Turkey bhaasha parivaar

vishv ke desh (gaadhe neele rang mein) aur pradesh (halake neele rang mein) jahaaain Turkey bhaashaaoain ko sarkaari maanyata praapt hai
san 735 ke lagbhag taraashe gaye ek orakhon shilaalekh ka hissa
yooreshiya mein Turkey bhaashaaoain ka failaav

Turkey bhaashaaeain paintees se bhi adhik bhaashaaoain ka ek bhaasha-parivaar hai. Turkey bhaashaaeain poorvi Europe aur bhoomadhya saagar se lekar saaiberiya aur pashchimi cheen tak boli jaati hain. kuchh bhaashaavaijnyaaanik inhein altaai bhaasha parivaar ki ek shaakha maanate hain. vishv mein lagbhag 16.5 se 18 karod log Turkey bhaashaaeain apni maatrubhaasha ke roop mein bolte hain aur agar sabhi Turkey bhaashaaoain ko bol sakane vaalon ki ganana ki jaae to kreeb 25 karod log inhein bol sakte hain. sab se adhik boli jaane waali Turkey bhaasha ka naam bhi Turkey hai, haalaanki kabhi-kabhi ise anaatolvi bhi kaha jaata hai (kyonki yeh anaatoliya mein boli jaati hai).

anukram

visheshataaeain

Turkey bhaashaaoain mein kuchh visheshataaeain dekhi ja sakti hain -

  • abhishleshan (aglootineshan) - Turkey bhaashaaon mein shabd chhote arthapoorn roopimon ko jod-jodkar banaae jaate hain. misaal ke liye uigur bhaasha (jo Turkey parivaar ki ek sadasya hai) mein chaar roopimon (at/ghoda, lar/bahuvaachi, im/mera, ga/ko) ko jodkar "atalarimga" shabd banta hai jiska arth hai "mere ghodon ko".[1]
  • svar sahayog - bahut kam ko chhodkar, lagbhag saari Turkey bhaashaaoain mein kuchh svar ek saath kisi shabd mein aa sakte hain aur kuchh svaron ko ek shabd mein ek-saath maujood hone ki anumati naheen hai.
  • ling ya anya tatvon ka vyaakaran mein bhed naheen - hindi mein ling aur sankhya ke anusaar sanjnyaaaon aur anya shabdon ke roop badalate hain ("ghoda hota hai, ghodi hoti hai, ghode hote hain"). Turkey bhaashaaoain mein aisa kuchh naheen hai.

itihaas aur hindi par prabhaav

mangoliya ki orakhon ghaati mein sthit orakhon shilaalekh kisi bhi Turkey bhaasha mein mile sab se puraane mile lekh hain aur inmein prayogit bhaasha ko puraani Turkey bhaasha kaha jaata hai. yeh shilaaeain 732 aur 735 i॰ ke beech ke kaal mein kul tigin aur bilge kaagaan naamak do gokaturk kbeele ke saradaaron ke sammaan mein khadi ki gayi theen. Turkey bhaashaaoain par sabse pehla gahra adhyayan kaaraakhaan saltanat ke vaasi kashgarali Mehmood ne apni 11vi shataabdi mein likhi kitaab "divaanue lugaatit tuऍrk" mein poora kiya. yeh Turkey boliyon ka sab se pehla vistrut shabdakosh tha aur ismein Turkey bhaashaaeain bolne vaalon ke failaav ka sab se pehla gyaat naksha tha.

chhathi shataabdi ke baad Turkey-bhaashi faujein poore madhya Asia par haavi ho gain. afgaanistaan aur bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke uttari ilaakon par bhi inka kbja ho gaya. Delhi saltanat ke gulaam vansh ke sabhi shaasak (jaise ki kutub-ud-deen aibak, iltutamish, vagairaah) aur mugl saamraajya ke pratham shaasak baabar Turkey maatrubhaashi the. baabar dvaara likhit aitihaasik varnan, baabaranaama, bhi Turkey parivaar ki chagta​aai bhaasha mein likha hua hai. is prabhaav se Turkey ke bahut se shabd faarasi, hindi-urdoo, roosi aur hangeriyaai bhaasha mein sama gaye. hindi mein Turkey shabdon ki soochi bahut lambi hai aur yeh shabd aksar arabi-faarasi se bhinn aur hindi ke deshaj shabdon ki tarah hi lagte hain, jaise ki naukar, bahaadur, chaadar, chamacha, kainchi, hava, chhatari, kuli (saamaan uthaane wala) aur top.

uchchaaran sahaayata

dhyaan dein ke is lekh mein aur Turkey bhaashaaoain mein prayog hone vaale 'kh' varn ka sahi uchchaaran 'kh' se jra bhinn hota hai. isi tarah 'g' varn ka sahi uchchaaran 'g' se bhinn hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Spoken Uyghur, Reinhard F. Hahn, University of Washington Press, 2006, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780295986517.