka nirmaan shaamil tha, par blek ke aavishkaar ko, jaisa ki oopar bataaya gaya hai, kaafi alag maana gaya. in pattiyon se print kiye prushthon ko tab jalarang dvaara haath se ranga jaata tha aur vaulyoom banaane ke liye unhein aapas mein natthi kar di jaati thi. blek ne ilyumineted printing ka prayog apni adhikaansh suprasiddh rachanaaon ke liye kiya hai, jinmein shaamil hai songaj of inosens end eksapeeriyens, the book of thel, the mairej of hevan end hel, tatha jeroosalam .[27]

nakkaashi

yadyapi blek apne rileef eching ke liye kaafi mashahoor hue, unki vyaavasaayik krutiyon mein pramukh roop se intaigliyo nakkaashi ka hi prayog hua hai, jo 18veen sadi mein nakkaashi ki maanak prakriya thi, jismein kalaakaar chitr ko taanbe ke plate par ukerate the. yeh ek jatil aur shramasaadhya prakriya thi, jismein pleton ko poorn hone mein maheenon athva varshon ka samay lagta tha, lekin jaisa ki bkel ke samakaaleen John bauedel ne jikr kiya hai, aisa utkeernan "vyaavasaayikta se juda" tha, jisse kalaakaar darshak samooh se judte the aur is prakaar yeh 18veen sadi ke ant tak ek mahatvapoorn gatividhi ban gayi thi.[28]

blek ne apni krutiyon mein, visheshakar the book of jaub, ke chitran ke liye intaigliyo utkeernan vidhi ko apnaaya, jo unki mrutyu se theek pehle poori hui. adhikaansh mahatvapoorn kaarya, takaneek ke roop mein blek ke rileef eching par keindrit hone laga, kyonki yeh unki kala ka naveenatam svaroop tha, kintu 2009 ka ek adhyayan hamaara dhyaan blek ki vartamaan mein upalabdh pattikaaon ki or kheenchata hai jismein ve bhi shaamil hain, jo the book of jaub ke liye banaae gaye the: ye is baat ki vyaakhya karte hain ki unhonne us takaneek ka baar-baar prayog kiya jise “ripaujej” ("repoussage") ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jo pattika ko peechhe ki or se hathaude se peetakar galatiyon ko sudhaarane ki vidhi thi. us samay ki utkeernan rachanaaon ke liye ye khaas takaneekein, blek dvaara apne rileef eching ke liye upayog mein laai jaane waali drav chitran vidhi se adhik teevr gati waali thi aur ve darshaati hain ki utkeernan ko poorn hone mein utana adhik samay kyon lagta tha.[29]

baad ka jeevan aur kairiyr

blek ki Cathrine ke saath shaadi unki mrutyu tak gahari aur samarpit rahi. bkel ne Cathrine ko likhna sikhaaya aur Cathrine ne unhein unki printed kavitaaon mein rang bharne mein madad ki.[30] Gilchrist shaadi se pehle ke jeevan ko “amuseebat se bhara samaya” maanate hain.[31] kuchh jeevaneekaaron ne sanket kiya hai, ki blek ne svedanabaurgiyn society (Swedenborgian Society) ki maanyataaon ke anusaar apne saath ek rakhail bhi rakhane ki koshish ki thi,[32] par anya vidvaanon ne in maanyataaon ko atakalabaaji kehkar khaarij kar diya.[33] William tatha Cathrine ki pehli tatha sanbhavat: antim santaan thel ho sakti hai, jise the book of thel mein mrut bataaya gaya hai.[34]

felafaim

heket, 1795.blek ka heket, greek ki kaale jaadoo aur andaravarld ki devi ka aabhaas

1800 E. mein blek, ek kanishth kavi William hele ki krutiyon ka chitran karne ke liye saseks (ab vest saseks) mein felafaim sthit kautej mein chale gaye. isi kautej mein blek ne shuroo kiya Milton: a Poem (title prushth 1804 ka hai lekin blek ne is par 1808 tak kaam karna jaari rakha). is rachana ki bhoomika mein ek kavita di gayi hai jo “aend did doj feet in enshent time/praacheen kaal mein ve kadama” pankti se aarambh hoti hai, jo "jeroosalam" naamak gaan ke shabd bane. aage chal kar, jab blek ko yeh pata chala ki unke nae sanrakshak hele ka sachchi kalaatmakata mein yakeen naheen hai aur uske liye yeh mahaj "ek neeras vyaapaar hai", to ve is baat par usase naaraaj ho gaye (i724). maana jaata hai, ki hele ke saath blek ki anban ka asar miltan: a poyam par pada jismein blek ne likha hai "saansaarik mitr aadhyaatmik shatru hote hain"(4:26, i98).

praadhikaar ke saath blek ki anban August 1803 mein ek museebat ban gayi jab ek sainik John skaufild ke saath unki haathaapaai hui.[35] blek par na keval hamla karne ka aarop laga balki raaja ke khilaaf raajadrohaatmak aur shadayantrakaari shabdon ke prayog ka iljaam bhi laga. skaufild ne daava kiya ki blek aisa kehte hue chillaae the, “alaanat hai raaja par. sainik poori tarah gulaam hain.”[36] krichestar ke nyaaya satr mein blek ko aaropon se mukt kar diya gaya. saseks County ke akhbaar mein chhapi ek report ke anusaar, “[saakshya] ka aavishkrut charitra ...tha isliye unhein doshamukt kiya gaya”.[37] baad mein jerusalam ke ek chitr mein skaufild ko “amanagadhnt bediyaan pahane” dikhaaya gaya.[38]

London mein vaapasi

blek ki the great red draigan end the vuman klodad vid san (1805) rivileshan 12 ki sachitr vyaakhya ki shrrunkhala mein se ek hai.

blek 1804 mein London laute aur apni sabse mahatvaakaankshi rachana jeroosalam (1804-1820) ka lekhan aur chitran aarambh kiya. chausar ke kaintarabari tels mein paatron ko chitrit karne ka sujhaav maankar blek ne chitran ke vipnan ki baat dhyaan mein rakhakar vyaapaari Robert kromek se sampark kiya. yeh jaanakar ki blek ek lokapriya rachana ke nirmaan mein manamaujeepoorn ravaiya apna rahe hain, kromek ne avadhaarana ko moort roop dene ke liye turant blek ke mitr Thomas stothard (Thomas Stothard) ko niyukt kar liya. jab blek ne yeh jaana ki unke saath dhokha hua hai, unhonne stothard ke saath sambandh tod liya. unhonne London ke soho jile mein 27 braud street par sthit apne bhaai ki bisaati ki dukaan mein apni ek svatantr pradarshani bhi lagaai. is pradarshani ko lagaane ka uddeshya tha anya rachanaaon ke saath kaintarabari chitran (the kaintarabari pilgrims ke sheershak se) ke unke apne roopaantaran ki bikri karna. iske parinaamasvaroop unhonne apna diskriptiv kaitelaug (1809) likha, jismein vah baat thi jise enthani blant ne sausar ke baare mein “ashaanadaar vishleshana” kaha. ise sausar ki sameeksha ke classic roop mein niyamit roop se sankalit kiya gaya.[39] ismein unke anya chitron ke vistrut vivran bhi diye gaye hain.

yadyapi ki swayam pradarshani mein bahut kam log aae aur koi bhi tempera athva jalachitr naheen bika. the egjaiminr mein chhapa iska ikalauta review nakaaraatmak tha.[40]

unka parichay George kambaralaind dvaara ek yuva kalaakaar John linel se karaaya gaya. linel ke jariye unki mulaakaat saimuel paamar se hui jinka sambandh kalaakaaron ke ek samooh se tha, jo apne aap ko soram enshent kehte the. yeh samooh blek dvaara aadhunik pravruttiyon ki asveekruti tatha aadhyaatmikta aur kalaatmak new ej ke baare mein unki aastha se ittafaak rakhata tha. 65 varsh ki umr mein blek ne the the book of jaub ke chitran ka kaam shuroo kiya. ye rachanaaen baad mein raskin dvaara prashansit hui jinhonne blek ki tulana rembreint se ki aur vaughan Williams dvaara, jinhonne apne baile jaub: a maask for daansing ko chitron ki chayanika par aadhaarit kiya.

apne jeevan ke baad ke daur mein blek ne badi sankhya mein apni krutiyon, khaaskar apne baaibal chitran ko, Thomas bats, ek sanrakshak jisne blek ko kalaatmak pratibhaaon se sampann ek aadmi ke bajaae ek dost ke roop mein adhik dekha, ke haathon bechana shuroo kar diya; blek ke baare mein yeh vishisht rai unke jeevan bhar kaayam rahi.

daante ki divaain Comedy

infarno, keinto XII, 12-28, the minotaur XII ki sachitr vyaakhya karne ke liye William blek ki minotaur ki chhavi

daante ki divaain Comedy ke liye kaam karne ka avsar blek ko 1826 mein linel ke jariye mila, jiska sabse bada uddeshya tha nakkaashi (utkeernan) ka ek sireej taiyaar karna. 1827 mein blek ki mrutyu ho jaane ke baad yeh kaam ruk gaya aur keval kuchh hi jalachitr poore ho sake, unamein se bhi keval saat nakkaashiyaan hi proof roop mein taiyaar ki ja sakeen. tab bhi, unhein prashansa mili:

daante ke tail chitr blek ki behatareen upalabdhiyon mein se ek hain jismein itne jatil kaavya ka kathin chitran kiya gaya hai. jalachitr ka hunar pehle ki tulana mein bahut hi oonche star par pahunch gaya aur kaavya mein astitv ki teen avasthaaon ke vaataavaran ko vibhedit karne mein vishisht prabhaav ka prayog kiya gaya hai.[41]
blek ki the lavarj' varlvind daante ki infarno ke keinto 5 mein nark ki sachitr vyaakhya karti hai

blek dvaara kaavya ka chitran keval ek sanlagn kruti naheen thi balki paath ke sameekshaatmak punaraavalokan athva kuchh aadhyaatmik athva naitik pahaluon par tippani bhi tha.

pariyojana ke kabhi poora naheen hone ke kaaran blek ka uddeshya aspasht hua ho sakta hai. kuchh sanketak yadyapi is baat ki pushti karte hain ki apni poornata mein blek ke chitran ne swayam hi apne sanlagn paath ke mudde ko liya hoga: homar biyring the sord end hij kampeniyans ke haashiye par blek likhte hain, “adaante ki kaumediya ki har baat yeh dikhaati hai ki utpeedn ke uddeshya se usane is sansaar ko sabke aadhaar ke roop mein aur daivi prakruti ke roop mein kintu holi gost ke roop mein naheen, banaaya hai”. blek daante dvaara [[praacheen yoonaaniyon ki kaavya krutiyon ki prashansa aur daante dvaara jis prakat aahlaad ke saath nark mein sajaaen di jaati hain (jaisa ki kaintos ke bhayaanak haasya se pramaanit hain) se sahamat naheen dikhte.

isi ke saath, blek bhautikvaad aur shakti ki bhrashtaachaari prakruti mein daante ke avishvaas se sahamat hain aur daante ki kruti ke vaataavaran aur kaalpanikta ko chitraatmak roop se pradarshit karne ka avsar paane par ve spasht roop se khush hote hain. yadyapi yeh jaanakar bhi ki ab ve mrutyu ke nikat hain, blek ki mukhya talleenata daante ki infarno ke chitran ke vyagrataapoorn kaarya mein thi; kaha jaata hai ki unhonne paas bache antim sheeling se usane skeching jaari rakhane ke liye ek peinsil khareedi.[42]

mrutyu

banhil (Bunhill) Fields, London mein blek ki achihnit kabr ke paas smaarak

apni mrutyu ke din blek daante ke sireej par anvarat kaam karte rahe. aisa ullekh milta hai ki aakhirkaar, unhonne kaam band kiya aur apni patni ki or mukhaativ hue jo unke bistar ke paas baithi ro rahi theen. unhein dekhkar blek ne chillaakar kaha, “akaite thaharo! bas vaisi hi raho jaisi ho, main abhi tumhaara ek portret banaata hoon kyonki tum mere liye hamesha ek farishta rahi ho.” is portret (ab upalabdh naheen) ke poora ho jaane par, blek ne apne aujaar rakh diye aur stotr aur shlokon ka gaan karne lage.[43] us shaam chh: baje, apni patni se hamesha saath rahane ka vaada kar, blek mar gaye. Gilchrist bataate hain ki usi makaan mein rahane waali ek mahila kiraaedaar ne, jo unki mrutyu ke samay upasthit thi, kaha "main upasthit thi kisi vyakti ki mrutyu par naheen balki ek punyaatma farishte ki mrutyu par".[44]

saimuel paamar ko likhe ek patra mein George richmand ne nimnalikhit vivran diya hai:

He died ... in a most glorious manner. He said He was going to that Country he had all His life wished to see & expressed Himself Happy, hoping for Salvation through Jesus Christ — Just before he died His Countenance became fair. His eyes Brighten'd and he burst out Singing of the things he saw in Heaven.[45]


linel dvaara udhaar diye gaye paise se Cathrine ne blek ki antyeshti ke liye paise chukaae. unhein unki mrutyu ke paanch din baad unki shaadi ki paintaalisveen saalagirh par banahil Fields ke diseintars kabragaah mein dafnaaya gaya, jahaan unke maata-pita bhi dafan kiye gaye the. antyeshti samaaroh mein shaamil hone vaale vyakti the- Cathrine, Edward kailavart, jaurj richmand, fredarik taitham tatha John linel. blek ki mrutyu ke baad Cathrine ko haausakeepar ke roop mein taitham ke ghar mein kaam karna pada. is dauraan ve maanati raheen ki blek ki aatma unase niyamit roop se milne aati hai. unhonne blek ki chitrit krutiyon aur chitron ko bechana jaari rakha, lekin bina “ashreemaan blek ki salaaha” ke bina unhonne koi vyaapaarik sauda naheen kiya.[46] apni khud ki mrutyu ke din October 1831 mein Cathrine apne pati ke samaan hi shaant aur prasann theen aur unhonne blek ko is tarah pukaara "maano ve bagal ke kamre mein hon aur vah unke paas bina der kiye ja rahi hon".[47]

unki mrutyu par, blek ki paandulipiyon ki viraasat fredarik taitham ko mili jisne unamein se anek ko jala daala jise vah dharm virodhi athva raajanaitik roop se adhik kraantikaari maanata tha. taitham iravingaait ban gaya jo 19veen shataabdi ke anek rudhivaadi abhiyaanon mein se ek tha aur aisi kisi bhi kruti ka gambhir virodh karta tha jismein "dharm ninda ki baatein" hon.[48] blek ke kai chitron mein aae yaun bimbavidhaanon ko bhi John linel dvaara mita diya gaya.[49]

1965 se William blek ke dafanaane ke sthaan ki sahi-sahi pehchaan kho gayi aur bhula di gayi, jabki kabr par lage patthar nikaal kar unase nae laun banaae gaye. in dinon blek ki kabr ka smaran ek shilaalekh dvaara hota hai jismein likha hai “ayaheen kaheen pade hain kavi chitrakaar William blek 1757-1827 aur unki patni Cathrine sofiya 1762-1831 ke avashesha”. yeh smaarak shila blek ki achihnit kabr ki vaastavik jagah se lagbhag 20 mi. ki doori par sthit hai. haalaanki, freinds of William blek samooh ke sadasyon ne blek ki kabr ki dubaara khoj ki hai aur unka iraada us sthal par ek sthaai smaarak sthaapit karne ki hai.[50][51]

eklesiya nostika kaithodika (Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica) mein blek ko ab ek sant ke roop mein maana jaata hai. 1949 mein Australia mein, unke sammaan mein dhaarmik kala ke liye blek puraskaar (blek praaij) ki sthaapana ki gayi. 1957 mein, blek aur unki patni ki yaad mein, vestaminstar aibe mein ek smaarak ki sthaapana ki gayi.[52]

blek ke drushtikonon ka vikaas

blek ke paravarti kaavya mein paae jaane vaale vyaktigat mithk shaastr aur jatil prateekavaad ke kaaran unki paravarti krutiyaan aaranbhik krutiyon ki tulana mein kam prakaashit huin. paiti smith dvaara haal mein sanpaadit vintej entholauji of blek aaranbhik krutitv par mukhya roop se kendit hai, jaisa ki di.ji.gilhaim krut William blek jaisi anek sameekshaatmak adhyayanon dvaara kiya gaya hai.

blek ke aaranbhik krutitv vidrohi prakruti ki hain aur unhein roodhivaadi dharm ke khilaaf pratirodh ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai. yeh baat the mairej of hevan end hel mein khaas taur par parilkshit hoti hai jismein shaitaan daraasal paakhandi sattaavaadi devata ke viruddh vidroh karne wala naayak hai. miltan tatha jeroosalam jaisi paravarti krutiyon mein blek ne, paaramparik dharm ke kathor aur dooshit sattaavaad ke viruddh apni aaranbhik nakaaraatmak drushtikon ko barkaraar rakhate hue, aatmatyaag aur kshama jaise gunon dvaara maanavata ke punaruddhaar ka ek vishisht darshan ka chitran kiya hai. blek ke sabhi paathakon mein is baat ko lekar sahamati naheen hai ki unki pehle aur baad ki krutiyon ke beech kitni nirantarata hai.

manovishleshak jyoon singar ne likha hai ki blek ki baad ki krutiyon mein un vichaaron ke vikaas ko darshaaya gaya hai, jo unki aaranbhik krutiyon mein pehli baar paae gaye, jaise ki, shareer aur aatma ki vyaktigat sanpoornata ko praapt karne ke maanavataavaadi lakshya. blek par unke adhyayan the anaholi baaibal ke vistaarit ank ke aakhiri khand mein jyoon ne sujhaaya hai ki vaastav mein unki baad ki krutiyaan “anark ka baaibala” hain jo the mairej of hevan end hel mein pratijnyaaat hai. blek ki antim kavita “ajeroosalama” ke sandarbh mein vah likhti hain:

the mairej of hevan end hel mein pratijnyaaat manushya ka daiveepan antat: poorn hua.[53]

haalaanki John midlatan mari (John Middleton Murry) mairij tatha baad ki krutiyon ke beech vichhinnata ki baat likhte hain jismein aarambh mein blek dvaara oorja aur kaaran (tark) ke beech spasht nakaaraatmak virodh par dhyaan kendrit kiya gaya hai, baad mein chalakar blek ne aantarik ekaatmata ke path ke roop mein aatmatyaag aur kshama ke bhaav par jor daala hai. the mairij of haivan end hel ke teevratar dvaitavaad ka yeh parityaag khaastaur se baad ki krutiyon mein yoorijen ke charitra ke maanaveekaran dvaara spasht hai. midlatan blek ki paravarti krutiyon ki visheshata “aaapasi samajha” tatha “aek doosare ke liye kshamaa” ke roop mein bataate hain.[54]

blek aur yaunata

19veen shataabdi ka "mukt prem" abhiyaan

blek ko (mairi vulastanakraaft tatha unke pati William gaudavin ke saath) kabhi-kabhi 19veen shataabdi ke mukt prem aandolan tatha vivaah ko daasata maanane vaale aur samalaingikta, veshyaavrutti tatha yahaan tak ki aaranbhik 20veen shataabdi mein chale parivaar niyojan (janm niyantran) aandolan ke mool mein sthit vyabhichaar jaise yaun kriyaakalaapon par raajya dvaara laagoo hone vaale sabhi pratibndhon ko khatm karne ki vakaalat karne waali 1820 mein aarambh hui vistrut sudhaar parampara ka agradoot maana jaata hai. blek ki vidvata aaj ki bajaae 20veen shataabdi ki vishyavastu par adhik kendrit thi, haalaanki mukhyat: blek par kaam karne vaale vidvaan maignas enkairjo (Magnus Ankarsjö) ke dvaara, jisne is vyaakhya ko sanyamapoorvak chunauti di hai, is baat ka jikr aaj bhi kiya jaata hai. 19veen shataabdi ka mukt prem aandolan ek se adhik yaun sahabhaagiyon ke vichaar par khaas kendrit naheen tha lekin yeh vaulstanakraaft ki is rai se sahamat tha ki raajya dvaara anumodit vivaah “akaanooni veshyaavrutti” tha aur iska charitra ekaadhikaaravaadi tha. poorvavarti naareevaadi aandolanon[55](khaaskar mairi vulastanakraaft ke un lekhanon ke sandarbh mein jiski prashansa blek ne ki thi) se iski bahut samaanata thi.

blek apne jamaane ke vivaah niyamon ke aalochak the aur aamtaur par yaun shuchita ko ek sadagun maanane waali paaramparik isaai dhaarana ki ghor ninda kiya karte the. apni shaadi ke jabaradast tanaav ke dauraan, jiska kaaran yeh tha ki Cathrine pratyaksh roop se santaan utpann karne mein aksham thi, unhonne seedhe-seedhe doosari patni ghar mein laane ki vakaalat ki. unke kaavya ke anusaar vaivaahik vafaadaari ki maang ke kaaran prem sachche lagaav ki jagah ek jimmedaari bhar ban kar rah jaata hai. unka kaavya vivaah niyamon ko irshya aur ahankaar ki vajah ke roop mein ninda karta hai. “avhaai shud I bi baaund tu dee”, “ao maai lavali martal-tri?” aur “aarths aansara” jaisi kavitaaen ekaadhik yaun saathiyon ki vakaalat karti hui lagti hain. unki kavita “alandana” vivaah-arthi (the Marriage-Hearse) ki baat karti hai". bromiyn tatha oothoon (Oothoon) ka saath kaanoon dvaara na ki prem dvaara hone ke kaaran vijns of the dautars of elbiyaun vyaapak roop se (haalaanki vaishvik roop se naheen) mukt prem ko di gayi shraddhaanjali ke roop mein maani gayi hai. blek ke liye kaanoon aur prem do virodhi baatein hain aur ve “aprojn mairij-beda” ko fatkaar lagaate hain. vijans mein blek likhte hain:

til shi hoo barnj vid yooth, end noj no fiksd lot, ij baaund
in spelj of la too van shi loths? end mast shi drag the chain
of life in veari last? (5.21-3, i49)

19veen shataabdi ke prasiddh kavi aur mukt prem ke himaayati elgarnan Charles svinbarn (Algernon Charles Swinburne) ne ek poori kitaab uparokt abhipraaya par dhyaan aakarshit karte hue blek par likha hai, jismein blek “apavitr praakrutik prema” ki prashansa karte hain jo doosaron ki adhikaarapoorn irshya, jise blek ne “areingane vaale kankaala” ke roop mein maana hai, se bandha naheen hota.[56] svinbarn yeh bhi likhte hain ki kis prakaar blek ki rachana mairij of haivan end hel roodhivaadi niyamon ki vakaalat karne vaalon ki “adhoomil dhaarmik lampatataa” ki ninda karti hai.[57] mukt prem ke 19veen shataabdi ke ek buddhijeevi Edward kaarpeintar (1844–1929) bhi blek ke baahya pratibandhon se mukt rahasyavaadi vichaar se prabhaavit the.[58]

aaranbhik 20veen shataabdi mein piyre barjar ne yeh bataaya ki kis prakaar blek ke drushtikon kartavya aadhaarit prem ki bajaae aanandapoorn sachche prem sambandhi mairi vulastanakraaft ke vichaar se,[59] jismein aanandapoorn sachche prem ko shuddhata ki sahi maap maana gaya hai, milte hain.[60]aayareen laingrij likhti hain ki blek ke rahasyavaadi aur gair roodhivaadi mat ke anusaar mukt prem ka siddhaant kuchh aisa hai jise blek "aatma" ki unnati ke liye chaahate hain[61] Michael David ki 1977 kitaab William blek new kaaind of main sveekaar karta hai ki blek ke vichaar mein manushya ko daivi ekatv se alag karne wala kaarak irshya hai jiske kaaran vah neeche girkar ek thandi maut ka bhaagi banta hai.[62]

ek brahmavijnyaaani lekhak ke roop mein blek mein manushya ki "adhamasheelata" ka bhaav hai. S. fostar daiman ne likha hai ki blek ke liye mukt prem aadhaarit samaaj ki raah mein bade adchan the dooshit maanav prakruti aur na keval samaaj ki asahishnuta tatha manushya ke prati irshya balki maanaveeya sanpreshan ki jhoothi paakhandi prakruti.[63] Thomas right 1928 mein apni kitaab life of William blek (mukt prem ke blek ke siddhaant ko poori tarah samarpit) mein likhte hain ki blek sochate hain ki vyavahaar mein vivaah ko prem ke aanand par aadhaarit hona chaahiye, lekin vaastav mein praaya: aisa naheen hota[64] kyonki jab pati-patni ko bandhe hone ka ehsaas hota hai tab unki khushi jaati rahati hai. piyre barjar blek ki aaranbhik mithkashaastreeya kavitaaon jaise ahainiya (Ahania) ka vishleshan karte hue yeh bataate hain ki vivaah ke niyam manushya ke adh:patan ke kaaran bane hain kyonki inka janm ahankaar aur irshya se hota hai.[65]

kuchh vidvaanon ne likha hai ki "mukt prem" par blek ke vichaar saapeksh hain aur unke jeevan ke antim varshon mein unamein badlaav aur roopaantaran bhi hua ho sakta hai. is avadhi ki kuchh kavitaaen jaise ki the sik roj balaat yaunata ke khataron ke baare mein aagaah karti hain. maignas enkairjo likhte hain ki yadyapi vijns of the dautars of elbiyaun ki naayika mukt prem ki ek prabal samarthak hai, kavita ke ant mein apni yaunata ke andhere paksh se apna parichay badhne par vah adhik satark hokar cheekhati hai “akya yeh prem ho sakta hai jo doosare ko sokhata hai jaise ki spanj paani ko?”[66] enkairjo yeh bhi likhte hain ki blek ki ek badi prerana srot mairi vulastanakraaft apne jeevan ke baad ke dinon mein yaun svatantrata ke baare mein isi tarah ke adhik satark vichaar dhaaran karti hain. poorv varnit blek ke maanaveeya adhamasheelata ke bhaav ke aalok mein enkairjo (Ankarsjö) ka vichaar hai ki jaisa lyootha ki naari paatr ke udaaharan se spasht hai poori tarah keval kaanoon ki avajnyaa ke liye blek aindrik aasakti se poornat: sahamat hon aisi baat naheen thi, kyonki anubhav ki adham duniya mein sabhi prem bandhanayukt hote hain.[67] enkairjo (Ankarsjö) blek dvaara saathiyon ki saajhedaari vaale ek kamyoon ko samarthan dene ki charcha karte hain, haalaanki David vaurel ne abhi haal mein the book of thel ka paath sveedenabargiyn church ke kuchh sadasyon dvaara rakhailon ko apnaane ke prastaav ko asveekaar karne ke roop mein kiya hai.[68]

blek ke baad ke lekhan isaai dharm mein unki nai dilchaspi ko darshaate hain aur haalaanki ve mool roop se isaai naitikta ki punarvyaakhya is roop mein karte hain jismein aindrik sukh sannihit hai, unki anek aaranbhik kavitaaon mein yaun ichhaasvaatantrya par naheen ke baraabar bal diya gaya hai tatha "aatm-nishedh" ka samarthan kiya gaya hai, haalaanki aisa aatmatyaag nishchit roop se adhikaaravaadi baadhyata ki bajaay prem se prerit hona chaahiye.[69] barjar (sveenabarg se kaheen adhik) blek ki pehle aur baad ki rachanaaon ke beech samvedna mein parivartan ke prati khaastaur se samvedansheel hain. barjar paate hain ki yuva blek aavegon ke anusaran par jyaada bal dete hain[70] aur umr beetane par sachche prem ke us achhe aadarsh ke himaayati ho jaate hain jismein sachcha aatmatyaag shaamil hota hai. rahasyavaadi aindrikta ka ek yashogaan baad ki kavitaaon mein pai jaati hai (sabse spasht roop se isaamaseeh ki maata ke kaumaarya ke baare mein blek ke prativaad mein). yadyapi baad ki kavitaaen kshama, mukti tatha sambandhon ke aadhaar ke roop mein bhaavanaatmak sachchaai par adhik bal deti hain.

dhaarmik drushtikon

blek ki enshiyenat of dej.the "enshiyenat of dej" dainiyl ki pustak ke adhyaaya 7 mein varnit hai.

yadyapi blek dvaara roodhivaadi dharm par prahaar kiya jaana unke samay mein ek sann kar dene waali baat thi, dhaarmikta ke liye unka nishedh apne aap mein dharm ka nishedh naheen tha. roodhivaad ke prati unka drushtikon the mairej of hevan end hel, baaibal ki bhavishyavaani ki nakal mein likhe gaye paathon ke ek sireej se spasht hota hai. usamein blek ne nark ki anek uktiyon ki soochi di hai jismein nimnalikhit shaamil hai:

prijnj aar bilt vid stonaj of la, brothalaj vid briks of rilijn.
aij the ketarapilr [sik ] chujij the feyarest leevj too le egj on, so the preest lej hij kars on the feyarest joyj. (8.21, 9.55, i36)

the evaralaasting gauspel mein blek isaamaseeh ko daarshanik athva paaramparik maseeha ke roop mein na prastut kar ek sarvochch srujanakaar (surgeon) ke roop mein darshaaya hai jo siddhaant, tark aur yahaan tak ki naitikta se bhi pare hain:

if hi haid been enteekraaist kreeping jeejs,
head haiv dan enithing too pleej as:
gon sneeking inatoo sinegoguas
end not yooesadi the eldaraj end preest laik dogj,
bat hambal ej a laimb or S,
obed himself too kaiyaafas.
god vaants not main too hambal himself (55-61, i519-20)

blek ke liye isaamaseeh devatv tatha manushyata ke beech jeevan se bharpoor sambandh aur unki ekta ke prateek hain: “asabaki bhaasha moolat: ek thi aur sabka dharm moolat: ek tha: yeh tha isaamaseeh ka dharm, evaralaasting gauspel (shaashvat siddhaant). praacheenata isaamaseeh ke siddhaant ka upadesh deti hai." (diskriptiv kaitelaug, plate 39, i543)

blek ne apne mithk khud taiyaar kiye the jo unki bhavishyasoochak pustakon mein vyaapak roop se dikhaai padte hain. inmein blek ne anek patron ko chitrit kiya hai jinmein shaamil hain 'yoorijen', 'enithairnan', 'bromiyn' tatha 'loova'. aisa lagta hai is mithkashaastr ka aadhaar baaibal tatha greek mithkashaastr hain[71] aur evaralaasting gauspel ke baare mein unke vichaar ka yeh anugaman karta hai.

style = "paath- sanrekhan: baaen;" "mujhe ek pranaali banaani chaahiye ya doosare aadmi ki pranaali ka gulaam ban jaana chaahiye. main tark aur tulana naheen karooainga; mera kaam nirmaan karna hai."
blek ki Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion mein loss dvaara bole gaye shabd.

roodhivaadi isaai mat ke prati blek ka sabse prabal virodh yeh hai ki yeh kudarati ichhaaon ke daman ko protsaahit karta hai aur saansaarik sukh ki ninda karta hai. a vijn of the laast jajameint mein blek kehte hain:

manushya ka svarg mein pravesh ka kaaran yeh naheen hai ki unhonne apne ko vash mein kiya hai tatha apni kaamanaaon ko niyantrit kiya hai athva ve kaamna rahit hain, balki yeh hai ki unhonne in sab ke baare mein gyaan haasil kiya hai. svarg ka khajaana kaamanaaon ka nishedh naheen balki yeh buddhi ki vaastavikta hai, jisse saari kaamanaaen svatantr roop se apni shaashvat khyaati ke saath utpann hoti hain. (i564)

dharm sambandhi unke kathanon ko the mairej of hevan end hel mein dekha ja sakta hai:

nimnalikhit doshon ka kaaran baaibal tatha saare pavitra niyam hain.
1. manushya ke jeevan ke do vaastavik siddhaant hain arthaat: pehla shareer aur doosari aatma.
2. oorja, jise dusht shakti kaha jaata hai, shareer se alag hoti hai aur vah kaaran jise ham ishvar kehte hain, aatma se bhinn hota hai.
3. paaralaukik jeevan mein ishvar dvaara manushya ko usaki oorjaaon ke anusaran ke liye yaatanaaen di jaaengi.
lekin, inke vipreet sach ye hain:
1. aatma se alag manushya ka koi shareer naheen hota jise shareer kehte hain vah aatma ka paanch indriyon dvaara pahachaane jaane yogya ek hissa hai, is yug mein aatma ke ye mukhya praveshadvaar hain.
2. oorja hi keval jeevan hai aur yahi shareer ka nirmaan karta hai aur tark oorja ki seema athva baahari paridhi hai.
3. oorja shaashvat aanand hai. (plate 4, i34)
the baudi of ebal faaund bye Adam end iv, si.1825.vaatarakalar on vud.

blek is dhaarana ko naheen maanate the ki aatma se shareer alag hota hai aur yeh ki shareer ko aatma ke niyam ke adheen rahana chaahiye, balki iski bajaae ve shareer ko aatma ka vistaar maanate hain jo anubhootiyon/indriyon ki gocharata se vyutpann hota hai. is prakaar, shaareerik ichhaaon ko nakaarane par roodhivaadiyon dvaara jo bal diya jaata hai vah ek dvandvaatmak dosh hai jo shareer aur aatma ke sambandh ki galat vyaakhya se paida hua hai; anyatr, ve shaitaan ko 'dosh ki avastha' ke roop mein tatha moksh se pare ki vastu ke roop mein varnit karte hain.[72]

du:kh se chhutakaara, dushtaatma ke astitv ki sveekruti aur anyaaya ke liye maafi dene vaale brahmavidya sambandhi vichaar ke kutark ka blek ne virodh kiya. ve aatm nishedh se nafarat karte the[73] jiska sambandh ve dhaarmik daman se aur khaaskar yaun daman se maanate the:[74] “abuddhimaani ek ameer kintu kuroop, boodhi daasi hai jisse akshamata pranaya nivedan karta hai. /vah jo ichha karta hai kintu karm naheen, anarth ko janm deta hai.” (7.4-5, i35) unhonne 'paap' ki avadhaarana ko manushya ki ichhaaon (garden of love ki jhaadiyaan) ko baandhane vaale fande ke roop mein dekha hai aur unka vishvaas tha ki baahar se aaropit naitik aachaar shaastr ke anuroop pratibandh jeevan ke utsaah ke viruddh hai:

ebsatinens soj saind aal over
the raddi limbj end fleming hear
bat dijaayar greteefaaid
plaants froots end beauty dear. (i474)

gaud ej Lord ke siddhaant ko ve naheen maanate the jismein ishvar ko manushya se alag aur shreshth bataaya gaya hai[75] isaamaseeh ke baare mein unke shabdon se yeh spasht hota hai: “avahi ek maatr ishvar hain.. aur vahi main hoon aur vahi tum ho”. the mairej of hevan end hel ki ek ukti hai “alog yeh bhool gaye hain ki sabhi devataaon ka nivaas aadmi ke seene mein hai”. yeh pankti samaaj mein tatha stri-purushon ke beech svatantrata aur samaanata ke unke vishvaas ke bilkul anuroop hai.

blek aur prabodhan darshan

prabodhan darshan ke saath blek ka ek jatil sambandh tha. apne kaalpanik dhaarmik vishvaason ke chalte, blek ne brahmaand ke nyootanavaadi drushtikon ka virodh kiya. blek ke is sambandh mein vichaar unki rachana jeroosalam ke uddharan mein pratibimbit hai:

blek ki nyootan (1795) vaigyaanik bhautikvaad ke "ekal-darshan" ke prati unke virodh ka pradarshan karti hai: nyootan apni aaainkhein ek kanpaas par gadaata hai (kahaavaton 8:27 ka pratyaahaar, miltan ke liye ek mahatvapoorn maarg)[76] too raait apon a skrol vich seemj too project fraum hij on head.[77]
I turn my eyes to the Schools & Universities of Europe

And there behold the Loom of Locke whose Woof rages dire
Washd by the Water-wheels of Newton. black the cloth
In heavy wreathes folds over every Nation; cruel Works
Of many Wheels I view, wheel without wheel, with cogs tyrannic
Moving by compulsion each other: not as those in Eden: which
Wheel within Wheel in freedom revolve in harmony & peace.(15.14-20, E159)

blek ka yeh bhi vishvaas tha ki sar joshuaa renaulds ke chitr, jo vastuon ke oopar prakaash ke praakrutik aapatan ko darshaate hain, poori tarah “avaanaspatik netra” ki upaj hain aur ve lauk tatha nyootan ko “asar joshuaa renaulds ke saundarya shaastr ke vaastavik janaka” maanate the.[78] us samay ke England mein aise chitron ke prati lok ruchi ki santushti mejotints se ki jaati thi, aise chitr jo prushth ke oopar hajaaron nanhein binduon se utpann ki jaane waali prakriya se nirmit hote the. blek ne iske aur nyootan ke prakaash ke kan siddhaant ke beech ek sadrushyata dekhi.[79] isi prakaar blek ne takaneek ka prayog kabhi naheen kiya iske bajaae unhonne shuddh roop se taral rekha mein nakkaashi ki ek vidhi viksit karne ko tarajeeh diya. ve is baat par ade rahe:

a Line or Lineament is not formed by Chance a Line is a Line in its Minutest Subdivision[s] Strait or Crooked It is Itself & Not Intermeasurable with or by any Thing Else Such is Job. (E784)

prabodhan ke siddhaanton ke apne virodh ke baavajood, blek is prakaar ek raikhik saundaryashaastr par pahunche jo anek prakaar se romaintikon ki krutiyon ki tulana mein, jinke saath unhein praaya: vargeekrut kiya jaata hai, John flaiksamain ki navaklaasikl nakkaashiyon ke adhik samaan tha.

isliye blek ko, is arth mein, ki unka us aandolan dvaara vichaaron, vyavasthaaon, adhikaaritaaon aur paranparaaon ko nakaarane ki pravrutti ke saath saamanjasya tha, ek prabodhan kavi aur kalaakaar ke roop mein bhi dekha gaya hai. doosari or ve us baat ke bhi aalochak the jise ve tark ka damanakaari praadhikaar ki sthiti tak uthana maanate the. tark, kaanoon aur ekaroopata ki apni aalochna mein blek ko prabodhan ke virodhi ke roop mein liya gaya hai, lekin is baat par bhi bahas hui hai ki boleegat arth mein unhonne baahari praadhikaar ko nakaarane ke prabodhan ke utsaah ko prabodhan ki sankeern avadharana ki aalochna karne ke liye prayog kiya.[80]

moolyaankan

rachanaatmak dhaarana

northarop fraai (Northrop Frye) majabooti se dhaaran kiye vichaaron mein blek ki susangati par tippani karte hue likhte hain ki “ablek ne khud kaha hai ki 50 ki umr mein likhi gayi joshuaa renaulds par unki tippaniyaan lauk tatha bekan par unke dvaara apni yuvaavastha mein likhi gayi tippaniyon ke bilkul samaan hain. yahaan tak ki aayaton ke vaakyakhand aur panktiyaan bhi vaisi hi hain jaisi 40 saal baad ki. jise vah satya maanate the use kaayam rakhane mein susangati apne aap mein unka pramukh siddhaant tha... susangati, tab, chaahe moorkhataapoorn ho ya kuchh aur blek ki mukhya poorvadhaaranaaon mein se ek thi theek usi tarah jis tarah ki 'aatm-khandan' hamesha hi unka sabse tirskaarapoorn aalochanaon mein raha hai".[81]

blek dvaara "a neegro hang alaaiv bye the ribj too a geloj", J.ji. stedamain ka sooreenaam ke vidrohi neegro ke khilaaf, ek paanch varsheeya jalayaatra ke varnan par ek udaaharan (1796).

blek gulaami se nafarat karte the aur unka vishvaas prajaateeya tatha laingik samaanata mein tha. unki anek kavitaaen aur chitr vaishvik maanavata ki bhaavana pradarshit karte hain: “asaare manushya samaan hain (yadyapi unamein aseem asamaanataaen hain)”. apni ek kavita mein blek ek kaale bachche dvaara kahalavaate hain ki shvet aur kaale shareer ek jaise hote hain jaise ki chhaayaadaar baag athva baadal jinka keval tabhi tak hota hai jab tak ki vyakti “aprem ki kirnon ko dhaaran karna na seekh le”:

ven aay fraum black end hi fraum vaait klaaud free,
end round the teint of god like laimbaj vi joya:
lll shed him fraum the heet til hi kain biyr,
too leen in joya apon aar faadaraj ni.
end den aay'l stand end stroke hij silver heyar,
end bi like him end hi vil den love mi. (23-8, i9)

blek ne jeevan bhar saamaajik aur raajanaitik ghatnaaon mein sakriya ruchi li aur saamaajik aur raajanaitik vaktavya praaya: unke rahasyaatmak prateekavaad mein dekhne ko milte hain. jise vah daman aur uchit svatantrata par pratibandh maanate hain, us par unke vichaar ka prasaar church tak hua. unka aadhyaatmik vishvaas songaj of eksapeeriyens (1794) se pramaanit hota hai jismein ve old testaameint ke ishvar, jinke pratibndhon ko ve nakaarate hain aur new testaameint ke ishvar, jinhein vah sakaaraatmak prabhaav ke roop mein dekhte hain, ke beech antar dikhaate hain.

ishvar darshan

chhoti umr se hi, William blek ka daava ishvar ko dekhne ka raha hai. aisa pehla darshan unhonne chaar varsh ki umr mein kiya tha, jiske baare mein yeh anushruti hai ki yuva kalaakaar ne "ishvar ko us samay dekha" jab ishvar ka "sir unhein khidki par najar aaya" tha, jise dekhkar blek chilla pade the.[82] London ke pekham re (Peckham Rye) mein aath ya das saal ki umr mein blek ne “afarishton se lada ek ped jiski har shaakh pad taare ki tarah divya daine jade the” dekhne ka daava kiya.[82] blek ke viktoriyn jeevaneekaar Gilchrist ke anusaar unhonne ghar aakar is darshan ke baare mein bataaya to, jhoothi baat kehne ke aarop mein pita se maar khaate-khaate bache, vah bhi maan dvaara beech-bachaav karne par. haalaanki saare pramaan yeh darshaate hain ki unke maata-pita unke prati atyant sahayogaatmak the, khaaskar maan aur blek ke shuruaati chitron tatha kavitaaon mein se anek maan ke kamre ki deevaaron ki sajja theen. ek anya avsar par blek ne kuchh ghasiyaaron ko kaam karte dekha aur unhein prateet hua ki unhonne unke beech daivi aakrutiyon ko vichran karte dekha hai.[82]

the ghost of a fali, 1819-1820.chitrakaar-jyotishi John varale ko apne aabhaas ke khyaal ke baare mein bataane ke baad, blek ko unamein se ek ki chitrakaari karne ke liye raaji kiya gaya.[83] vaarale dvaara blek ka upaakhyaan env unka pissoo ke bhoot ka khyaal suvikhyaat ho gaya.[83]

blek ne jeevan bhar daiveeya drushya dikhaai padne ka daava kiya hai. ve praaya: sundar dhaarmik vishyavastuon tatha vimbavidhaan se jude hote the aur isliye inse unhein aadhyaatmik krutiyon ki rachana aur aadhyaatmik khoj ki prerana milti hogi. nishchit roop se blek ki krutiyon mein dhaarmik avadhaarana aur vimbavidhaan kendreeya vishay rahe hain. ishvar tatha isaai dharm unke lekhanon ke bauddhik kendra rahe hain, jisse unhein prerana milti thi. iske alaava, blek ka vishvaas tha ki unhein maha devadooton (Archangels) dvaara vyaktigat roop se unki kalaatmak rachanaaon ke liye nirdeshit aur protsaahit kiya jaata hai, jinke baare mein unka daava tha ki ve unheen maha devadooton dvaara sakriya roop se padhe jaate hain aur unke dvaara unka aanand uthaaya jaata hai. 6 May 1800 ko William hele ko likhe apne patra mein blek likhte hain:

mujhe pata hai ki hamaare mrut saathi apne jeevit rahane ke sthiti ki tulana mein aaj hamaare saath adhik hain. terah saal pehle mainne apna ek bhaai khoya aur usaki aatma se main roj aur baarambaar utsaah ke saath baat karta hoon aur use apni smruti mein, apne kalpana kshetr mein dekhta hoon. main usaki salaah sunata hoon aur ab bhi uske bataae anusaar likhta hoon.

21 sitmbar 1800 ko John flaiksamain ko likhe apne patra mein blek likhte hain:

adhyayan ke liye felafaim shahar ek pyaari jagah hai kyonki London ki tulana mein yeh adhik aadhyaatmik hai. svarg ke darvaaje yahaan har disha mein khulate hain; usaki khidkiyaan kohare se baadhit naheen hoteen; svarg ke nivaasiyon ki aavaajein adhik spashtata se sunaai padti hain aur unke roop adhik saaf-saaf dikhte hain; aur mera kautej bhi unke gharon ki hi ek parachhaain hai. meri patni aur meri bahan donon achhi hain, nepchyoon se gale milne ka nivedan kar... main apni krutiyon ke liye svarg mein adhik prasiddh hoon. mere mastishk mein adhyayan bhara hai aur mera kamara kitaabon aur puraani tasveeron se bhara hai, jinhein mainne apne nashvar jeevan se pehle paaralaukik jeevan ke kaal mein likha aur chitrit kiya; aur ve krutiyaan aanand tatha maha devadooton ke adhyayan hain. (i710)

25 April 1803 ko Thomas bat ko likhe apne patra mein blek likhte hain:

ab main aapse vah kah sakta hoon jo shaayad main kisi aur se kehne ka saahas naheen kar sakta: ki main London mein akele apna daarshanik adhyayan bina pareshaan hue jaari rakh sakta hoon aur paralok mein apne mitron se baatein kar sakta hoon, sapane dekh sakta hoon, bhavishyavaaniyon ki kalpana kar sakta hoon aur doosare nashvaron (logon) ke shakon se alakshit rah kar aur svatantrataapoorvak neetiktha kah sakta hoon; shaayad dayaaluta se shak niklata ho, lekin shak hamesha ghaatak hote hain, khaaskar tab, jab ham apne doston par shak karte hain.

a vijn of the laast jajameint mein blek likhte hain:

galati ki jaati hai, satya shaashvat galati hai athva srushti ko jala diya jaaega aur tab aur na hi tab tak satya athva shaashvat prakat hoga. jis kshan manushya ise dekhna band kar dega yeh jal uthega. main apne aap se yeh kehta hoon ki main baahari srushti ko naheen dekhta aur yeh mere liye ek baadha hai, kaarya naheen; yeh mere paanv par pada dhool hai, mera ansh naheen. sooraj ke ugane par prashn kiya jaaega ki kya aap gini O (Guinea O) ki tarah gol agni chakr naheen dekhte, naheen naheen main svargik mejabaan ke asankhya saath dekhta hoon pavitra pavitra chillaate hue, pavitra hain sarvashaktimaan ishvar, main daihik athva vaanaspatik aankh se ab prashn naheen poochhata balki main us khidki se prashn poochhata hoon, jisse hokar, na ki jiske dvaara, drushya dikhaai dete hain. (i565-6)

William vardsavarth ne tippani ki, “aisamein shak naheen ki yeh aadmi bechaara paagal tha, lekin is aadmi ke paagalapan mein kuchh aisa hai jismein meri dilchaspi Lord baayaran aur vaaltar Scott ki svasthachittata ki tulana mein adhik hai”.[84]

di. si. Williams (1899-1983) ne kaha ki blek aise romaintik the jinke vishv ke baare mein vichaar aalochak the, unki yeh dhaarana thi ki blek ke songaj of inosens ek aadarsh ke roop mein racha gaya tha, jo kuchh-kuchh yootopiyn najariya tha jabki unhonne songaj of eksapeeriyens ki rachana samaaj ki prakruti aur unke samay ki duniya dvaara utpann kiye gaye kasht ko darshaane ke liye ki thi.

saamaanya saanskrutik prabhaav

blek ki kruti unki mrutyu ke praaya: ek shataabdi baad tak upekshit rahi, lekin unki khyaati 20veen shataabdi mein John midlatan mari (John Middleton Murry) tatha northarop fraai (Northrop Frye) jaise sameekshakon dvaara aur saath hi benjaamin britn (Benjamin Britten) tatha raalf vaugan Williams jaise klaasikl rachanaakaaron dvaara unki krutiyon ko apnaane se punarsthaapit hui.

jyoon singar jaise anek logon ne yeh tark diya hai ki maanav prakruti par blek ke vichaar kaarl jung ke vichaaron ki poorv peethika aur unke samaantar hai, haalaanki jung ne blek ki rachanaaon ko “aachetan prakriyaaon ka sachcha pratinidhi hone ke bajaae kalaatmak kruti” ke roop mein nakaarate hain.[85]

blek ka 1950 ke dashak ke beet (beat) kaviyon tatha 1960 ke dashak ke pratisanskruti par bada prabhaav pada tha, unke uddharan beet kavi Allen ginsabarg tatha geetkaar Bob daayalan jaise aaranbhik rachanaakaaron dvaara baar-baar istemaal kiye gaye. Phillip pulamain ki prasiddh fantaasi trirchana hij Dirk maiteriyls ki jad blek ki kruti the mairej of hevan end hel mein pai jaati hai.

vistrut sanskruti mein blek ki kavita lokapriya sangeetakaaron dvaara sangeetabaddh ki gain. yeh khaas taur par 1960 ke dashak se sangeetakaron ke beech lokapriya huin. blek ki nakkaashiyon ne bhi aadhunik sachitr upanyaas par mahatvapoorn prabhaav daala.

granth soochi

illyuminetid books (illuminated books)

songaj of inoseins end eksapeeriyens se profaail mein William blek ka aalekhya, prakaashit 1794
  • si.(c.) 1788: aal rilijnaj aar van
    • deyar ij no natural rilijn
  • 1789: songaj of inosens
    • the book of thel
  • 1790-1793: the mairej of hevan end hel
  • 1793-1795: konteeneintal profiseej
  • 1793: vijns of the dautars of elbiyaun
    • America a profesi
  • 1794: Europe a profesi
    • the fast book of urijen
    • songaj of eksapeeriyens
  • 1795: the book of los
    • the song of los
    • the book of ahaaniya
  • si.(c.)1804-si.(c.)1811: miltan a poem
  • 1804-1820: jeruselam the emeneshan of the jaaint elabion

naun-illyuminetid (Non-Illuminated)

  • 1783: poetikl skechij
  • 1784-5: N aaileind in the moon
  • 1789: tiriyel
  • 1791: the French revolyooshan
  • 1797: the for joaaj

blek dvaara sachitr

  • 1791: mairi vulastanakraaft, orijinl storeej fraum rial life
  • 1797: Edward yang, night thots
  • 1805-1808: Robert bleyar, the grev
  • 1808: John miltan, peraadaais lost
  • 1819-1820: John varale, vijnari hedaj
  • 1821: aar.J. thornatan, varjil
  • 1823-1826: the book of jaub
  • 1825-1827: daante, the divaain Comedy (1827 mein blek ka nidhan ho gaya aur yeh vaatarakalaraj adhoore rah gaye)

blek par

  • Peter ekroyd (1995). blek sinklair-steevanasan. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 1-85619-278-4.
  • donaald olt (1974). vijnari fijiks: blek's rispons too nyootan . Chicago vishvavidyaalaya. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-226-03225-6.
  • (1987). neretiv anabaaund: ri-vijning William blek's the for joaaj . station hil press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 1886449759.
  • ji.E. beintale junior (2001). the streinjar fraum pairaadaais: a baayograafi of William blek . yel university press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-300-08939-2.
  • herold bloom (1963). blek's epokelips . dabalade.
  • [[]]jekob bronovaski (1972). William blek end the ej of revolyooshan . routaledj aur ke. paul. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-7100-7277-5 (haardakavar) aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-7100-7278-3 peebeeke. (pbk.)
  • (1967). William blek, 1757-1827; a main without a maask . haaskel house prakaashak.
  • ji.ke. chesateratan (1920s). William blek . house of stretas aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-7551-0032-8.
  • S. fostar deman (1979). a blek dikshanari . shaamabhaala. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-394-73688-5.
  • David vi. ardamain (1977). Blake: Prophet Against Empire: a poet's intarapreteshan of the history of hij on taaimj . prinsatan university press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-486-26719-9.
  • iraving fisk (1951). "barnaard shau'za debt too William blek". (shau society)
  • northarop fraai (1947). fiyraful simitri . prinsatan university press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-691-06165-3.
  • elegajenadar Gilchrist, life end varks of William blek, (doosra sanskaran, London, 1880) (pun: prakaashit Cambridge university press, 2009. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 9781108013697)
  • James King (1991). William blek: hij life . seint Martin press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-312-07572-3
  • beinjaamin heeth maalakin (1806). a father'za memoirj of his child
  • Peter maarshal (1988). William blek: vijnari enaarkist aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-900384-77-8
  • blek, William, William blek's varks in kanveinshanal taaipograafi, ji.E. beintale junior dvaara sanpaadit, 1984. fasimili sanpaadit, skolar'za fasimilees end reeprints, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 9780820113883.
  • dabalyoo.J.ti. Michelle (1978). blek's kompojit Art: a stadi of the ilyoominet poitri . yel university press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-691-01402-7.
  • Victor N. paanaanen (1996). William blek . tven prakaashak. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-8057-7053-4.
  • laura kuinne (2010). William blek on self end sol . Harvard university press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 978-067-403524-9.
  • George enthani rojo junior (1993). blek's profetik workshop: a stadi of the for joaaj . sambandhit vishvavidyaalaya presaij aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-8387-5240-3.
  • ji.aar. sabari-tabareeji (1973). the 'hevan' end 'hel' of William blek, (New York, intaranaishanal pabalishrj)
  • June singar, the anaholi baaibal: blek, jang, end the kalektiv anakonshias (SIGO (sigo) press, 1986)
  • sheela A. spektar (2001). "vanadarj divaain": the development of blek's kabelistik mith, (baknel UP (UP))
  • elgernon Charles svinbarn, William blek: a kritikl esse, (London, 1868)
  • E.pi. (E.P.) thompsan (1993). witness ageinst the beast . Cambridge university press. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-521-22515-9.
  • dabalyoo. M. rojetti (sampaadak), the poetikl varks of William blek, (London, 1874)
  • A.ji.bi. Russel (1912). enagrevingaj of William blek .
  • baasil de selinkort (Séalincourt), William blek, (London, 1909)
  • Joseph viskomi (1993). blek end the idea of the book, (prinsatan UP (UP)). aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-691-06962-X.
  • David veer (2003). braahma in the vest: William blek end oriental rinesaanj, (sani (SUNY) press)
  • Jason vittakar (1999). William blek end the miths of Britain, (maikamiln)
  • William butler yets (1903). aaidiaaj of gud end ival . nibandh shaamil hain.


sandarbh

  1. fraai, northarop aur denahaim, Robert di. kallekatid varks of northarop fraai . 2006, prushth 11-12.
  2. Jones, Jonathan (2005-04-25). "Blake's heaven". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/arts/critic/feature/0,1169,1469584,00.html.
  3. Thomas, Edward a litrari pilgrim in ingleind . 1917, prushth 3.
  4. yets, dabalyoo.bi. the kallekatid varks of dabalyoo.bi. yets . 2007, prushth 85.
  5. Wilson, mona. the life of William blek the nanasach press, 1927. prushth 167.
  6. the New York times guide too aseinshial nolej . 2004, prushth 351.
  7. blek, William. blek ki "America, a profesi"; aur, "Europe, a profesi" . 1984, prushth 2.
  8. Kazin, Alfred (1997). "An Introduction to William Blake". http://www.multimedialibrary.com/Articles/kazin/alfredblake.asp. abhigman tithi: 2006-09-23.
  9. blek, William aur rojetti, William Michael. the poetikl varks of William blek: lirikl end mislenias . 1890, prushth xi.
  10. blek, William aur rojetti, William Michael. the poetikl varks of William blek: lirikl end mislenias . 1890, prushth xiii.
  11. Marshall, Peter (January 1, 1994). William Blake: Visionary Anarchist (Revised Edition san॰). Freedom Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0900384778.
  12. poets.org/William Blake, pun: praapt, online 13 June 2008
  13. a aa i beintale, jerald ieds aur beintale junior, ji. William blek: the kritikl heritej . 1995, prushth 34-5.
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  15. 43, blek, Peter ekroyd, sinklair- steevanasan, 1995
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  19. i691. blek ke lekhan se sabhi koteshan Erdman, David V. The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake (2nd edition san॰). aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-385-15213-2. http://www.english.uga.edu/~nhilton/Blake/blaketxt1/home.html. se hain, baad ke sandarbh jaha bhi uchit ho vaha plate env line number dene ki pratha ka anusaran karte hain, jiske baad "E" tatha ardamain se prushth sankhya aati hai aur yeh blek ke praay: svachhand akshar vinyaas tatha viraam chihnon ke anurup hota hai.
  20. bindamain, di. "the Cambridge kampeniyn too William blek mein "blek ej a painter", sampaadak mauris ivaj Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2003, prushth 86.
  21. Gilchrist, A, the life of William blek, London, 1842, prushth 30
  22. ardamain, David, profet ageinst empaayar, prushth 9
  23. makagan, J. ""did blek bitre the French revolyooshan", prijenting poitri: kompojeeshan, pablikeshan, risepshan, Cambridge university press, 1995, prushth 128
  24. "St. Mary's Church Parish website". http://home.clara.net/pkennington/VirtualTour/windows_modern.htm#Blake. "St Mary's Modern Stained Glass"
  25. 1783 sanskaran ka prajanan: tet prakaashan, London, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 978 185437 768 5
  26. baayograafeej of William blek end henari fuseli, 31 May 2007 ko liya gaya.
  27. viskomi, J. blek end the idea of the book . prinsatan, enaje: prinsatan university press, 1993; filips, M. William blek: the kriyeshan of the songaj, London: the british laaibreri, 2000.
  28. ivaj, mauris. the kaauntar aartas konsapiresi: Art end industry in the ej of blek . ithaaka aur London: kaurnel university press, 1992. prushth 68-9.
  29. sung, mei-ying. William blek end the Art of enagreving . London: pikring end chaato, 2009.
  30. beintale, ji. E., blek rikaurds, prushth 341
  31. Gilchrist, life of William blek, 1863, prushth 316
  32. shukaard, MK, vaaya misij blek kraaid, century, 2006, prushth 3
  33. ekroyd, Peter, blek, sinklair-steevanasan, 1995, prushth 82
  34. deman, semyul fostar (1988). ek blek dikshanari
  35. right, Thomas. life of William blek . 2003, prushth 131.
  36. the gothik life of William blek: 1757-1827
  37. Lucas, E.V. (1904). Highways and byways in Sussex. Macmillan. ASIN B-0008-5GBS-C.
  38. peetarafreeand stuart, the din of the city in blek's profetik books, ielaech (ELH)- khand 64, number 1, spring 1997, prushth 99-130
  39. blant, enthani, the Art of William blek, prushth 77
  40. Peter ekroyd, "jinias sparand: blek's doomad egjibishn ij back", the taaimj saitarade review, 4 April 2009
  41. bindamain, David. the Cambridge kampeniyn too William blek mein "blek ej a painter", mauris ivaj (sampaadak), Cambridge, 2003, prushth 106
  42. blek rikaurds, prushth 341
  43. ekroyd, blek 389
  44. Gilchrist, the life of William blek, London, 1863, 405
  45. Grigson, Samuel Palmer, p. 38
  46. ekroyd, blek, 390
  47. blek rikaurds prushth 410
  48. ekroyd, blek, prushth 391
  49. maarsha keeth shukaard, vaaya misij blek kraaid: sveedenaborg, blek end the sekshual besij of spirichual vijn, prushth 1-20
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  51. "Coming up - William Blake". BBC Inside Out. 2007-02-09. http://www.bbc.co.uk/insideout/london/series11/week5_healthy_living_working.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008-08-01.
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  53. the anaholi baaibal, June singar, prushth 229.
  54. William blek, marri, prushth 168.
  55. MSU.edu
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  57. svinbarn prushth 249
  58. sheela robotham ki Edward kaarapeintar: a life of librti end love prushth 135
  59. bargar prushth 188-190
  60. bargar blek ke adhikaaainsh vichaaron ko songaj of inoseins end eksapeeriyens ke sanyamit sanskaran ke praakkathan mein sammilit dekhte hain.
  61. aaireen lenagreej dvaara William blek: a stadi of hij life end Art vark prushth 11 aur 131
  62. Davis, prushth 55
  63. S. fostar deman William blek: hij filosofi end simbalj (1924) prushth 105
  64. right prushth 57
  65. bargar prushth 142
  66. bring mi maai eroj of dijaayar ke prushth 68 par aur apni William blek end gender mein dubaara ankarsjo dvaara udghrut
  67. ankarsjo (Ankarsjö) prushth 64
  68. David vorrall, "thel in Africa: William blek end the post kolonial, post-sveedenaborgiyn feemel sabjekt", the risepshan of blek in the oriyent mein, sampaadak. Steve Clark aur masaashi sujooki. London: konatinm, 2006, prushth 17-29.
  69. jeruselam ke adhyaaya 4 ka praakkathan dekhein
  70. bargar prushth 112, 284
  71. "greek devagaatha env old taisataameint ke anuroop ek vyaktigat devagaatha"; bonefoya, yaves. roman end yooropiyn maaitholojij . 1992, prushth 265.
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  73. makadisi, saari. William blek end the imposibl history of the 1790s . 2003, prushth 226-7.
  74. alateejr, Thomas J.J. the new epokelips: the redikl krischiyn vijn of William blek . 2000, prushth 18.
  75. Blake, Gerald Eades Bentley (1975). William Blake: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge & K. Paul. pa॰ 30. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0710082347.
  76. bekar-smith, dominik.bitveen dreem end nechar: esej on yootopiya end distopiya. 1987, prushth 163.
  77. kaisar, Christopher bi. kriyeshnal thioloji end the history of fijikl science. 1997, prushth 328.
  78. * Ackroyd, Peter. Blake. London: Sinclair-Stevenson. pa॰ 285. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-85619-278-4.
  79. Essick, Robert N. (1980). William Blake, Printmaker. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. pa॰ 248.
  80. kolabruk, si. blek 1: the enalaaitanameint William blek 1 October 2008 ko liya gaya
  81. northarop fraai, fiyraful simitri: a stadi of William blek, 1947, prinsatan university press
  82. a aa i beintale, jerald ieds aur beintale junior, ji. William blek: the kritikl heritej . 1995, prushth 36-7.
  83. a aa Langridge, aaireen.William blek: a stadi of hij life end Art vark. 1904, prushth 48-9.
  84. John Ezard (2004-07-06). 1254856,00.html#article_continue "Blake's vision on show". The Guardian. http://arts.guardian.co.uk/news/story/0, 1254856,00.html#article_continue. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-24.
  85. letar too naanaavati, 11, November 1948 hills, David dvaara udghrut. jang, William blek end aar aansar too jaub 2001. DMU.ac.uk, 13 December 2009 ko pun: praapt

dviteeyak srot

  • saaaincha:A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature

baahari link

saaaincha:William Blake

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