Varanasi ki nadiyaan

Varanasi kshetr mein anek chhoti badi nadiyaan bahti hain. inmein sabse pramukh nadi to ganga hi hai, kintu iske alaava anya bahut nadiyaan hain jaise ganga, baanaganga, varuna, gomati, karamanaasa, gadi, chandraprabha, aadi.[1]

anukram

ganga

Varanasi ki sanskruti, bhoogol aur praakrutik rachana mein ganga ka mukhya sthaan hai. gangaapur ke betavar gaanv se ganga nadi ki raah mein banaaras jile ka aarambh hota hai. vaheen isse subaha naala aa mila hai. vahaan se lagbhag 13 ki॰mee॰ ganga Varanasi aur mirjaapur jile ki seema banaati hai aur iske baad Varanasi jile mein Varanasi aur chandauli ka vibhaajan karti hai.[1] ganga ki dhaara ardh-vruttaakaar rup mein varsh bhar bahti hai. iske baahari bhaag ke oopar karaare padte hain aur bheetari bhaag mein baaloo athva baadh ki mitti milti hai. jile mein ganga ka bahaav pehle uttaramukhi hota hua raamanagar ke kuchh aage tak dehaat amaanat aur raalhoopur ke beech se niklata hai jahaan karaara kankareela hai aur nadi uske theek neeche bahti hai. dehaat amaanat mein ganga ka baanya kinaara mundaadev tak chala gaya hai jahaan iske neeche ki or vah ret mein parint ho jaata hai aur baadh mein paani se bhar jaata hai. raamanagar se nikalne ke baad ganga ki uttar-poorv ki or mudhti doosari kehuni shuru hoti hai. dhaara yahaan baayein kinaare se lagkar bahti hai. assi sangam se lekar karaare par banaaras ke mandir, ghaat aur makaan bane hain aur daahine kinaare par baluaa maidaan hai. maalaveeya pul se kaith tak nadi poorv ki or bahti hai. yahaan dhaara baayein kinaare se lagkar bahti hai aur yeh karaara varuna sangam ke kuchh aage tak chala jaata hai. taantepur par yeh dhaara doosare kinaare ki or jaane lagti hai aur kinaara neecha aur baluaa hone lagta hai.

kaithi ke paas ganga pun: uttar ki or mudhti hai aur usaka yeh mukh baluaa tak bana rahata hai. kaithi se kaanvar tak dakshini kinaara bharabhara hai par baad mein kankareele karaare mein badal jaata hai lekin kaanvar se baluaa tak mitti ki ek upajaaoo patti kuchh bheetar ghusati hui padti hai. is ghumaav ke andar jaalhoopur paragana hai. is paragan ke andar se ganga ki ek upadhaara baluaa ke kuchh oopar ganga se mil jaati hai. baluaa se ganga uttar-pashchim ki or ghoom jaati hai. iska baanyi or ka kinaara jaalhoopur aur katehar ki seema tak neecha aur baluaa hai. yahaan se nadi pehle uttar ki or baad mein uttar-poorv ki or bahti hai. katehar ke dakshin-poorv kankareela kinaara shuru ho jaata hai aur yahaan-vahaan khaadar ke tukade hain. doosra kinaara paragana barah mein aata hai. barah ke uttari chhor se kuchh door ganga Gazipur aur Varanasi ki seema alag karti hai aur vah Gazipur jile mein pravesh kar jaati hai.

baanaganga

nadi kinaare ki bhoogarbhik banaavat aur bahut jagahon par kankareele karaaron ke kaaran jile mein nadi ki dhaara mein bahut kam adal-badal hua hai. kehte hain ki praacheen kaal mein barah shaakha ke siva ganga ki koi doosari dhaara naheen thi. lekin is baat ka pramaan hai ki ganga ki dhaara praacheen kaal mein doosari hi tarah se bahti thi. paragana katehar mein kaith ke paas ki chachariyon se aisa lagta hai ki inheen kankareele karaaron ke kaaran nadi ek samay dakshin ki or ghoom jaati thi. ganga ki is praacheen dhaara ke bahaav ka gyaan baanaganga se hota hai jo barasaat mein bhar jaati hai. taanda se shuru hokar baanaganga dakshin ki or chh: meal tak mahuvaari ki or jaati hai, fir poorv ki or rasoolapur tak, ant mein uttar mein raamagadh ko paar karti hui vah hasanapur (saiyadapur ke saamane) tak jaati hai. jis samay ganga ki dhaar ka yeh rukh tha us samay ganga ki vartamaan dhaara mein gomati bahti thi jo ganga mein saiyadapur ke paas mil jaati thi. janashruti yeh hai ki shaantanu ne baanaganga ko kaashiraaj ki kanya ke svayanvar ke avsar par pruthvi fodkar nikaala. kaashiraaj ki rajdhani us samay raamagadh thi. agar kisi samay raajaprasaad raamagadh mein tha to vah ganga par raha hoga aur is tarah is lok katha ke aadhaar par bhi yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki ek samay ganga raamagadh se hokar bahti thi.

ganga ki is praacheen dhaara ke baare mein praacheen saahitya mein bhi anek pramaan hain. braahman aur bauddh saahitya mein to ganga ki is dhaara ki koi charcha naheen hai par jain saahitya mein iska thoda bahut ullekh hai. jainon ne ek praacheen ang naayaadhamm kaha (4/121) mein is baat ka ullekh hai ki Varanasi ke uttar-poorv mein mayaganga teerthadah arthaat mrutaganga teerthahrud tha. uttaraadhyayan choorni[2] ke anusaar mayaganga ke nichle bahaav ke rukh mein ek hrud tha jismein kaafi paani ikattha ho jaata tha jo kabhi niklata naheen tha. jinprabhasoori ne vividh teerthakalp[3] mein maatang riashi bal ka janm sthaan mrutaganga ka kinaara batalaaya hai. katha mein yeh kaha gaya hai ki riashi bal ek samay tinduk naamak upavan mein thahare the. vahaan unhonne apne gunon se gandi tinduk yaksh ko prasann kar liya. kosal raaj ki kanya ne ek samay riashi ko dekhkar un par thook diya. is par yaksh uske sir par gadh gaaya aur raaj kanya ko riashi se vivaah karna pada. riashi ne baad mein use tyaag diya aur usane rudradev se vivaah kar liya. bhiksha-yaachana par nikle riashi ka ek samay braahman apamaan kar rahe the lekin bhadra ne unhein pahachaana aur braahmanon ki bhartsna ki. riashi ne fir braahmanon ko bhi kshama kar diya.

mrutaganga sambandhi ukt katha se kai baatein gyaat hoti hai, pehli yeh ki kam-se-kam guptayug mein jab naayaadhamm kaha likhi gayi mrutaganga aaj ke jaisi hi thi. doosari yeh ki yeh mrutaganga Varanasi ke uttar-poorv mein thi jo bhaugolik drushtikon se bilkul theek hai. teesari yeh ki aaj se 1300 varsh pehle ismein paani bhara rahata tha aur yeh dah ban jaati thi. ab to mrutaganga mein paani keval barasaat mein aata hai. sambhavat: 1000 varsh pehle baanaganga adhik gahari thi aur baad mein mitti bharne se chhichhli ho jaane ke kaaran paani rokane mein asamarth ho gayi.

raamagadh mein baanaganga ke tat par vairaant ke praacheen khandaharon ki sthiti hai, jo mahatvapoorn hai. lok kathaaon ke anusaar yahaan ek samay praacheen Varanasi basi thi. sabse pehle bairaant ke khandaharon ki jaanch padtaal A.si.L. kaarlaail[4] ne ki. vairaant ki sthiti ganga ke dakshin mein saidapur se dakshin-poorv mein aur Varanasi ke uttar-poorv mein kareeb 16 meal aur Gazipur ke dakshin-pashchim kareeb 12 meal hai. vairaant ke khandahar baanaganga ke bartulaakaar dakshin-poorvi kinaare par hain. bairaant ke naam vyutpatti ke baare mein theek-theek naheen kaha ja sakta. matsyon ki rajdhani bairaant jo Jaipur, Rajasthan mein hai, isse bhinn hai, fir bhi matsyon ke is pradesh mein hone ka ullekh ek jagah mahaabhaarat mein aaya hai. lagta hai matsya ek jagah sthir na hokar aage-peechhe aate-jaate rahe hogein aur shaayad is naam se unka sambandh bhi ho. par laukik anushruti mein satya ka ansh hai aur ise ek afavaah maankar taalaan heen ja sakta hai. bairaant ke khandaharon mein praacheen kile ka bhagnaavashesh baanaganga ke poorvi kone par hai. praacheen nagar ke avashesh kile se lekar dakshin mein bahut door tak jameen par hai, iske baad ve ghoomkar dakshin-pashchim ki or nadi ke kinaare par sthit hai. puraana kila mitti ka bana hai par usamein bahut si intein bhi milti hai. uttar-dakshin mein iski lambaai lagbhag 410 meter aur poorab mein lagbhag 275 meter hai. iske bagal mein praakaar ke 20 se 30 meter chaude vapr ke avashesh hain. kaheen-kaheen yeh vapr hai par adhakar naaliyon se kat gaya hai. kile ke teen or arthaat uttar-poorv, uttar-pashchim aur dakshin-poorv ke attaalak bach gaye hain. kile ke chaaron faatakon ka vishesh rup se uttar-dakshin ke faatakon ka abhi-bhi pata lagta hai. kile ke andar dakshin mein kareeb ek tihaai bhaag neecha hai, fir ek tihaai jameen uttar ki or chadhti hui hai aur kile ki uttari chautha bhaag aur bhi hai. uttar-poorv attaalak ke paas kisi badi imaarat ke bhagnaavashesh hain. kile ke baahar ki khaai ke nishaan ab bhi uttar-dakshin ki or dikhti hain. kile se kareeb 120 meter ki doori par vairaant naamak gaanv hai. is gaanv ke uttar-poorv mein 50 meter ki door par ek doosra teela hai. gaanv se uttar ki or kareeb 620 meter par bhagatin ka taalaab hai, jiske uttar mein kareeb 100 meter par ek doosra teela hai. taalaab se kareeb 200 meter pashchim mein raamasaala naam ka mandir hai, jahaan aghori mahant aur unke chele rahate hain. is mandir se kareeb 1 ki॰amee॰ uttar mein raamagadh ka gaanv hai. bairaant gaanv ke uttar-poorv 210 meter par theekaron aur inton se pati kuchh jameen hai. kile ke dakshin mein kareeb 140 meter par praakaar ke bhagnaavashesh hain, jo poorv se pashchim tak kareeb 425 meter tak deekh padte hain. iske paas mein hi chauras teela hai jiske dakshin mein ek naala hai. is naale se kareeb 900 meter par rasoolapur ka gaanv aur ek teela hai. is tarah dekhne se pata chalta hai ki baanaganga ke poorvi kinaare par puraane kile se rasoolapur tak koi praacheen shahar basa tha kyonki varsha kaal mein baraabar yahaan se dheekare aur intein niklati rahati hai. itna hi naheen praacheen shahar ke bhagnaavashesh rasoolapur se dakshin-pashchim kareeb 700-800 meter aur aage tak chale gaye hain. shahar ke is badhaav ke dakshini kone par baanaganga par puraana ghaat hai. jahaan shahar ke avashesh khatm hote hain vahaan mitti ka ek burj hai.

kaarlaail ke anusaar praacheen kile ko chhodkar shahar ki poori lambaai kareeb 3 ya 3-5 ki॰mee॰ hai. poorab se pashchim tak shahar ki chaudaai ka isliye theek pata naheen lagta kyonki kheton ke liye jameen samatal kar di gayi hai. lekin dhyaan se dekhne par shahar ki uttari aur chaudaai lagbhag 600 meter aur dakshin 400 meter se 300 meter aur theth dakshini or 240 meter rah jaati hai. praacheen nagar ke theth poorv mein ek praacheen chhichhli nadi ka tal thi jisse nagar ghira tha. ab sookh gaya hai par ismein barasaat mein thoda paani bhar jaata hai. kaarlaail ne bairaant se bahut-se aahat aur dhalue sikke paae. isa poorv doosari sadi ki braahmi lipi mein jyeshthadatt tatha vijyamitr ke sikke tatha kanishk ke bhi sikke unhein mile. Ram krushnadaas evam dau॰ moti chand ne bhi bairaant se bahut aahat sikke ikatthe kiye. ek sikke par shungakaaleen braahmi mein "gomi' lekh hai.

kaarlaail ko akeek ityaadi ki bahut si maniyaan bhi yahaan se mili hai. bhaaratakala bhavan kaashi hindu vishvavidyaalaya mein bhi aisi maniyon ka achha sangrah hai. yahaan haathi daant ki choodiyon ke bhi tukade kaafi sankhya mein milte hain. kaarlaail ko bairaant ke aas-paas ke naalon aur kheton se prastar yug ki chippiyaaain (flakes) tatha kor bhi mile the in sab baaton se yeh siddh ho jaata hai ki bairaant ki basti praacheen hai. kaali mitti ke opadaar bartanon ke tukadon ke milne se to yeh nishchit ho jaata hai ki maurya yug mein yahaan basti thi. oopar humne vairaant ke praacheen shahar ka isliye vistaarapoorvak varnan kiya ki is nagar ki sthiti se Varanasi ke praacheen itihaas par prakaash padta hai. is jagah kaashi ki praacheen sthiti ke sambandh ki kuchh baaton ka jaanana aavashyak hai. mahaabhaarat (anushaasan parv, 1899, 1900) mein yeh katha aayi hai ki kaashiraaj harya ko veetishvyo ne ganga-yamuna ke maidaan mein haraakar maar daala. harya ke putr sudev ko bhi ladaai mein maat khaani padi. baad mein unke putr divodaas ne doosari Varanasi ganga ke uttar kinaare aur gomati ke dakshin kinaare par basaayi. 3 ab prashn uthata hai ki divodaas ka basaaya yeh doosra Varanasi kahaan par tha? ganga ki aadhunik dhaara ko dekhte hue yeh nagar ganga-gomati ke sangam kaithi ke paas hona chaahiye par kaithi ke aas-paas kisi praacheen nagar ka bhagnaavashesh naheen hai. chandraavati ke bhi gaahadvaal yug ke pehle ke naheen hai aur ek bade shahar ka to yahaan naam nishaan bhi naheen milta. aaj tak yeh bhi naheen sunane mein aaya ki chandraavati se koi praacheen sikke bhi mile hain. aaspaas khojane par bairaant ke siva koi aisi doosari jagah naheen milti jahaan praacheen kaal mein ek shahar raha hai. ganga-gomati ki vartamaan dhaara is mat ke viruddh padti hai, par ganga ki praacheen dhaara ki agar kalpana ki jaae to bairaant par hi divodaas ki banaayi doosari Varanasi sambhav jaan padti hai. baanaganga rasoorapur tak poorvavaahini hokar hasanapur mein ganga ke vartamaan pravaah mein mil jaati hai. jis samay ganga ka mool pravaah baanaganga kaaainthe se tha, is samay gomati ganga ki vartamaan dhaara mein bahti hui saidapur ke paas ganga se aa milti thi. is tarah bairaant ya praacheen Varanasi gomati ke dakshin mein padta tha jaisa ki mahaabhaarat mein kaha gaya hai. ab prashn yeh hai ki yeh nayi Varanasi kab tak basi rahi? aisa jaan padta hai ki jab tak ganga ne apna pravaah naheen badla tha tab tak nagar bairaant mein hi bana raha. par jab ganga ne is jagah ko chhod diya tab nagar bhi dheere-dheere veeraan ho chala aur ant mein keval teela rah gaya. lekin yeh sab hua kab? aisa pata lagta hai ki mauryayug tak to vairaant ka shahar basa tha aur shaayad ganga ne teesari shataabdi isa poorv ke baad hi apna raasta badla hoga. kam-se-kam jaisa hamein anushrutiyon se pata lagta hai guptayug mein to mrutaganga arthaat baanaganga itihaas mein aa chuki thi, at: ganga ne apna raasta iske kai shataabdi pehle badla hoga. yeh prashn aitihaasik drushti se bade mahatva ka hai par is prashn par aur adhik prakaash tabhi pad sakta hai jab vairaant ki aadhunik dhng se khudaai ho.

varuna

subaha aur assi jaise do ek maamooli naale-naaliyon ko chhodkar is jile mein ganga ki mukhya sahaayak nadiyaan barana aur gomati hai. Varanasi ke itihaas ke liye to barana ka kaafi mahatva hai kyonki jaisa ham pehle siddh kar chuke hain is nadi ke naam par hi Varanasi nagar ka naam pada. atharvaved (5/7/1) mein shaayad barana ko hi baranaavati naam se sambodhan kiya gaya hai. us yug mein logon ka vishvaas tha ki is nadi ke paani mein sapan-vish door karne ka alaukik gun hai. praacheen pauraanik yug mein is nadi ka naam "varanaasi' tha. barana Allahabad aur mirjaapur jilon ki seema par foolapur ke taal se nikaalkar Varanasi jile ki seema mein pashchimi or se ghusati hai aur yahaan usaka sangam visuhi nadi se saravan gaanv mein hota hai. visuhi naam ka sambandh shaayad vishdhni se ho. sambhavat: barana nadi ke jal mein vish harane ki shakti ke praacheen vishvaas ka sanket hamein usaki ek sahaayak nadi ke naam se milta hai. bisuhi aur uske baad varana kuchh door tak jaunapur aur Varanasi ki seema banaati hai. bal khaati hui barana nadi poorab ki or jaati hai aur dakshin aur kasavaar or dehaat amaanat ki or uttar mein pandraha athagaanva aur shivpur ki seemaaen nirdhaarit karti hai. banaaras chhaavani ke uttar se hoti hui nadi dakshin-poorv ki or ghoom jaati hai aur saraaya mohaana par ganga se iska sangam ho jaata hai. Varanasi ke oopar is par do teerth hai, raameshvar or kaalakaabaada. nadi ke donon kinaare shuru se aakhir tak saadhaaranat: hain aur anginat naalon se kate hain.

gomati

is nadi ka bhi puraanon mein bahut ullekh hai. pauraanik yug mein yeh vishvaas tha ki Varanasi kshetr ki seema gomati se barana tak thi. is jile mein pahunchane ke pehle gomati ka paat sai ke milne se badh jaati hai. nadi jile ke uttar mein sultaaneepur se ghusati hai aur vahaan se 22 meal tak arthaat kaithi mein ganga se sangam hone tak yeh jile ki uttari sarhad banaati hai. nadi ka bahaav tedha-medha hai aur iske kinaare kaheen aur kaheen dhaaluen hain.

nand

nand gomati ki ekamaatr sahaayak nadi hai. yeh nadi jaunapur ki seema par kol asala mein foolapur ke uttar-poorv se niklati hai aur dhaurahara mein gomati se ja milti hai. nand mein haathi naam ki ek chhoti nadi harihrapur ke paas milti hai.

karamanaasa

madhyakaal mein hinduon ka yeh vishvaas tha ki karamanaasa ke paani ke sparsh se punya nasht ho jaata hai. karamanaasa aur usaki sahaayak nadiyaan chandauli jile mein hai. nadi kaibhoor pahaadiyon se nikalkar mirjaapur jile se hoti hui, pehle-pahal banaaras jile mein majhavaar paragane se fatahapur gaanv se ghoomti hai. majhavaar ke dakshin-poorabi hisse mein kareeb 10 meal chalakar karamanaasa Gazipur ki sarhad banaati hui paragana naravam ko jila shaahaabaad se alag karti hai. jile ko kakarait mein chhodti hui fatehapur se 34 meal par chaunsa mein vah ganga se mil jaati hai. naubatapur mein is nadi par pul hai aur yaheen se grand trank road aur gaya ko railway line jaati hai.

gadi

karamanaasa ki mukhya sahaayak nadi gadi hai jo mirjaapur ki pahaadiyon se nikalkar paragana dhoos ke dakshin mein shivnaathapur ke paas se is jile mein ghusati hai aur kuchh door tak majhavaar aur dhoos ki seema banaati hui baad mein majhavaar hoti hui poorab ki or karamanaasa mein mil jaati hai.

chandraprabha

majhavaar mein guraari ke paas mirjaapur ke pahaadi ilaake se nikalkar chandraprabha banaaras jile ko baburi par chhooti hui thodi door mirjaapur mein bahakar uttar mein karamanaasa se mil jaati hai.


banaaras jile ki nadiyon ke ukt varnan se yeh gyaat hota hai ki banaaras mein to prasraavak nadiyaan hai lekin chandauli mein naheen hai jisse us jile mein jheelein aur daladal hain, adhik barasaat hone par gaanv paani se bhar jaate hain tatha fasal ko kaafi nuksaan pahunchata hai. nadiyon ke bahaav aur jameen ki ke kaaran jo haani-laabh hota hai ise praacheen aarya bhali-bhaanti samajhte the aur isliye sabse pehle aabaadi banaaras mein hui.

sandarbh

  1. a aa Varanasi ki nadiyaaain. kaasheevishvanaath. guruvaar, 27 August 2009
  2. uttaraadhyayan choorni (13, pru. 215) aavashyak choorni (pru. 516)
  3. vividh teerthakalp. shaanti niketan. 1934. pp. 73.
  4. A.S.ri.22. pp. 108.

baahari kadiyaaain