Thomas haardi


Thomas haardi

janm 6 (1840)
stinsafrd, dorachestar, dauraset, England
mrutyu saaaincha:Death-date and age
dorachestar, dauraset, England
vyavasaaya upanyaasakaar aur kavi
saahityik aandolan prakrutivaad
jeevanasaathi Emma Lavinia Gifford
(1874–1912)
Florence Dugdale
(1914–28)

Thomas haardi (2 June 1840 -- 11 January 1928) prakrutivaadi aandolan ke angreji upanyaasakaar aur kavi the.apne jeevanakaal mein vah apne upanyaason ke liye adhik prasiddh the jabki unhonne svanya ko mukhya roop se kavi maana hai.

haardi ki angreji saahitya ko mahatvapoorn den hai. unhonne ek chhote se kshetr ka vishesh adhyayan kiya aur kshetreeya saahitya ki srushti ki. hindi mein is prakaar ke saahitya ko aanchalik saahitya kah rahe hain. unhonne maanav jeevan ke sambandh mein apne saahitya mein aadhaarbhoot prashn uthaae tatha jo maryaada poorvakaal mein mahaakaavya aur du:khaant naatak ko praapt thi, vah upanyaas ko pradaan ki. ve anek paatron ke srashta aur adbhut‌ kahaaneekaar the kintu inke paatron mein sabse adhik sashakt beseks hai. is paatr ne kaal ka pravaah udaaseenataabhare netron se dekha hai, jinmein nyaaya aur uchit anuchit ki koi apeksha naheen. taumas haardi ka janm veseks pradesh mein hua. yeh pradesh praacheen kaal mein England ke nakshe par tha, kintu ab naheen hai. unka sabhi saahitya veseks se sambandhit hai. unke upanyaas 'veseks ke upanyaas' kahalaate hain aur unki kavita 'veseks ki kavita'.

anukram

jeevan

Thomas haardi ka janm England ke haayar baukahaimpatan ke dauraset (dorachestar ke poorv mein stinsafrd ki palli ke gaanv) mein hua tha. unke pita (Thomas) ek raaj aur sthaaneeya nirmaata ke roop mein kaam karte the. unki maaain jemima sushikshit theen aur unhonne tab tak Thomas ko padhaaya jab tak vah aath saal ki umr mein baukahaimpatan mein apne pehle school mein padhne naheen chale gaye. kai saalon tak vah shri laast dvaara sanchaalit school mein padhte rahe. yahaan unhonne laitin bhaasha seekhi aur shaikshik pratibha ka parichay diya. [1] lekin haardi ke parivaar ki saamaajik sthiti aisi na thi ki unhein shiksha ke liye vishvavidyaalaya bheja ja sake aur 16 varsh ki aayu mein unki aupachaarik shiksha samaapt ho gayi aur vah John hiks, ek sthaaneeya vaastukaar ke yahaan shikshu ban gaye. dorachestar mein vaastukaar ke roop mein prashikshit hokar haardi 1862 mein London chale gaye; vahaan unhonne kings college, London mein chhaatr ke roop mein daakhila liya. unhonne royal instityoot of british aarkitekts aur aarkitekchural association se puraskaar jeete. London mein haardi ko kabhi apanaapan anubhav naheen hua. vah varg vibhaajan aur apni saamaajik heenata ke prati bahut sachet the. tathaapi, saamaajik sudhaar mein unki dilchaspi thi aur vah John stuart mil ke kaam se parichit the. is avadhi ke dauraan unke doraset ke mitr hores mall ne unka parichay Charles foriyr aur ogaste kaumte ke kaam se karavaaya. paanch saal baad, apne svaasthya ke kaaran vah doraset laut aae aur svanya ko lekhan ke prati samarpit karne ka faisala kiya.

1870 mein, kaurnavaul[2] mein seint juliyet ke paarish church ke jeernoddhaar ke vaastushilp mission par aae haardi ki mulaakaat ema laiviniya gifrd se hui aur unamein pyaar ho gaya, 1874 mein unhonne usase shaadi kar li. [3][4] haalaanki vah baad mein patni se alag ho gaye par 1912 mein usaki maut se unhein gahra sadama pahuncha. usaki mrutyu ke baad, apne pranaya sambandh se jude sthaanon ki dobaara yaatra karne haardi kaurnavaul gaye, poyams 1912-13 mein usaki mrutyu ki chhaap milti hai. 1914 mein, haardi ne apne se 39 saal chhoti, apni sachiv floreins emili dagadel se shaadi kar li. fir bhi vah apni pehli patni ki maut se ubhar naheen paae aur kaavya-lekhan se apne dukh ko bhulaane ki koshish karte rahe. [5]

chitr:Thomas Hardy's heart.JPG
stinsafrd pairish church jahaan Thomas haardi ka hradaya dafn hai

December 1927 mein haardi ko fusfus ke aavaran mein shoth ka rog ho gaya aur 11 January 1928 ko raat ke 9 baje apni patni ko apni antim kavita likhvaane ke baad vah chal base; mrutyu pramaan-patra mein mrutyu ka kaaran diya gaya, "hradaya ki moorchha", "budhaapa" ek anshadaayi kaarak ke roop mein uddhrut tha. 16 January ko unka antim sanskaar vestaminstar ebe mein hua jo ek vivaadaaspad avsar saabit hua kyonki haardi, unke parivaar aur mitron ki ichha thi ki unhein stinsafrd mein unki pehli patni ema ki kabr mein hi dafnaaya jaae. tathaapi, unke nishpaadak, sar Sydney kaaralaail kaukeral ne is baat par jor diya ki unhein aibi ke prasiddh poyats corner mein dafn kiya jaae. ek samjhaute kiya gaya aur unka dil stinsafrd mein ema ke saath aur asthiyaan poyats corner mein dafnaai gayi.

haardi ke mrutyu ke fauran baad, unki sampatti ke nishpaadakon ne unke patron aur notabuks ko jala diya. baarah record bache, unamein se ek mein 1820 ke dashak ke nots aur akhbaar mein chhapi kahaaniyon ke uddharan the. inke shodh se pata chala ki kaise haardi ne un par nazar rakhi aur kis tarah unka prayog apne baad ke kaarya mein kiya.[6] jis saal unki mrutyu hui usi saal shreemati haardi ne the arli laaif of Thomas haardi,1841-1891 prakaashit karavaai: jo samakaaleen nots, patron, daayari, sansmaran aur kai barso ki maukhik baatcheet ka sankalan tha.

haardi ke kaam ki di.H. Lawrence aur varjeeniya vulf jaise kai lekhakon ne prashansa ki. apni aatmakatha gudabaaya too all dait mein Robert grevs ne 1920 ke dashak ke shuroo mein doraset mein haardi ke saath bheint ki yaad ko taaja kiya hai. haardi ne usaka aur usaki nai patni ka garmajoshi se svaagat kiya aur uske kaam ki saraahana ki.

1910 mein, haardi ko order of merit se sammaanit kiya gaya.

dorachestar mein baukahaimpatan aur maiks gate mein haardi ke makaan raashtreeya trast ke svaamitv mein hain.

saahityaseva

haardi ne kavitaalekhan se saahityaseva aarambh ki, kintu praathamik rachanaaeain unhonne nasht kar Dean. 1870 se 1898 tak unhonne kathaasaahitya ko samruddh kiya. ve jeevan aur sansaar ke parichaalan mein koi nyaaya athva vyavastha na dekhte the unke anusaar ek andhi shakti is jagat‌ ke kaaryakalaapon ka parichaalan karti thi. is andhi shakti ko ve 'immeneint vil' kehte the - aisi chaalakashakti jo jeevan aur sansaar mein nihit hai.

apne kathaasaahitya mein haardi ne jagat‌ ke vyaapaaron par apna aakraman uttarottar adhik teekha kiya. pehle upanyaason mein yeh apekshaakrut halka hai. 1879 mein unki pehli upalabdh rachana prakaashit hui, 'desparet rimedeej', 1872 mein doosari, 'under di greenavud tri' aur 1873 mein teesari 'A peyar ov blyoo aaij'. agali rachana 'faar fraam di maiding kraaud' adhik praudh kruti hai aur iske prakaashan ke baad unki khyaati badhi. aatmavishvaas praapt kar haardi ne vishv ki gati par apna aaghaat adhik teevr kar diya. is kaal ki rachanaaon mein sarvashreshth hain - 'di vudalaindars', 'di return ov di netiv', 'di tranpet major' aur 'di mayor ov vaastarabrij'. iske baad do upanyaas aur likhe gaye jinmein haardi ghor niraasha mein doob gaye hain.

aalochakon ke prahaaron se ghabaraakar haardi ne upanyaas likhna chhodkar kavita likhna shuru kiya. bees varsh tak unhonne kavita likhi aur apne liye khyaati ke nae dwaar khole. kavita mein bhi haardi apne vichaaradarshan ko vyakt karte rahe, kintu kavitaaon mein vyakt aaghaaton se paathak aur aalochak us had tak marmaahat na hue. haardi ka kehna tha ki 'yadi gaililiyo ne kavita mein likha hota ki pruthvi ghoomti hai, to shaayad unhein itni takaleef na sahani padti.' kavita ko ek baar pun: apnaakar haardi apne saahityik jeevan ke pratham prem ki or mude the.

isi beech inhonne apni sabse mahatvapoorn kruti 'di daainaasts' (The dynasts) likhi. yeh teen bhaagon mein prakaashit hui. yeh rachana naatak ke roop mein mahaakaavya hai. ise bhautik rangamanch par naheen khela ja sakta. iska abhinay kalpana ke manch par hi sambhav hai. kathaavastu naipoliyn ke abhiyaan se sambandhit hai. yeh vishvavijeta bhi kroor niyti ka shikaar tha. jeevan ki shakti kaalachakr ko ghumaati rahati hai aur sadaachaari tatha duraachaari sabhi usamein piste rahate hain. is rachana mein haardi ka vichaaradarshan bahut spashtata se vyakt hua hai.

dhaarmik mat

haardi ka parivaar angareji church ko maanata tha lekin kattar anuyaayi naheen tha. paanch saptaah ki umr mein unka bapatisma hua aur vah church ko jaaya karte the, jahaan unke pita aur chaacha sangeet ke liye yogadaan dete the. fir bhi vah England ki sthaaneeya church ke school mein naheen gaye, unhein teen meal door shri laast ke school mein bheja gaya. naujavaan yuva ke roop mein, unki dosti henri aar. baisto (plaaimaauth braidarn ka sadasya) se hui jisne vaastukaar chhaatr ke roop mein bhi kaam kiya aur jo baiptist church mein vayask bapatisma ki taiyaari kar raha tha. haardi ne dharm parivartan par vichaar to kiya par fir parivrtit na hone ka faisala kiya.[7] baisto Australia chala gaya, lambe arase tak unke beech patraachaar chalta raha lekin antat: haardi is aadaan-pradaan se thak gaye aur patraachaar band ho gaya. iske saath hi baipatist ke saath haardi ka sambandh samaapt ho gaya.

jeevan mein bhaagya ke baare mein haardi ka vichaar parameshvar ke saath daarshanik sangharsh mein parilkshit hua. haalaanki haardi ka vishvaas barkaraar raha kintu jeevan ki vidanbanaaon aur sangharshon ke kaaran unhonne parameshvar ke baare mein paaramparik isaai drushtikon par savaal uthaae:

The Christian god — the external personality — has been replaced by the intelligence of the First Cause…athe replacement of the old concept of God as all-powerful by a new concept of universal consciousness. The 'tribal god, man-shaped, fiery-faced and tyrannous' is replaced by the 'unconscious will of the Universe' which progressively grows aware of itself and 'ultimately, it is to be hoped, sympathetic'.[8]
haardi ke dhaarmik jeevan mein ajnyaeyavaad, aastikta aur adhyaatmavaad ka mila-jula roop dekhne ko milta hai. ek baar, jab ek paadari ne patra dvaara peeda ki yaatana ko pyaar karne vaale parameshvar ki neki ke saath milaane ko kaha, haardi ne javaab diya, 
Mr. Hardy regrets that he is unable to offer any hypothesis which would reconcile the existence of such evils as Dr. Grosart describes with the idea of omnipotent goodness. Perhaps Dr. Grosart might be helped to a provisional view of the universe by the recently published Life of Darwin, and the works of Herbert Spencer, and other agnostics.[9]


fir bhi, haardi aksar brahmaand ko niyantrit karne waali alaukik shaktiyon ke baare mein socha karte the aur likha karte the, vah aisa kisi drudh vishvaas ki bajaae nirpeksh bhaav mein aur mauj mein aakar karte the. iske alaava, haardi ke lekhan se kuchh had tak bhooton aur aatmaaon ke prati unke aakarshan ka bhi pata chalta hai.[9] in bhaavanaaon ke baavajood, haardi isaai upaasana aur church ki rasmon se bhaavanaatmak roop se jude rahe, visheshakar jo graameen samudaayon mein prachalit hain, jeevan ke praarambhik varshon mein un par inka bahut nirmaanaatmak prabhaav pada aur haardi ke anek upanyaason mein baaibil sandarbhon ki bharamaar dekhi ja sakti hai.

John hiks ke yahaan shikshuta ke dauraan haardi ke doston mein shaamil the hores mall (henri mall ke aath putron mein se ek) aur kavi William baarns, dono hi paadari the. mall jindagi bhar haardi ke kareebi dost rahe aur baaibal ki shaabdik vyaakhya[10] par sandeh uthaane waali nai vaigyaanik khojon se jaise ki gidon maintel ki, unka parichay karavaaya . mall ne 1858 mein haardi ko maintel ki pustak the vandars of jiyolauji (1848) ki prati di, edelin baklaind ka vichaar hai ki maintel ke bhoovaijnyaaanik varnan aur A peyar of blue aaij ke "klifhaingar" vaale khand mein "akaatya samaanataaen" hain. yeh sujhaav bhi diya gaya hai ki A peyar of blue aaij mein henri night ka paatr hores mall par aadhaarit tha.[11]

upanyaas

chitr:Hardy's Cottage.JPG
haayar baukahaimpatan mein Thomas haardi ka janmasthaan, jahaan under the greenavud tri aur faar fraum the maiding kraaud ki rachana hui

1867 mein poorn kiya gaya haardi ka pehla upanyaas, the pooar main end the ledi ko prakaashit karne ke liye koi prakaashak raaji naheen hua aur haardi ne paandulipi nasht kar di, isliye upanyaas ke kuchh hisse hi upalabdh hain. unke guru aur dost, viktoriyn upanyaasakaar aur kavi George meredith ne unhein dobaara prayaas karne ke liye protsaahit kiya. desparit remedeej (1871) aur under the greenavud tri (1872) agyaat roop se prakaashit kiye gaye the. haardi ke apni pehli patni ke saath pranaya sambandhon par aadhaarit upanyaas A peyar of blue aaij 1873 mein unke apne naam se prakaashit hua. "klifhaingar" shabd ka udbhav is kahaani ke dhaaraavaahik roopaantar se maana jaata hai (jo sitmbar 1872 aur July 1873 ke beech tinslej maigajeen mein prakaashit hua) jismein ek naayak henri night ko vaastav mein chattaan se latakata hua chhod diya jaata hai.

haardi ne kaha ki unhonne pehli baar veseks ko apne agale upanyaas faar fraum the maiding kraaud (1874) mein pesh kiya. yeh itna safal raha ki haardi ne vaastushilp ka kaam chhodkar saahitya ko apni jeevan-vrutti ke roop mein apna liya. agale pachchees saalon ke samayakaal mein haardi ne das se adhik upanyaason ki rachana ki.

haardi parivaar London se yeovil aur fir staraminstar nyootan chala gaya, jahaan unhonne the return of the netiv (1878) ki rachana ki. 1885 mein, ve antim baar dorachestar ke baahar haardi dvaara dijaain kiye gaye aur unke bhaai dvaara nirmit makaan maiks gate mein ja base. yahaan unhonne the mayor of kestarabrij (1886), the vudalaindars (1887) aur tes of di deeurbaravils (1891) likhe, inmein se antim upanyaas mein "patit stri" ke sahaanubhootipoorn chitran ki kaafi aalochna ki gayi aur shuroo mein iske prakaashan se inkaar kar diya gaya tha. iske upasheershak, A pyor vuman: fethafuli prejeinted ki mansha Victoria kaal ke madhyam varg par uaingali uthaani thi.

1895 mein prakaashit jood the obaskyor mein yaun ke mukt vivechan ki viktoriyn janta ne or bhi ninda ki aur ise praay: "jood the obaseen" kehkar pukaara jaata tha. kaamonmaad jaisi sankalpanaaon ko prastut kar vivaah ki sanstha par khuleaam chot karne ke liye bhaari roop se nindit is pustak ne haardi ke pehle se daanvaadol vaivaahik jeevan par aur nakaaraatmak davaab daala kyonki ema haardi ko chinta thi ki jood the obaskyor ko aatmakatha ke roop mein padha jaaega. kuchh pustak vikretaaon ne upanyaas ko bhoore rang ke lifaafon mein daalkar becha aur kaha jaata hai ki bishp of vekafeeld ne apni prati jala di. [6] 1912 ke apne upasanhaar mein, haardi ne is ghatna ka havaala majaak ke taur par pustak ke kairiyr ka bhaag kehkar diya: "press ke in (ugr) faisalon ke baad iska agala durbhaagya ek bishp dvaara jalaaya jaana tha - shaayad mujhe na jala paane ki hataasha mein".[12]

is aalochna ke baavajood, 1900 ke dashak tak kai behad safal upanyaas likhkar haardi angreji saahitya mein apna sthaan bana chuke the kintu apni do badi krutiyon par saarvajanik pratikriya se unamein virkti jaag uthi aur unhonne upanyaas lekhan poori tarah chhod diya. haardi dvaara likhit anya upanyaason mein shaamil hai khagol vigyaan ke jagat par aadhaarit ek prem kahaani too on A tower

saahityik vishay

haalaanki unhonne kaafi kavitaaen likheen par 1898 tak adhiktar aprakaashit hi raheen isliye haardi ko 1871 aur 1895 ke beech likhe upanyaason ki shrrunkhala aur chhoti kahaaniyon ke liye hi zyaada yaad kiya jaata hai. unke upanyaas veseks, dakshin aur dakshin pashchim England ka vishaal kshetr jiska naam us kshetr ke englo-saiksan raajya ke naam par pada, ke kaalpanik jagat ki prushthabhoomi mein rachit hain. haardi do duniyaaon ka hissa the. apne bachapan ke graameen jeevan se bhi unka gahra bhaavanaatmak lagaav tha par saath hi vah ho rahe parivrtanon aur prachalit saamaajik samasyaaon, krushi kshetr mein navaachaaron se - audyogik kraanti ke kaaran angreji dehaat mein hue parivrtanon se jra pehle ke yug ki nabj pakadne se lekar - viktoriyn samaaj ke yaun vyavahaar ke anauchitya aur paakhand ke prati vah jaagruk the

haardi aise saamaajik bandhanon ke aalochak the jo 19veen sadi mein rahane vaale logon ke jeevan mein baadha daalte the. Victoria kaal ke yathaarthavaadi lekhak maane jaane vaale haardi ne saamaajik bandhanon ko parakha jo viktoriyn yathaasthiti ka hissa hain aur maana ki ye bandhan sabhi shaamil logon ke jeevan mein baadha daalte hain aur aakhirkaar dukh ka kaaran bante hain. too on A tower mein haardi in niyamon ke khilaaf aavaaj uthaate dikhaai padte hain aur saamaajik sanrachana ki prushthabhoomi mein ek kahaani rachate hain, prem ki aisi daastaan jo varg ki seemaaon ko paar leti hai. paathak prem ke liye sthaapit paranparaaon ko todne ka vichaar karne par majaboor ho jaata hai. unneesaveen sadi ke samaaj mein ye paramparaaen laagoo hain aur saamaajik dabaav inka anupaalan sunishchit karta hai. svithin seint kleev ka aadarshavaad unhein samakaaleen saamaajik bandhanon ke mukaabale mein khada kar deta hai. ek aatm-ichhaashakti vaale manushya ko saamaajik niyamon aur aachaar ke kade niyantran ka saamana karna hai.

In a novel structured around contrasts, the main opposition is between Swithin St Cleeve and Lady Viviette Constantine, who are presented as binary figures in a series of ways: aristocratic and lower class, youthful and mature, single and married, fair and dark, religious and agnostic…aashe [Lady Viviette Constantine] is also deeply conventional, absurdly wishing to conceal their marriage until Swithin has achieved social status through his scientific work, which gives rise to uncontrolled ironies and tragic-comic misunderstandings (Harvey 108).


haardi ki kahaaniyaaain jeevan ki ghatnaaon aur unke prabhaavon par vichaar karti hain. unke bahut se upanyaason ke vishyagat aadhaar ke roop mein bhaagya ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai. paatr nirantar svanya ko jeevan ke chauraahe par khada paate hain jo avsar aur parivartan ke bindu ka prateek hai. faar fraum the maiding kraaud jeevan ki aisi kahaani kehti hai jiska nirmaan sanyog ne kiya hai. "udaaharanaarth agar bathasheba ne velantaain na bheja hota, agar faini usaki shaadi par maujood hoti, to kahaani ne ekdam alag mod le liya hota."[13] samay ka chakr chal pada hai to poora hokar hi rahega. haardi ke paatr bhaagya ke shikanje mein fanse hain.

haardi 19veen sadi ke graameen jeevan ka sajeev chitran karte hain, jo apne sabhi sukh aur dukh ke saath andhavishvaason aur anyaaya se bhara bhaagyavaadi jagat hai. unke naayak aur naayikaaen aksar samaaj se kate hue hote hain aur unhein shaayad hi kabhi dobaara apnaaya jaata hai. vah apne upanyaason mein mukhya roop se madhyam varg ke logon ka pratinidhitv karte hain aur un par bhaagya ki bhaavashoonya aur nakaaraatmak shaktiyon par bal dete hain. apni pustakon mein haardi maulik junoon, gahari bhaavana aur ajnyaeya parivartan ka shikaar ghaatak evam galat avadhaarana vaale kaanoonon ke khilaaf sangharsh karti maanaveeya ichha ko darshaate hain. udaaharanaarth tes of di deeurbaravils samaapt hoti hai:

Justice was done, and the President of the Immortals, in Æaaschylean phrase, had ended his sport with Tess. And the d'Urberville knights and dames slept on in their tombs unknowing. The two speechless gazers bent themselves down to the earth, as if in prayer, and remained thus a long time, absolutely motionless: the flag continued to wave silently. As soon as they had strength they arose, joined hands again, and went on.


vishesh roop se, haardi ka upanyaas jood the obaskyor antim Victoria kaal ke sankat ki bhaavana se ot-prot hai (jaisa ki Matthew aarnald ke dovar beech mein dikhaaya gaya hai). ismein do nae saamaajik prakaar ke vyaktiyon ki traasadi ka varnan hai, jood fauli, kaamkaaji aadmi jo svanya shikshit hone ka prayaas karta hai aur usaki premika aur chacheri bahan soo braaidahaid jo 1890 ke dashak ki 'nai stri' ka pratinidhitv karti hai.[14]

unki mahaarat, lekhak aur kavi donon ke roop mein, sookshm avlokan aur teevr sanvedanasheelata ke maadhyam se khoj karte hue praakrutik vaataavaran ke srujan mein nihit hai. chhoti se chhoti baat bhi unki nazar se naheen chookati, iske saath hi vah udaas ya saumya mauj mein apne veseks ke vishaal paridrushya ko bhi chitrit karne mein saksham hain.[15] (maarmik chitran ke liye unki drushti - jaise tes of di deeurbaravils ke ant mein chhat par failate rakt ke dhabbe aur nanhein jood ka aatmahatya wala not - unhein akhbaar mein chhapi asli ghatnaaon ki kataranon se mili).

kaavya

anek kavitaaon ki poorn vishay vastu ke liye baahya link anubhaag dekhein

1898 mein haardi ne 30 varshon se zyaada avadhi ke dauraan likhi gayi kavitaaon ka apna pehla kaavyasangrah veseks poyams prakaashit kiya. haardi ka daava tha ki kavita unka pehla pyaar hai aur 1928 mein apni mrutyu tak vah sangrah prakaashit karte rahe. haalaanki unke samakaalikon ne upanyaason ki tarah unki kavitaaon ka svaagat naheen kiya, haardi ko ab beesaveen sadi ke mahaanatam kaviyon ke roop mein maanyata praapt hai. unki kavitaaon ka baad ke lekhakon par gahra prabhaav pada, visheshakar Phillip laarkin jisne 1973 mein sanpaadit oksaford book of taveintiyth century english vars ke sanskaran mein haardi ki kai kavitaaon ko shaamil kiya.

haal mein likhi haardi ki ek jeevani mein, kleyar taumalin ne tark pesh kiya hai ki apni pehli patni ema ki mrutyu ke baad hi haardi vaastavik roop mein angreji ke mahaan kavi bane, shuruaat hui usaki yaad mein likhe shok-geeton se, usane in kavitaaon ko, "angreji kaavya mein mrutakon ka behatareen aur ajab anushthaan" karaar diya hai.[16]

unki adhikaansh kavitaaen jaise "nyootral tons" jeevan aur prem mein niraasha tatha maanaveeya peeda ke prati nirpekshata ke virooddh lambe samay se chale aa rahe maanavata ke sangharsh ke vishay mein hain. "the daarkaling thrash" aur "N ogast midnaait" jaisi kuchh kavitaaen kaavya lekhan ke baare mein hain kyonki unamein varnit prakruti se haardi ko unhein likhne ki prerana milti hai. aksar saadhaaran dikhte vishyon mein pashchaataap ki hook sunaai deti hai. unki rachanaaen teen-khandon vaale mahaakaavya shravya the daainaists se lekar chhote aur praay: aashaavaadi ya khushi ke palon ke gaathaageet jaise lagbhag agyaat "the children end sar nemalais", maartins ke makabaron, ethalahaimpatan ke nirmaataaon se prerit haasya kavita ki vibhinn shaili mein milti hain. veseks poyams mein vishesh roop se pramukh vishyavastu unneesaveen sadi par nepoliyn ke yuddhon ki lambi chhaaya hai udaaharanaarth, "the saarjeint saang" aur "lepajig" mein aur jis tarah ve yaadein angreji paridrushya aur iske nivaasiyon mein vaas karti hain.

haardi ki kuchh kavitaaen jaise "the blaainded bird" (khel ke virooddh ek udaasi bhari tarkapoorn rachana)) praakrutik jagat ke prati unke prem aur pashu kroorata ke khilaaf unke drudh rukh ko darshaati hain jo unke jeevachhedanavirodhi vichaaron aur RSPCA ki sadasyata se bhi vyakt hota hai.[17]

jin sangeetakaaron ne haardi ke paathya ko sangeet diya hai unamein shaamil hain geraald finji, jisne haardi ki kavitaaon ke liye chhah geet-chakr banaae hain, beinjaamin britn jiska geet-chakr winter vards haardi ke kaavya par aadhaarit hai, raalf vaun Williams aur gustaav holst. holst ki bhi aakhiri aarkestra sambandhi rachana edagaun heeth haardi ke kaam par aadhaarit hai. sangeetakaar li hauyabi dvaara "the daarkaling thrash" ki seting malteemeediya opera daarkaling ka aadhaar bana aur timauthi takaach, seint olaf ke snaatak ne bhi chaar-bhaag mishrit gaayak-vrund ke liye "the daarkaling thrash" ka sanyojan kiya hai.

upanyaason mein avasthitiyaan

saaaincha:Off-topic-other

barkashaayar uttari veseks hai, devaun loar veseks hai, doraset dakshin veseks hai, somaraset baahari ya nichla veseks hai, viltashaayar madhya-veseks hai,

bere reejis tes ka kings-bere hai, binkaumb daaun chauraaha A melankali hasar mein sena dvaara vadh kiye jaane ka drushya hai. yeh ek satya katha hai, jarman sena ke bhagodon ko 1801 mein goli maar di gayi thi aur unke naam palli rajistar mein darj hai. bindan ebe jahaan kleyar use le gaye. bornamaauth hand aaf ithalabarta ki saindabarn aur tes of di deeurbaravils hai, bridportport bredi hai, chaarabaro house aur 50°a46′a38.75″aN 2°a6′a7.09″aW / 50.7774306°aN 2.1019694°aW / 50.7774306; -2.1019694par iski fauli tower upanyaas too on A tower mein velaind house ka model hai. kaurf kaasal hand of ithalabarta ka kaurvsaget-kaasal hai. krenabarn chej tes ke fareb ka the chej drushya hai. (not - bauurachauk par 51°a0′a30.75″aN 1°a59′a18.30″aW / 51.0085417°aN 1.988417°aW / 51.0085417; -1.988417 par krenabarn chej John shlejingar ki 1967 film faar fraum the maiding kraaud mein bhayaanak aag waali jagah thi.) milbarn seint Andrew faar fraum the maiding kraaud mein "milpond seint joodas" hai. chaarabaro house[18] staraminstar maarshal aur bere reejis ke beech sthit hai. chaarabaro house aur iski fauli tower[19] 50°a46' 38.75" N 2°a6′a7.09″aW / a50.7774306°aN 2.1019694°aW / 50.7774306; -2.1019694 Thomas haardi ke too on A tower upanyaas mein velaind house ka model hai.[18] little England kautej, milbarn seint Andrew svithin seint kleevaj ke ghar ki jagah hai aur aaj tak usi roop mein varnit hai. dorachestar, doraset kestarabrij hai, the mayor of kestarabrij ka drushya. somaraset mein danstar kaasal A laudishian ka kaasal di stainsi hai. fauradingtan moor darnaovar moor aur feelds hai. bere reejis ke paas greenahil feyar vudabari hil feyar hai, lalvarth kov lalsted kov hai, maarnahal tes of di deeurbaravils ki maarlet hai, evarashaut ke paas melbari house A group of Nobel dems mein great hintauk court hai. minteren little hintauk hai, oeramoin veseks tels mein nedar mauyantan hai.

pidlahintan aur pidl trenathaaid A fyoo krasted kairektars ke longapadal hain. padalataaun heeth, mortan heeth, tinkletan heeth aur bere heeth edaun heeth hain. laaifs little aayaraneej mein pool hevanapool hai. portalaind the parasoot of the vel-bilvd ka drushya hai. padalataaun vaidarabari hai faar fraum the maiding kraaud mein, reevar from valley tes mein talabothej dairy ka drushya hai. sailsabari on the western sarakyut, laaifs little aayaraneej aur jood the obaskyor aadi mein melchestar hai. shaiftasbari tes of di deeurbaravils aur jood the obaskyor mein shaistan hai. sherabarn shairtan-Abbas hai, sherabarn kaasal A group of Nobel dems mein ledi baiksabi ka ghar hai. stonahenj tes ki aashanka ka drushya hai. satan pauyantj ovarakaumbe hai. svaunaej hand of ithalabarta ka naulasi hai. taauntan haardi ki kavitaaon aur upanyaason donon mein tonaboro ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. vauntej jood the obaskyor ka alfredastan hai. fauli, barkashaayar jood the obaskyor ka maireegreen hai. vehilvedan praayars hai, vemaauth badamaauth rejis hai, trampet major aur anya upanyaason ke bhaagon ka drushya; vinchestar vintansestar hai jahaan tes ka vadh kiya gaya tha. vimbarn too on A tauvar ka vaurabarn hai. dorachestar ke paas vulftan house A group of Nobel dems mein the ledi penelop ka drushya hai. vul station ke paas vulabrij old mainar house tes ke bayaan aur haneemoon ka drushya hai.

prabhaav

di.H.Lawrence ki stadi of Thomas haardi (1936) ke prerana srot haardi hain. haalaanki yeh kaarya ek maanak saahityik adhyayan ki bajaae Lawrence ke apne darshan ko viksit karne ka manch ban gaya, jis tarah haardi paatron ka niroopan karte hain usaka prabhaav aur haardi ke upanyaason ki kendra-bindu tatvameemaansa ke prati Lawrence ki apni pratikriya ne the renabo (1915, damit) aur vuman in love (1920, niji prakaashan) ke vikaas mein kaafi madad ki. dablyoo somaraset maughaim ke upanyaas keks end ail mein upanyaasakaar Edward drifeeld ke paatr par spasht roop se haardi ka prabhaav tha. kristofr duraing ke the mairij of bet end boo ki katha mein Thomas haardi ke kaarya pramukhata se dikhaai dete hain jismein tes of di deeurbaravils ke vishleshanaatmak snaatak theesis mein Matt ke parivaar ke tantr rog ke vishleshan ka ullekh milta hai.

krutiyaan

gadya

haardi ne apne upanyaason aur sangrahit laghu kathaaon ko teen vargon mein vibhaajit kiya:

charitra aur paryaavaran sambandhi upanyaas

  • the pooar main end the ledi (1867, aprakaashit aur gum)
  • under the greenavud tri (1872)
  • faar fraum the maiding kraaud (1874)
  • return of the netiv (1878)
  • mayor of di kestarabrij (1886)
  • the vudalaindars (1887)
  • veseks tels (1888, laghu kahaaniyon ka sangrah)
  • tes of di deeurbaravils (1891)
  • laaifs little aayaraneej (1894, laghu kahaaniyon ka sangrah)
  • jood the obaskyor (1895)

romance aur kalpana

  • A peyar of blue aaij (1873)
  • the trampet major (1880)
  • too on A tower (1882)
  • A group of Nobel dems (1891, ek laghu katha sangrah)
  • the vel-bilvd (1897) (pehle 1892 se ek dhaaraavaahik ke roop mein prakaashit hua)

nauvals of inajenayuti

  • desparit remedeej (1871)
  • the hand of ithalabarta (1876)
  • A laudishian (1881)

haardi ne kai laghu kisson aur ek sahayogaatmak upanyaas, the spaiktar of the rial (1894) bhi likha. ek aur laghu kahaani sangrah, uparyukt varnit ke atirikt, A cheinjd main end adar tels (1913) hai. unki krutiyon ko 24-khand veseks sanskaran (1912-13) aur 37-khand melastauk sanskaran (1919-20) ke roop mein ekatr kiya gaya hai. unki bade paimaane par svanya-likhi aatm-jeevani unki doosari patni ke naam se 1928-30 ke beech do khandon, the arli laaif of Thomas haardi, 1840-91 aur the letar yirj of Thomas haardi 1892-1928, milti hai jo ab Michael milget dvaara sanpaadit the laaif end vark of Thomas haardi (1984) ke naam se ek-khand sanskaran ke roop mein prakaashit ki gayi hai.

laghu kahaani sangrah

laaifs little aayaraneej

laghu kathaaeain (pehle prakaashan ki tithi sahit)

  • "haaoo I bilt maaiself A house" (1865)
  • "destani end A blue klauk" (1874)
  • "the theevj hoo kudant stop sneejing" (1877)
  • "the dachej of haimpatanashaayar" (1878)
  • "the distraikted preechar" (1879)
  • "felo taaunsamain" (1880)
  • "the onarebal laura" (1881)
  • "what the shefrd sau" (1881)
  • "A tredishn of eteen handared end for" (1882)
  • "the three streinjars" (1883)
  • "the romantic edaveinchars of A milkamed" (1883)
  • "intaralopars eight the naip" (1884)
  • "A miar intaralyood" (1885)(penguin great lavs series mein punarprakaashit)
  • "A trist eight N enshiyet arthavark" (1885)
  • "elisiyaaj daayari" (1887)
  • "the veting saipar" (1887-1888)
  • "the vidard aarm" (1888)
  • "A trejadi of too embishns" (1888)
  • "the frst kaauntes of veseks" (1889)
  • "aina, ledi baiksabi" (1890)
  • "ledi aaisanave" (1890)
  • "ledi mautisfaunt" (1890)
  • "the ledi penelop" (1890)
  • "the maarshiyones of stonaheinj" (1890)
  • "skavaayar paitriks ledi" (1890)
  • "baarabara of the house of greb" (1890)
  • "A melankali hasar of the jarman leejan" (1890)
  • "aibasentamaanididnes in A pairish mein kvaayar" (1891)
  • "vintars end the paamaleej" (1891)
  • "for kaunshans sek" (1891)
  • "inasident in mistar krukahils laaif" (1891)
  • "the dauktars lejeind" (1891)
  • "endri saichal end the paarsan end klark" (1891)
  • "histari of di haardakams" (1891)
  • "neti saarjants kaupeehold" (1891)
  • "on the western sarakyut" (1891)
  • "A fyoo krasted kairektars: introduction" (1891)
  • "the suparasteeshiys mains story" (1891)
  • "toni kaaits, the aarch diseevar" (1891)
  • "too pleej hij vaaif" (1891)
  • "the sans veto" (1891)
  • "old endreej eksapeeriyns ej A myujishiyn" (1891)
  • "aavar eklaplauyats eight vest poli" (1892-1893)
  • "master John haursali, night" (1893)
  • "the fidlar of the reelj" (1893)
  • "N imejinetiv vuman" (1894)
  • "the spaiktar of the real" (1894)
  • "A committee-main of 'the tairar'" (1896)
  • "the dyooks reeapiyrens" (1896)
  • "the grev bye the haindapost" (1897)
  • "A cheinjd main" (1900)
  • "entar A draigan" (1900)
  • "blue Jimmy:the haurs steelar" (1911)
  • "olt misej chandal" (1929)
  • "the anakaunkarebal" (1992)

kaavya sangrah

  • the fotograaf (1890)
  • veseks poyams end adar varsej (1898)
  • poyams of the paast end prejeint (1901)
  • the main hi killed (1902)
  • times laafigstauks end adar varsej (1909)
  • the vauyas (1912)
  • saitaayars of sarakmastaans (1914)
  • momentas of vijn (1917)
  • klekted poyams (1919)
  • let liriks end araliyr vid maini adar varsej (1922)
  • hyuman shoj, faar feinteseej, songs end traaiflj (1925)
  • vintar vards in veriys moods end meetars (1928)
  • the kampaleet poyams (maikamiln, 1976)
  • selekted poyams (Harry Thomas dvaara sanpaadit, penguin, 1993)
  • haardi:poyams (evareemains laaibreri pauket poyats, 1995)
  • Thomas haardi kaavya: selekted poyatri end naunafikshanal paroj (seint maartinj press, 1996)
  • selekted poyams (Robert meji dvaara sanpaadit, penguin, 1998)
  • Thomas haardee: the kampaleet poyams (James gibsan dvaara sanpaadit, paalagrev, 2001)

naatak

  • the daayanaists (padya naatak)
    • daayanaists, bhaag 1 (1904)
    • daayanaists, bhaag 2 (1906)
    • daayanaists, bhaag 3 (1908)
  • the femas trejadi of the queen of kaurnavaul eight tintaagel in lauyanes (1923) (ekaanki)

nots

  1. kleyar taumalin, Thomas Hardy: the Time-torn Man(Penguin, 2007) pp.30,36.
  2. gibsan, James (Ed.) (1975) Chosen Poems of Thomas Hardy, London: Macmillan Education; p.9.
  3. haardi, ema (1961)Some Recollections by Emma Hardy; with some relevant poems by Thomas Hardy; ed. by Evelyn Hardy & R. Gittings. London: oksaford university press
  4. "Thomas Hardy — the Time-Torn Man" (isi naam se kleyar taumalin ki pustak), BBC radio 4, 23 October 2006
  5. "Thomas Hardy at Stourhead" BBC online, 10 March 2004 (pun: praapt: 7 September 2009)
  6. a aa "Homeground: Dead man talking" BBC online, 20 August 2003 (pun: praapt: 7 September 2009)
  7. Claire Tomalin, Thomas Hardy, The Time Torn Man(penguin, 2007), pp.46–47.
  8. Wotton, George. Thomas Hardy: Towards A Materialist Criticism. Lanham,: Rowan & Littlefield, 1985, p.36.
  9. a aa Ellman, Richard & O'Clair, Robert (eds.) 1988. "Thomas Hardy" in The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, Norton, New York.
  10. "Biography: Thomas Hardy" wps. Ablongman.com, (pun: praapt: 7 September 2009)
  11. Adelene Buckland: Thomas Hardy, Provincial Geology and the Material Imagination
  12. Hardy, Thomas (1998). Jude the Obscure. Penguin Classics. pa॰ 466. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0140435387. http://books.google.com/books?id=txZevBW0iX0C&printsec=frontcover&#PPA466.
  13. "Far from the Madding Crowd, Thomas Hardy — Introduction" (Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Linda Pavlovski. khand 153. Gale group, ink, 2005. eNotes.com. 2006. 12 March 2008) eNotes.com (pun:praapt 7 sitmabar 2009)
  14. Words Words Words, La Spiga Languages, 2003 p.482
  15. A Short History of English Literature, Éaamile Legouis, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1934
  16. taumalin, kleyar. "Thomas Hardy." new yaurk: penguin, 2007.
  17. Herbert N. Schneidau. "Waking Giants: The Presence of the Past in Modernism". http://books.google.com/books?id=utjWx0SznGIC&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=%22the+blinded+bird%22&source=web&ots=nshey2u5qO&sig=uG_zw_NgUtlLnJqtDq9WkXY41EE. abhigman tithi: 16 April 2008. (Google pustakein)
  18. a aa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charborough_House
  19. http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/3099234.jpg

sandarbh

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  • di 'ainjilo, renjo, "Music and Metaphor in Under the Greenwood Tree, in The Thomas Hardy Journal, 9, 2 (May 1993), pp.39–50.
  • di 'ainjilo, renjo, “aBetween Belief and Non-Belief: Thomas Hardy's 'The Shadow on the Stone'”, in Thomas Hardy, Francesco Marroni and Norman Page (eds), Pescara, Edizioni Tracce, 1995, pp.197–222.
  • deekan, lois aur teri kaulman. Providence and Mr. Hardy. London: hachinsan, 1966.
  • drepar, jo. Thomas Hardy: A Life in Pictures. vimbarn, doraset: The Dovecote Press.
  • elman, richrd aur O kleyar, Robert (eds.) 1988. "Thomas Hardy" in The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, Norton, New York.
  • gaitarel, Simon. Hardy the Creator: A Textual Biography. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988. Oxford: klairendan, 1988.
  • gibsan, James. Thomas Hardy: A Literary Life. London: maikamiln, 1996.
  • gitings, Robert. Thomas Hardy's Later Years. Boston : Little, Brown, 1978.
  • gitings, Robert. Young Thomas Hardy. Boston : Little, Brown, 1975.
  • gitings, Robert aur jo maintan. The Second Mrs Hardy. London: Heinemann, 1979.
  • Gossin, P. Thomas Hardy's Novel Universe: Astronomy, Cosmology, and Gender in the Post-Darwinian World . Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007 (The Nineteenth Century Series).
  • Halliday, F. E. Thomas Hardy: His Life and Work . Bath: Adams & Dart, 1972.
  • Hands, Timothy. Thomas haardi: Thomas Hardy : Distracted Preacher? : Hardy's religious biography and its influence on his novels. new yaurk: seint Martin press, 2006.
  • haardi, evalin. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography. London: haugarath press, 1954.
  • haardi, floreins emili. The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840–1891. London: maikamiln, 1928.
  • haardi, floreins emili. The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928. London: maikamiln, 1930.
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  • hejakauk, ef. A., Thomas Hardy: penseur et artiste. peris: Librairie Hachette, 1911.
  • haulaind, klaaiv. Thomas Hardy O.M.: The Man, His Works and the Land of Wessex. London: harabart jenakins, 1933.
  • Jedrzejewski, Jan. Thomas Hardy and the Church . London: maikamiln, 1996.
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  • maironi, Francisco, "The Negation of Eros in 'Barbara of the House of Grebe' ", in "Thomas Hardy Journal", 10, 1 (February 1994) pp. 33–41
  • maironi, Francisco aur norman pej (eds.), Thomas Hardy. piskaara: Edizioni Tracce, 1995.
  • maironi, Francisco, La poesia di Thomas Hardy. Bari: Adriatica Editrice, 1997.
  • maironi, Francisco, ""The Poetry of Ornithology in Keats, Leopardi, and Hardy: A Dialogic Analysis", in "Thomas Hardy Journal", 14, 2 (Mayy 1998) pp. 35–44
  • milget, Michael (ed.). The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy by Thomas Hardy. London: maikamiln, 1984.
  • milget, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography. new yaurk: raindam house, 1982.
  • milget, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2004.
  • O salivn, Timothy. Thomas Hardy: An Illustrated Biography. London: maikamiln, 1975.
  • orel, herold. The Final Years of Thomas Hardy, 1912–1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1976.
  • orel, herold. The Unknown Thomas Hardy. New York: seint Martin, 1987.
  • Phelps, keneth. The Wormwood Cup: Thomas Hardy in Cornwall. Padstow: Lodenek press, 1975.
  • Pinion, F. B. Thomas Hardy: His Life and Friends . London: Palgrave, 1992.
  • Pite, Ralph. Thomas Hardy: The Guarded Life. London: Picador, 2006.
  • Seymour-Smith, Martin. Hardy . London: Bloomsbury, 1994.
  • Stevens-Cox, J. Thomas Hardy: Materials for a Study of his Life, Times, and Works. seint Peter port, gvernase: tooken press, 1968.
  • Stevens-Cox, J. Thomas Hardy: More Materials for a Study of his Life, Times, and Works. seint Peter port, gvernase: tooken press, 1971.
  • Stewart, J. I. M. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography . New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1971.
  • turner, paul. The Life of Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
  • Weber, Carl J. Hardy of Wessex, his Life and Literary Career. new yaurk: Columbia university press, 1940.
  • Wilson, keeth. Thomas Hardy on Stage. London: maikamiln, 1995.
  • Wilson, keeth, Ed. Thomas Hardy Reappraised: Essays in Honour of Michael Millgate. Toronto, 2006 press: vishvavidyaalaya ke Toronto.
  • vautan, George. Thomas Hardy: Towards A Materialist Criticism. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield, 1985.
  • Letter from Hardy to Bertram Windle, transcribed by Birgit Plietzsch, from CL, vol 2, pp.131–133

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