Trinidad

त्रिनिदाद और टोबैगो का मानचित्र

Trinidad (angreji: trinidaad, spainish:triniti) kairebiyaai ya keribiyn saagar mein ek dweep hai. Trinidad aur Tobago dweep milkar ek dweep desh ka nirmaan karte hain. iname se Trinidad jyaada badaa aur saghan janasankhya wala dweep hai. Trinidad kairibiyn ke sabse dakshini chhor par sthit dweep hai aur Venezuela ke poorvi tat se sirf 11 kimi (7 meal) door hai. Trinidad, poore vest Indies ka sabse bada chhathe sthaan ka dweep hai. iska kshetrafal 4769 kimi ² (1864 varg mi.) hai aur yeh 10 ° 3'N 60 ° 55'W / 10,05, -60,917 aur 10 ° 50'N 61 ° 55'W / 10,833, -61,917 ke beech sthit hai. chagavaanas Trinidad ka pramukh nagar hai. yahaaain bhaarateeya mool nivaasiyon ka baahulya hai.

vishvaas kiya jaata hai ki praacheen kaal mein vah dakshini amareeka ka ek bhaag raha hoga. dweep ki aakruti vargaakaar tatha kshetrafal 48,46,04 varg kimi. hai jiske uttari-pashchimi tatha dakshini-pashchimi kone mein do praayadveep hain. uttar tatha dakshin mein ek dweep ke madhya mein parvateeya shrrunkhalaaeain poorv se pashchim dweep ke aar paar faili hui hain. eripo parvat uttar-poorv mein hai jiski ooainchaai 973 meter hai. yahaaain anek tej tatha chhoti dhaaraaeain hain. jalavaayu garm tatha tar hai. ausat taap 25 degree sein0 hai. adhikaansh varsha June se December tak hoti hai. adhikaansh bhookshetr jangalon se dhaka hua hai. khaadyaannon ke atirikt kahava, ikh, kela tatha anya garam aur tar jalavaayu ke fal prachur maatra mein paida hote hain. Europeeya nivaasiyon mein angrej, fraanseesi, purtagaali tatha speni mukhya hain. aadivaasiyon mein afreeki jaati ke log hain.

dakshin-pashchim mein sthit pitch jheel se hajaaron tan daamar (Asphalt) nikaala jaata hai. khanij tel, cheeni, kahava, sharaab, tatha daamar niryaat ki mukhya vastueain hain. dweep mein 188.8 kimi. lambi railway tatha 3742.4 kimi. lambi sadkein hain. yahaaain ki rajdhani tatha mukhya bandargaah portaspain hai. doosra mukhya nagar tatha bandargaah sen fanaraindo hai. angreji adhikaansh logon ki bhaasha hai.

itihaas

Trinidad aur Tobago dveepon ka itihaas Amreeki mool nivaasiyon ki bastiyon ke saath shuroo hota hai. donon dveepon se Christopher kolanbas ka saakshaatakaar apni teesari yaatra par, 1498 ki July mein hua tha. yeh naam bhi usi ka diya hua hai. 1552 tak yeh dweep upekshit raha aur spenavaalon ne ispar adhikaar karne ki ruchi naheen dikhaai.

Tobago british, fraanseesi, dach aur koralandar ke haathon me jaakar antat: Britain ke haathon mein chala gaya. 1797 tak Trinidad par spainish logon ka adhiptya tha, lekin fraanseesi ek bade paimaane par yahaaain bane rahe. 1888 mein dono dveepon ek hi upanivesh mein shaamil the. Trinidad aur Tobago ne 1962 mein british saamraajya se apni svatantrata praapt ki aur 1976 mein ek ganaraajya bana.

iske baad dheere-dheere spenavaale yahaaain aae lekin sthaaneeya "indiynon" tatha anya yooropiynon mein hue sangharsh ne yooropiynon ka basana kathin kar diya. kuchh dinon tak yeh dweep speni vyaapaariyon ka kendra raha. das vyaapaar ne janm liya. fir bhi Spain ke anya log vahaaain jaane mein ruchi naheen lete the. 1783 mein Spain ki sarkaar ne anya raashtron ke logon ko basane ki anumati de di. iska parinaam yeh hua ki bahut se log, visheshataya fraanseesi, vahaaain pahuainche aur dweep naamamaatr ko Spain ka rah gaya. 1802 mein trinidaid angrejon ke adhikaar mein aa gaya aur svatantr hone tak (31 August 1962 tak) ve hi uske adhikaari bane rahe.

trinidaid mein neegro aur bhaarateeyon ne aarthik maamalon mein ek doosare par aashrit hote hue bhi apni saanskrutik bhinnata ko naheen mitne diya hai. antarvivaahon ki sankhya naganya hai. yeh saanskrutik aur jaateeya antar raajaneeti mein bhi bhoomika ada karta hai. neegro praaya: nagaron mein tatha trinidaud ke uttari, poorvi aur dakshin-poorvi sthaanon par, jahaaain krushi ke liye achhi suvidhaaeain naheen hain, base hue hain. bhaarateeya achhi krushiyogya bhoomi mein base hue hain aur neegro logon ki apeksha vyaapaar, udyog aadi mein adhik sampann hain.

sneni raajya ke kaal se 19veen shataabdi tak cheeni hi yahaaain ka mukhya utpaadan raha. 1834 mein daasapratha ke samaapt hone ke kaaran shramashakti ka abhaav ho gaya. iske liye lagbhag 1 lakh 50 hajaar bhaarateeyon ko basaaya gaya. 19veen shataabdi ke ant tak koko ka utpaadan adhik badha aur usaka niryaat cheeni se bhi adhik hone laga. 1910 mein dakshin trinidaid mein petrol praapt hua. us samay se aaj tak trinidaid ki arthavyavastha mein usaka mahatvapoorn sthaan hai.

sameepasth dweep Tobago mein sabse pehle angrej 1616 mein basane ke liye pahuainche, kintu vahaaain ke "indiynon" ne unhein vahaaain naheen rahane diya. agale 200 varshon tak vahaaain anek jagahon se log aate jaate rahe. antatogatva 1814 mein vahaaain angrejon ka adhikaar ho gaya, jo lagbhag 150 varsh tak bana raha. is samay tak Tobago pruthak upanivesh ke roop mein shaasit tha, 1888 mein trinidaid ke saath ise mila diya gaya. donon saath hi saath ek raashtra ke roop mein svatantr hue.