Turkey ka itihaas

terahaveen shataabdi ka ek mangol teerabaaj

Turkey ke itihaas ko turk jaati ke itihaas aur usase poorv ke itihaas ke do adhyaayon mein dekha ja sakta hai. saataveen se baarahaveen sadi ke beech mein madhya Asia se turkon ki kai shaakhaaeain yahaaain aakar baseen. isse pehle yahaaain se pashchim mein aarya (yavan, helenik) aur poorv mein kaukeshiyaai jaatiyon ka basaav raha tha.

Turkey mein isa ke lagbhag 7500 varsh pehle maanav basaav ke pramaan yahaan mile hain. hitti saamraajya ki sthaapana 1900-1300 isa poorv mein hui thi. 1250 isvi poorv trauya ki ladaai mein yavanon (greek) ne trauya shahar ko nestanaaboot kar diya aur aaspaas ke ilaakon par apna niyantran sthaapit kar liya. 1200 isaapoorv se tateeya kshetron mein yavanon ka aagaman aarambh ho gaya. chhathi sadi isaapoorv mein faaras ke shaah saairas ne anaatoliya par apna adhikaar jama liya. iske kareeb 200 varshon ke pashchaat 334 isveepoorv mein sikndar ne faarasiyon ko haraakar ispar apna adhikaar kiya. baad mein sikndar afgaanistaan hote hue Bhaarat tak pahunch gaya tha. isaapoorv 130 isvi mein anaatoliya roman saamraajya ka ang bana. isa ke pachaas varsh baad sant paul ne isaai dharm ka prachaar kiya aur san 313 mein roman saamraajya ne isaai dharm ko apna liya. iske kuchh varshon ke andar hi kaansteintaain saamraajya ka alagaav hua aur kaansteintinopal iski raajadhani banaai gayi. chhathi sadi mein bijentaain saamraajya apne charam par tha par 100 varshon ke bheetar muslim arabon ne ispar apna adhikaar jama liya. baarahavi sadi mein dharmayuddhon mein fanse rahane ke baad bijentaain saamraajya ka patan aarambh ho gaya. san 1288 mein otoman saamraajya ka udaya hua aur san 1453 mein kastunatuniya ka patan. is ghatna ne Europe mein punarjaagaran laane mein apna mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada ki.

anukram

turk prayaan

vartamaan turk pehle yooraal aur altaai parvaton ke beech base hue the. jalavaayu ke bigadne tatha anya kaaranon se ye log aaspaas ke kshetron mein chale gaye. lagbhag ek hajaar varsh poorv ve log Asia maainar mein base. naunvi sadi mein oguj turkon ki ek shaakha kaispiyn saagar ke poorv basi aur dheere-dheere Irani sanskruti ko apanaati gayi. ye saljook turk the.

saljook turk

iske saath hi kaispiyn saagar ke pashchim mein ve madhya Turkey ke konya mein sthaapit ho gaye. 1071 mein un logon ne bijeintaainon ko paraast kar Asia maainar par apna aadhiptya jama liya. madhya tarki mein konya ko rajdhani banaakar unhonne muslim sanskruti ko apnaaya. is saamraajya ko 'rum saltanat' kehte hain kyoki is ilaake mein pehle istaanbul ke roman shaasakon ka adhikaar tha jiske naam par is ilaake ko rum kehte the. yeh vahi samay tha jab Turkey ke madhya (aur dheere-dheere uttar) bhaag mein isaai romanon (aur greekon) ka prabhaav ghatata gaya. isi kram mein Europeeyon ka unke pavitra isaai bhoomi, yaani yerushalam aur aaspaas ke kshetron se sampark toot gaya - kyoki ab yahaaain isaai ke badle muslim shaasakon ka raaj ho gaya tha. apne isaai teerth sthaanon ki yaatra ka maarg sunishchit karne aur kai anya kaaranon ki vajah se Europe mein Pope ne dharm yuddhon ka aahvaan kiya. yorop se aae dharm yoddhaaon ne yahaaain poorvi Turkey par adhikaar banaae rakha par pashchimi bhaag mein saljookon ka saamraajya bana raha. lekin inke darbaar mein faarasi bhaasha aur sanskruti ko bahut mahatva diya gaya. apne saamaanaantar ke poorvi samraaton, gajni ke shaasakon ki tarah, inhonne bhi turk shaasan mein faarasi bhaasha ko darbaar ki bhaasha banaaya. saljook darbaar mein hi sabse bade soofi kavi roomi (janm 1215) ko aashray mila aur us dauraan likhi shaairi ko soofeevaad ki shreshth rachana maana jaata hai. san 1220 ke dashak se mangolon ne apna dhyaan idhar ki taraf lagaaya. kai mangolon ke aakraman se unke sangathan ko bahut kshati pahuainchi aur 1243 mein saamraajya ko mangolon ne jeet liya. haaainlaanki iske shaasak 1308 tak shaasan karte rahe par saamraajya bikhr gaya.

usmaani saamraajya

mangolon ka prabhaav samaapt hote hi aatoman saamraajya ki sthaapana hui jiska pratham samraat usamaan tha. is samay tarki ki seemaaon mein bahut vistaar hua. 1516 aur 1517 mein kramash: Syria aur misr jeet liya gaya. sulataan sulemaan ke shaasanakaal mein Asia maainar, kuchh arab pradesh, uttari Africa, poorvi bhoomadhyasaagareeya dweep, baalakan, kaakeshas aur kreemiya mein tarki ka prabhutv tha. 18veen aur 19veen shataabdiyon mein raashtreeyata ke udaya se tarki ki seemaaeain sankuchit hoti gain aur uske dvaara adhikrut pradesh ek ek kar svatantr hote gaye.

raajashaahi ka ant

satrahaveen sadi ke uttaraardh mein roos se shatruta aarambh hui aur 1854 mein kreemiya ka yuddh hua.

1839 mein vyaapak sudhaar aandolan aarambh hua, jisse sulataan ke adhikr niyantrit kar diye gaye. isi aashay ka ek samvidhaan 1876 mein paarit hua, kintu ek varsh tak chalne ke baad vah sthagit ho gaya. tab vahaaain aniyantrit raajatantr pun: sthaapit ho gaya. 1908 mein yuvak kraanti hui, jiske baad 1876 ka samvidhaan fir laagoo hua. 1913 mein sulataan mehamat shaasan ka adhyaksh bana. pratham vishvashuddh ke samay tarki ke netaaon ne Germany ka saath diya. is yuddh mein tarki paraajit hue. yuddh-viraam-sandhi ke hote hi anabar paasha aur uske sahayogi anya sheershastareeya neta tarki chhodkar bhaag gaye. Asia maaigar aadi kshetr Britain, fraaains, grees aur Italy mein batain gaye. 1919 mein grees ne anaatoliya par aakraman kiya, kintu mustafa kamaal (kamaal ataaturk) ke netrutv mein hue sangharsh mein (1922) grees paraajit hua. sulataan ka prabhaav ksheen hone laga aur Ankara mein mustafa kamaal ke netrutv mein vyaapak maanyataapraapt raashtreeya sarkaar ki sthaapana hui. 1923 ki laasen sandhi ke anusaar tarki ka prabhutv Asia maainar tatha thres ke kuchh bhaag par maan liya gaya. 29 October 1923 ko tarki ganaraajya ghoshit hua.

iske pashchaat tarki mein ataaturk sudhaaron ke naam se anek saamaajik raajaneetik aur vidhik sudhaar hue. ganataantrik samvidhaan mein dharmanirpekshata, dhaarmik sangathanon ke utmoolan aur striyon ke uddhaar aadi ki vyavastha hui. arabi lipi ke sthaan par roman lipi ka prachalan ghoshit hua. mustafa kamaal ki mrutyu (1938) ke poorv tak uske netrutv mein Republican people's party atyadhik prabhaavashaali aur mukhya raajaneetik sangathan ke roop mein rahi.

yuddh aur uparaant

right|thumb|300px|aadhunik Turkey ke sansthaapak mustafa kamaal paasha pratham vishvayuddh mein Turkey ne Germany ka saath diya. 1919 mein mustafa kamaal paasha (ataaturk) ne desh ka aadhunikeekaran aarambh kiya. unhonne shiksha, prashaasan, dharm ityaadi ke kshetron mein paaramparikta chhodi aur Turkey ko aadhunik raashtra ke roop mein sthaapit kiya.

dviteeya vishvayuddh mein tarki praaya: tatasth raha. 1945 mein yeh "sanyukt raashtrasangh" (you. N. O.) ka sadasya bana. 1947 mein sanyukt raajya amareeka ne tarki ko roos ke viruddh sainik sahaayata dene ka vachan diya. vah sahaayata ab bhi jaari hai. is samay tarki naato, seinto aur baalkan paikt ka sadasya hai.

muslim-tarki dharmanirpeksh raashtra hai. samvidhaan mein dhaarmik svatantrata ka poora aashvaasan hai. musalmaanon mein sunni bahusankhyak hain. Turkey yahaaain praaya: saarvabhaum bhaasha hai. ismein varnon ki rachana dhvani par aadhaarit hai. 1928 ke bhaashaasudhaar aandolan se arabi lipi ke sthaan par roman lipi ka prayog hone laga hai.

1960 tak tatkaaleen pradhaan mantri meindareej (Menderes) ne vidhik svaatantrya, bhaasha, lekhan aur press svaatantrya par rok laga di. iske viruddh prabal aandolan hua. 27 May 1960 ko pradhaan mantri meindareej aur raashtrapati baayar (Bayar) "national unity committee" (National unity committee) dvaara giraftaar kar liye gaye. general gurasel (Gursel) kaaryavaahak adhyaksh tatha pradhaan mantri ke roop mein kaarya karne lage. grand national assembly ki sthaapana hui aur 1961 mein general gurasel raashtrapati nirvaachit hue.

1961 ke samvidhaan mein tarki pun: prajaataantrik dharmanirpeksh ganaraajya bana, jismein janaadhikaaron tatha vidhismmat nyaaya ki poorn vyavastha hai. raashtra par kisi ek vyakti, samooh ya varg ka adhikaar naheen hai.

tarki ki aadhi raashtreeya aay ka srot krushi hai. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke pashchaat udyogeekaran ki or raashtra ki pravrutti badhi. krushi ke kshetr mein masheenon ke prayog ne vishesh kraanti ko janm diya. 1960 mein sainik shaasan sthaapit hone ke samay tarki ki aarthik sthiti santoshajanak naheen thi. vikaas-yojanaaon ko teji se badha dene ke kaaran tarki rinagrast ho gaya. vyaapaar mein ghaate ki sthiti utpann ho gayi. iske baad aarthik unnati ke liye vyayon mein katauti, moolyaniyantran ka unmoolan, karon mein sanshodhan aadi aavashyak kadam uthaae gaye.

tarki mein praakrutik saadhan to prachur maatra mein hain, kintu antararaashtreeya vyaapaar ke liye use masheeni udyog mein adhik vyaya karna padta hai. iske nimitt use paashchaatya deshon se, visheshakar amareeka se, rin bhi milta hai. 1990 ke dashak mein desh mein mudraasfeeti 70% tak badh gayi thi.

saaraansh

  • turk (500-1300)
  • rum saltanat (1000–1300)
  • anaatoli biliks
  • aatomaan saamraajya (1299–1922)
  • Turkey ka svatantrata sangraam (1919-1922)
  • Turkey ganatantr (1923–)

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein