Uranium


Uranium / Uranium
raasaayanik tatv
U,92.jpg
namoona
raasaayanik chinh: U
parmaanu sankhya: 92
raasaayanik shrunkhala: aiktinaaid
U-TableImage.png

aavart saarani mein sthiti
Electron shell 092 Uranium.svg
electronic dhaancha
anya bhaashaaon mein naam: Uranium (angreji)

Uranium aavart saarani ki ek antarvarti shreni, aiktinaaid shreni (actinide series), ka truteeya tatv hai. is shreni mein aantarik ilektrauneeya parikksha (5 parikksha) ke ilektraun sthaan lete hain. prakruti mein paae gaye tatvon mein yeh sabse bhaari tatv hai. kuchh samay pehle tak is tatv ko chhathe antarvarti samooh ka antim tatv maana jaata tha.

anukram

samasthaanik

Uranium ke samasthaanik aur inki ardhajeevan avadhiyaaain nimnaankit hain:

samasthaanik--- ardhajeevan avadhi--- mukt kan srot

Uranium 238--- 4.51x109 varsh--- ailfa kan--- praakrutik

Uranium 235--- 7.07x109 varsh--- ailfa kan--- praakrutik

Uranium 234--- 2.35x105 varsh--- ailfa kan--- praakrutik

Uranium 239--- 23mint--- beeta kan--- krutrim

Uranium 237--- 6.8din--- beeta kan--- krutrim

Uranium 233--- 1.62x105 varsh--- ailfa kan--- krutrim

Uranium 232--- 70 varsh --- ailfa kan--- krutrim

Uranium 231--- 4.2 din--- ke ilektraun grahan--- krutrim

Uranium 230--- 20.8 din--- ailfa kan--- krutrim

Uranium 229--- 58 minute--- ke ilektraun grahan --- krutrim

Uranium 228--- 9.3 minute--- ailfa kan--- krutrim

praakrutik sroton se praapt Uranium mein 238 samasthaanik 99.28 pratishat, 235 samasthaanik 0.71 pratishat aur 234 samasthaanik 0.006 upasthit rahate hain.

itihaas

Uranium tatv ki khoj 1789 i0 mein klaaprot (Klaproth) dvaara pichbleind naamak ayask se hui. usane nae tatv ka naam kuchh varsh pehle gyaat yoorenas grah ke aadhaar par Uranium rakha. is khoj ke 52 varsh pashchaat‌ peleegaat ne 1841 i0 mein yeh pradarshit kiya ki klaaprot dvaara khoja gaya padaarth Uranium tetraakloraaid ke potaishiym (K) dvaara apachayan se Uranium dhaatu taiyaar ki.

1896 i0 mein henari bekvarel ne Uranium mein rediyon aiktivta ki khoj ki. uske anusandhaanon se gyaat hua ki yeh gun Uranium ke sab yaugikon mein tatha kuchh anya ayaskon mein bhi vartamaan hai. in nireekshanein ke falasvaroop hi pichbleind ayask se rediym ki aitihaasik khoj sambhav ho saki thi.

upasthiti

Uranium pruthvi ki sampoorn oopari satah par faila hai. aisa anumaan hai ki pruthvi ki papadi mein Uranium ki maatra lagbhag 1014 tan hai. is prakaar iski maatra lagbhag 1 gram shail mein 4x10-6 hogi. iski maatra amleeya shail (jaise grainaait) mein adhik aur kshaareeya shail (jaise besaalt) mein kam rahati hai. samudri jal mein bhi Uranium upasthit hai, yadyapi samudri jal mein iski maatra shail mein upasthit maatra ka 1/2000vaaain bhaag hai. itne vistaar se faile hone ke pashchaat‌ bhi iske keval do mukhya ayask gyaat hain, ek pichbleind aur doosra kaurnotaait. pichbleind gahre neele kaale rang ka ayask hai, jismein Uranium oksaaid, (U3 O3), upasthit rahata hai. kaurnotaait mukhyat: potaishiym aur Uranium ka jabli vainedet, (K2 U2 V2O12, 3H2O) gyaat hota hai. pichblaind ayask ke mukhya nikshep kaangon, Africa tatha kainaada mein hain. inke atirikt chekoslovaakiya, Australia amareeka, poorvi Africa, England mein bhi yeh ayask milta hai. kaurnotaait amareeka tatha Australia mein paaya jaata hai. Bhaarat ke jhaarakhand mein Uranium ke ayaskon ki khoj hui hai.

yooreniyyam ayask par aml dvaara abhikriya karne se Uranium ghul jaata hai. tatpashchaat‌ sodiym kaarbonet tatha anya yaugikon ki abhikriya se ashuddhiyaaain door ki jaati hain. ant mein Uranium oksaaid, (U3 O3) banta hai. oksaaid ka kaarban dvaara bhatti mein apachayan ho sakta hai. is prakaar praapt dhaatu dvaara Uranium floraaid ke upachayan se praapt hota hai.

gunadharm

Uranium chamakadaar shvet rang ki dhaatu hai. iska sanket U, parmaanu sankhya 92, parmaanu bhaar 238.03, galanaank 1,130° sein0, kvathanaank anumaanit 3,500° sein0, ghanatv 19.05 gram prati ghan seinmee0, vidyut‌ pratirodhakata 32.76x109 om‌ seinmee0 tatha kristal sanrachana tridki paarshv, kamre ke taap par.

Uranium sakriya tatv hai. poorn avastha mein yeh svat: vaayu mein jal sakta hai. iske dvaara jal ka vightan hokar haaidrojan mukt hota hai. yeh okseejan se 190° sein, kloreen se 180° sein0, bromeen se 210° sein0, aayodeen se 260° sein aur haaidrojan se 250° sein0 par kriya kar yaugik banaata hai. inke atirikt Uranium naaitrojan, kaarban daaioksaaid, kaarban monooksaaid evam anek gaison se abhikriya karta hai. amlon se kriya kar Uranium ke trisanyonjak evam chatussanyojak yaugik bante hain tatha haaidrojan mukt hoti hai.

Uranium ki 5 sanyojakataaeain hain. iski mukhya sanyojakataaeain 4 aur 6 hain. iske lavan badi saralata se jatil aayan banaate hain.

yaugik

iske nimnalikhit yaugik hain:

Uranium oksaaid

Uranium ke paaainch auksaaid gyaat hain.

yadi kisi Uranium oksaaid ka 700° sein0 taap par vaayu mein dahan kiya jaaya to (U3O3) banta hai. yoorenil naaitret ke 300° sein0 par ooshma vightan se (UO3) ka nirmaan hoga. (UO3) ke anek kristaleeya roopaantaran (crystal modifications) hain. sakai 500° sein0 taap par (UO3) ka haaidrojan dvaara apachayan kiya jaaya, to (UO2) ban jaayaga. Uranium ke samast oksaaid naaitrik aml mein ghulakar yoorenil naaitret banaate hain.

yooreniyyam haaidraaid

Uranium dhaatu haaidrojan se lagbhag 250° sein0 taap par kriya kar Uranium haaidraaiu, (UH3), banaata hai. adhik taap par is haaidraaid, ka vightan ho jaata hai. Uranium haaidraaid ke uchch taap par vightan se choorn Uranium praapt hota hai. is kaaran is haaidraaid dvaara kriyaasheel Uranium choorn banaaya jaata hai.

Uranium kaarbaaid

Uranium ke do kaarbaaid gyaat hain. ye kaarban aur drav Uranium ki abhikriya dvaara banaae jaate hain. kaarban monooksaaid aur Uranium dhaatu ki uchch taap par abhikriya dvaara bhi yeh ban sakte hain.

Uranium naaitraaid

naaitrojan ke saath pratikriya kar Uranium anek yaugik banaata hai, jinmein sabse saral Uranium mononaaitraaid, (UN) hai.

Uranium hailaaid

Uranium anek bhaasaleya banaata hai. iske saat floraaid, chaar kloraaid, do bromaaid aur do aayodaaid gyaat hain. Uranium ke anya hailaaid yaugik tatvon ki abhikriya, athva haaidraaid par helojan aml ki kriya, dvaara banaae ja sakte hain.

upayog

naabhik oorja yug ke pehle Uranium ke adhik upayog na the. iska upayog kuchh vishesh prakaar ke tantuon mein hota tha. iske lavan resham ko rangane ka kaarya karte hain. sodiym daaiyoorenet ka upayog porsaleen ke baratanon ko rangane mein hua hai.

parmaanu oorja prayogon ke kaaran Uranium atyadhik upayogi tatv ho gaya hai. iska upayog naabhikeeya shrunkhala abhikriya mein hua hai. is kriya mein 235 bhaar sankhya wala samasthaanik upayogi siddh hua hai. aniyantrit avastha mein is kriya dvaara bhayankar visfot ho sakta hai, jaisa ki parmaanu bamon mein hua hai, parantu niyantrit roop mein aata hai. kuchh riaiktar (atomic reactor) chalaane ke kaam aata hai. kuchh riaiktaron mein saadhaaran Uranium (jismein 235 samasthaanik 0.71 pratishat ho) upayog mein laaya jaata hai, parantu anek riaiktaron mein samruddh Uranium (enriched uranium) kaam mein laate hain. ismein 235 samasthaanik ka pratishat badha dete hain. in kriyaaon mein Uranium naabhik ke nyootraun ka aakraman dvaara vikhandan (fission) ho jaata hai aur nyootraun bhi mukt hote hai, jinse shrunkhanla chalti hai.

92Uranium235 + nyootraun → vikhandit padaarth + nyootaun + oorja

saath mein upasthit Uranium 238 samasthaanik par nyatraun pratikriya dvaara ek naya tatv Plutonium, ploo (Pu), banta hai, jismein Uranium-235 vaale khandaneeya gun vartamaan hain.

92Uranium238 + nyootaun → 92Uranium239 → nepachthooniym23994 Plutonium239

238U + n239U → 239Np → 239Pu

is prakaar 238 samasthaanik bhi oorjaasheel padaarth mein parivrtit ho sakta hai.

ab yeh bhi gyaat hai ki ati uchch taap par teevr nayootraunon ke aakraman dvaara Uranium 238 samasthaanik ka bhi khandan ho sakta hai. is kriya ka upayog aajkal anek taapanaabhikeeya (thermonuclear) bamon mein hua hai.

Bhaarat mein Uranium

Bhaarat mein Uranium ki Khan abhi tak (2006) jaadoogoda mein hi sakriya hain. iske alaava Bhaarat ke kai aur hisson mein Uranium paaya gaya hai lekin un sthaanon par khanan kaarya naheen ho raha hai. in ilaakon mein Andhra pradesh ke nalagonda jile ke kuchh ilaake aur naagaalaind ke kuchh hisse shaamil hain jahaan sthaaneeya log Uranium khanan ka virodh karte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

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