Tajmahal

yeh lekh nirvaachit lekh banane ke liye parakhane hetu rakha gaya hai. adhik jaankaari ke liye nirvaachit lekh aavashyakataaeain dekhein.
Tajmahal
تaaاaaج مaaحaaل
ताजमहल का दक्षिणी दृश्य
Tajmahal ka dakshini drushya
sthaan: Agra, Bhaarat
nirdeshaank: 27°a10′a29″aN 78°a02′a32″aE / 27.174799°aN 78.042111°aE / 27.174799; 78.042111
samudra satah se oonchaai: 171 mi. (561 feet)
nirmaan: 1632-1653[tathya vaanchhit]
vaastukaar: ustaad Ahmad laahauri
vaastu shaili(yaaain): mugal
paryatak: 30 lakh se adhik (2003)
yoonesko vishv dharohar sthal
prakaar: saanskrutik
maapdand: i
nirdisht: 1983 (7vaan satr)
sandarbh san: 252
raashtra: Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
kshetr: Asia-prashaant
ताजमहल is located in उत्तर प्रदेश
Agra, pashchimi uttar pradesh, Bhaarat mein sthiti

nirdeshaank: 27°a10′a27″aN, 78°a02′a32″aE

Tajmahal (urdoo: تaaاaaج مaaحaaل) Bhaarat ke Agra shahar mein sthit ek vishv dharohar makbara hai. iska nirmaan mugl samraat shaahajahaaain ne, apni patni mumataaj mahal ki yaad mein karavaaya tha.[1] Tajmahal mugl vaastukala ka utkrusht namoona hai. iski vaastu shaili faarasi, turk, bhaarateeya aur islaami vaastukala ke ghatakon ka anokha sammiln hai. san 1983 mein, Tajmahal yunesko vishv dharohar sthal bana. iske saath hi ise vishv dharohar ke sarvatr prashansa paane waali, atyuttam maanavi krutiyon mein se ek bataaya gaya. Tajmahal ko Bhaarat ki islaami kala ka ratn bhi ghoshit kiya gaya hai. saadhaaranataya dekhe gaye sangamarmar ki silliyon ki badi- badi parto se dhank kar banaai gayi imaaraton ki tarah na banaakar iska shvet gumbad evam taail aakaar mein sangamarmar se[2] dhanka hai. kendra mein bana makabara apni vaastu shreshthata mein saundarya ke sanyojan ka parichay dete hain. Tajmahal imaarat samooh ki sanrachana ki khaas baat hai, ki yeh poornataya samamiteeya hai. iska nirmaan san 1648 ke lagbhag poorn hua tha.[1] ustaad Ahmad laahauri ko praay: iska pradhaan roopaankanakarta maana jaata hai.[3]

anukram

vaastu kala

makbara

Tajmahal ke farsh/tal ki yojana ka maanachitr

taaj mahal ka kendra bindu hai, ek vargaakaar neenv aadhaar par bana shvet sangamarmar ka makbara. yeh ek samamiteeya imaarat hai, jismein ek ivaan yaani ateev vishaal vakraakaar (meharaab roopi) dwaar hai. is imaarat ke oopar ek vruhat gumbad sushobhit hai. adhiktar mugl makbaron jaise, iske mool avayav faarasi udgam se hain.

mool - aadhaar

iska mool-aadhaar ek vishaal bahu-kaksheeya sanrachana hai. yeh pradhaan kaksh ghanaakaar hai, jiska pratyek kinaara 55 meter hai (dekhein: tal maanachitr, daanye). lambe kinaaron par ek bhaari-bharakam pishtaak, ya meharaabaakaar chhat vaale kaksh dwaar hain. yeh oopar bane meharaab vaale chhajje se sammilit hai.

mukhya meharaab

mukhya meharaab ke donon or,ek ke oopar doosra shailimein, donon or do-do atirikt pishtaak bane hain. isi shaili mein, kaksh ke chaaron kinaaron par do-do pishtaak (ek ke oopar doosra) bane hain. yeh rachana imaarat ke pratyek or poornataya samamiteeya hai, jo ki is imaarat ko varg ke bajaay ashtakon banaati hai, parantu kone ke chaaron bhujaaen baaki chaar kinaaron se kaafi chhoti hone ke kaaran, ise vargaakaar kehna hi uchit hoga. makabare ke chaaron or chaar meenaarein mool aadhaar chauki ke chaaron konon mein, imaarat ke drushya ko ek chaukhate mein baandhati prateet hoti hain. mukhya kaksh mein mumataaj mahal evam shaahajahaaain ki nakali kabrein hain. ye khoob alankrut hain, evam inki asal nichle tal par sthit hai.

gumbad

makabare par sarvochch shobhaayamaan sangamarmar ka gumbad (dekhein baanye), iska sarvaadhik shaanadaar bhaag hai. iski ooainchaai lagbhag imaarat ke aadhaar ke baraabar, 35 meter hai aur yeh ek 7 meter ooainche belanaakaar aadhaar par sthit hai. yeh apne aakaaraanusaar praay: pyaaj-aakaar (amarood aakaar bhi kaha jaata hai) ka gumbad bhi kahalaata hai. iska shikhar ek ulate rakhe kamal se alankrut hai. yeh gumbad ke kinaaron ko shikhar par sammiln deta hai.

chhatariyaaain

gumbad ke aakaar ko iske chaar kinaaron par sthit chaar chhoti gumbadaakaari chhatariyon (dekhein daayein) se aur bal milta hai. chhatariyon ke gumbad, mukhya gumbad ke aakaar ki pratilipiyaaain hi hain, keval naap ka fark hai. inke stambhaakaar aadhaar, chhat par aantarik prakaash ki vyavastha hetu khule hain. sangamarmar ke ooainche susajjit guladaste, gumbad ki ooainchaai ko aur bal dete hain. mukhya gumbad ke saath-saath hi chhatariyon evam guladaston par bhi kamalaakaar shikhar shobha deta hai. gumbad evam chhatariyon ke shikhar par paramparaagat faarasi evam hindu vaastu kala ka prasiddh ghatak ek dhaatvik kalash kireetaroop mein shobhaayamaan hai.

kireet kalash

mukhya gumbad ke kireet par kalash hai (dekhein daayein). yeh shikhar kalash aaranbhik 1800i0 tak svarn ka tha aur ab yeh kaanse ka bana hai. yeh kireet-kalash faarasi evam hinndoo vaastu kala ke ghatakon ka ekeekrut sanyojan hai. yeh hindu mandiron ke shikhar par bhi paaya jaata hai. is kalash par chandrama bana hai, jiski nok svarg ki or ishaara karti hain. apne niyojan ke kaaran chandrama evam kalash ki nok milkar ek trishool ka aakaar banaati hain, jo ki hindu Bhagwan Shiv ka chinh hai.[4]

meenaarein

doobate soorya ke sang taaj ka adviteeya drushya

mukhya aadhaar ke chaaro konon par chaar vishaal meenaarein (dekhein baayein) sthit hain. yeh pratyek 40 meter ooainchi hai. yeh meenaarein Tajmahal ki banaavat ki samamiteeya pravrutti darshit karateen hain. yeh meenaarein masjid mein ajaan dene hetu banaai jaane waali meenaaron ke samaan hi banaain gain hain. pratyek meenaar do-do chhajjon dvaara teen samaan bhaagon mein banti hai. meenaar ke oopar antim chhajja hai, jis par mukhya imaarat ke samaan hi chhatari bani hain. in par vahi kamalaakaar aakruti evam kireet kalash bhi hain. in meenaaron mein ek khaas baat hai, yeh chaaron baahar ki or halaki si jhuki huin hain, jisse ki kabhi girne ki sthiti mein, yeh baahar ki or hi girein, evam mukhya imaarat ko koi kshati na pahuainch sake.

baahari alankaran

vruhat pishtaak par sulekhan

Tajmahal ka baahari alankaran, mugal vaastukala ka utkrushtatam udaaharan hain. jaise hi satah ka kshetrafal badalta hai, bade pishtaak ka kshetr chhote se adhik hota hai aur usaka alankaran bhi isi anupaat mein badalta hai. alankaran ghatak rogan ya gachakaari se athva nakkaashi evam ratn jad kar nirmit hain. islaam ke maanavataaropi aakruti ke pratibndh ka poorn paalan kiya hai. alankaran ko keval sulekhan, niraakaar, jyaamiteeya ya paadap roopaankan se hi kiya gaya hai.

Tajmahal mein pai jaane vaale sulekhan florid thuluth lipi ke hain. ye faarasi lipik amaanat Khan dvaara srujit hain. yeh sulekh jaispa‍aar ko shvet sangamarmar ke falakon mein jad kar kiya gaya hai. sangamarmar ke senotaif par kiya gaya kaarya ateev naajuk, komal evam maheen hai. ooainchaai ka dhyaan rakha gaya hai. ooainche falakon par usi anupaat mein badaa lekhan kiya gaya hai, jisse ki neeche se dekhne par tedhaapan na prateet ho. poore kshetr mein kuraan ki aayatein, alankaran hetu prayog huin hain. haal hi mein hue shodhon se gyaat hua hai, ki amaanat khaaain ne hi un aayaton ka chunaav bhi kiya tha.[5][6]

prayukt soora

yahaaain ka paathya kuraaan mein varnit, antim nirnaya ke vishay mein hai, evam ismein nimn soora ki aayatein sammilit hain :

--soora 91 - soorya,
--soora 112 - vishvaas ki shuddhata,
--soora 89 - usha,
--soora 93 - praat: prakaash,
--soora 95 - anjeer,
--soora 94 - saantvana,
--soora 36 - ya sin,
--soora 81 - folding ap,
--soora 82 - toot kar bikhrana,
--soora 84 - tukade hona,
--soora 98 - saakshya,
--soora 67 - riyaasat,
--soora 48 - vijay,
--soora 77 - vo jo aage bheje gaye evam
--soora 39 - bheed

jaise hi koi Tajmahal ke dwaar se pravisht hota hai, sulekh hai

he aatma ! too ishvar ke paas vishraam kar. ishvar ke paas shaanti ke saath rahe tatha usaki param shaanti tujh par barase.

[6][7]

meharaab ke donon or ke spaindral

amoort praaroop prayukt kiye gaye hain, khaaskar aadhaar, meenaaron, dwaar, masjid, javaab mein; aur kuchh-kuchh makabare ki satah par bhi. baluaa-patthar ki imaarat ke gumbadon evam tahakhaanon mein, patthar ki nakkaashi se utkeern chitrakaari dvaara vistrut jyaamiteeya namoone bana amoort praaroop ukere gaye hain. yahaan hairingabon shaili mein patthar jad kar sanyukt hue ghatakon ke beech ka sthaan bhara gaya hai. laal baluaa-patthar imaarat mein shvet, evam shvet sangamarmar mein kaale ya gahre, jadaaoo kaarya kiye hue hain. sangamarmar imaarat ke gaare-choone se bane bhaagon ko rangeen ya gahra rang kiya gaya hai. ismein atyadhik jatil jyaamiteeya pratiroop banaae gaye hain. farsh evam galiyaare mein virodhi rang ki taailon ya gutakon ko taiseleshan namoone mein prayog kiya gaya hai. paadap roopaankan milte hain makabare ki nichli deevaaron par. yeh shvet sangamarmar ke namoone hain, jinmein sajeev baas rileef shaili mein pushpon evam bail-booton ka sajeev alankaran kiya gaya hai. sangamarmar ko khoob chikna kar aur chamaka kar maheenatam byaure ko bhi nikhaara gaya hai. daido saaainche evam meharaabon ke spaindral bhi peetra dyoora ke uchchastareeya roopaankit hain. inhein lagbhag jyaamiteeya belon, pushpon evam falon se susajjit kiya gaya hai. inmein jade hue patthar hain - peet sangamarmar, jaispar, haritaashm, jinhein bheet-satah se mila kar ghisaai ki gayi hai.

aantarik alankaran

kabron ko ghere hue jaali ki deevaar
shaahajahaaain evam mumataaj mahal ki kabrein
Tajmahal ka antas

Tajmahal ka aantarik kaksh paramparaagat alankaran avayavon se kaheen pare hai. yahaaain jadaaoo kaarya parchinkaari naheen hai, varan bahumoolya pattharon evam ratnon ki laipidri kala hai. aantarik kaksh ek ashtakon hai, jiske pratyek falak mein pravesh-dwaar hai, haanlaaki keval dakshin baag ki or ka praveshadvaar hi prayog hota hai. aantarik deevaarein lagbhag 25 meter ooainchi hain, evam ek aabhaasi aantarik gumbad se dhanki hain, jo ki soorya ke chinh se saja hai. aath pishtaak meharaab farsh ke sthaan ko bhooshit karte hain. baahari or, pratyek nichle pishtaak par ek doosra pishtaak lagbhag deevaar ke madhya tak jaata hai. chaar kendreeya oopari meharaab chhajja banaate hain, evam harek chhajje ki baahari khidki, ek sangamarmar ki jaali se dhanki hai. chhajjon ki khidkiyon ke alaava, chhat par bani chhatariyon se dhanke khule chhidron se bhi prakaash aata hai. kaksh ki pratyek deevaar daido baas rileef, laipidri evam parishkrut sulekhan falakon se susajjit hai, jo ki imaarat ke baahari namoonon ko baareeki se dikhaati hai. aath sangamarmar ke falakon se bani jaaliyon ka ashtakon, kabron ko ghere hue hai. harek falak ki jaali pachcheekaari ke maheen kaarya se gathit hai. shesh satah par bahumoolr pattharon evam ratnon ka ati maheen jadaaoo pachcheekaari kaarya hai, jo ki jode. mein belein, fal evam foolon se sajjit hai.

muslim parampara ke anusaar kabr ki vistrut sajja mana hai. isaliye shaahajahaaain evam mumataaj mahal ke paarthiv shareer iske neeche tulanaatmak roop se saadhaaran, asli kabron mein, mein dafn hain, jinke mukh daane evam makka ki or hain. mumataaj mahal ki kabr aantarik kaksh ke madhya mein sthit hai, jiska aayataakaar sangamarmar aadhaar 1.5 meter chauda evam 2.5 meter lamba hai. aadhaar evam oopar ka shrungaaradaan roop, donon hi bahumoolya pattharon evam ratnon se jade. hain. is par kiya gaya sulekhan mumataaj ki pehchaan evam prashansa mein hai. iske dhakkan par ek utha hua aayataakaar lojainj (rhombas) bana hai, jo ki ek lekhan patt ka aabhaas hai. shaahajahaaain ki kabr mumataaj ki kabr ke dakshin or hai. yeh poore kshetr mein, ekamaatr drushya asammiteeya ghatak hai. yeh asammiti shaayad isaliye hai, ki shaahajahaaain ki kabr yahaaain banani nirdhaarit naheen thi. yeh makabara mumataaj ke liye maatr bana tha. yeh kabr mumataaj ki kabr se badi hai, parantu vahi ghatak darshaati hai: ek vruhatatar aadhaar, jispar bana kuchh bada shrangaaradaan, vahi laipidri evam sulekhan, jo ki unki pehchaan deta hai. tahakhaane mein bani mumataaj mahal ki asli kabr par Allah ke ninyaanave naam khude hain jinmein se kuchh hain "O neetivaan, O bhavya, O raajasi, O anupam, O apoorv, O anant, O anant, O tejasvi... " aadi. shaahajahaan ki kabr par khuda hai;

"usane hijri ke 1076 saal mein rajjab ke maheene ki chhabbeesaveen tithi ko is sansaar se nityata ke praangan ki yaatra ki."

chaar baag

chaarabaag ke udyaanon ka 360° vishaaladarshi drushya

is complex ko ghere hai vishaal 300 varg meter ka chaarabaag, ek mugal baag. is baag mein ooaincha utha path hai. yeh path is chaar baag ko 16 nimn star par bani kyaariyon mein baantata hai. baag ke madhya mein ek uchchatal par bane taalaab mein Tajmahal ka pratibimb drushya hota hai. yeh makabare evam mukhyadvaar ke madhya mein bana hai. yeh pratibimb iski sundarata ko chaar chaaaind lagaata hai. anya sthaanon par baag mein pedo ki kataarein hain evam mukhya dwaar se makabare paryant fauvvaare hain.[8] is uchch tal ke taalaab ko al haud al kavathaar kehte hain, jo ki muhammad dvaara pratyaashit apaarata ke taalaab ko darshaata hai.[9] chaarabaag ke bageeche faarasi baagon se prerit hain, tatha Bhaarat mein pratham drushtya mugal baadshah baabar dvaara banavaae gaye the. yeh svarg (jannat) ki chaar bahti nadiyon evam pairaadaaij ya firdaus ke baagon ki or sanket karte hain. yeh shabd faarasi shabd paaridaaijaa se bana shabd hai, jiska arth hai ek bheett rakshit baag. faarasi rahasyavaad mein mugal kaaleen islaami paathya mein firdaus ko ek aadarsh poornata ka baag bataaya gaya hai. ismein ki ek kendreeya parvat ya srot ya favvaare se chaar nadiyaaain chaaron dishaaon, uttar, dakshin, poorv evam pashchim ki or bahateen hain, jo baag ko chaar bhaagon mein baantateen hain.

pratibimbit jheel ke peechhe paidal path

adhiktar mugal chaarabaag aayataakaar hote hain, jinke kendra mein ek mandap/makabara bana hota hai. keval Tajmahal ke baagon mein yeh asaamaanyata hai; ki mukhya ghatak mandap, baag ke ant mein sthit hai. yamuna nadi ke doosari or sthit maahataab baag ya chaandani baag ki khoj se, bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan vibhaag ne yeh nishkarsh nikaala hai, ki yamuna nadi bhi is baag ke roop ka hissa thi aur use bhi svarg ki nadiyon mein se ek gina jaana chaaheye tha.[10] baag ke khaake evam uske vaastu lakshan, jaise ki favvaare, intein, sangamarmar ke paidal path evam jyaamiteeya int-jadit kyaariyaaain, jo kaashmeer ke shaaleemaar baag se ekaroop hain, jataate hain ki in donon ka hi vaastukaar ek hi ho sakta hai, Ali mardaan.[11] baag ke aarambhik vivran iske ped-paudhon mein, gulaab, kumud ya naragis evam falon ke vrukshon ke aadhikya bataate hain.[12] jaise jaise mugal saamraajya ka patan hua, baagon ki dekhe rekhe mein kami I. jab british raajya mein iska prabandhan aaya, to unhonne iske baagon ko landan ke bageechon ki bhaanti badal diya.[13]

saathi imaaratein

Tajmahal ka dwaar

Tajmahal imaarat samooh raksha deevaaron se paribddh hai. yeh deevaarein teen or laal baluaa patthar se bani hain, evam nadi ki or khula hai. in deevaaron ke baahar atirikt makabare sthit hain, jismein shaahajahaaain ki anya patniyaaain dafn hain, evam ek badaa makabara mumataaj ki priya daasi hetu bhi bana hai. yeh imaaratein bhi adhiktar laal baluaa patthar se hi nirmit haiain, evam us kaal ke chhote makabaron ko darshaateen hain. in deevaaron ki baagon se lagi androoni or mein stambh sahit toran vaale galiyaare hain. yeh hindu mandiron ki shaili hai, jise baad mein, masjidon mein bhi apna li gayi thi. deevaar mein beech-beech mein gumbad waali gumatiyaaain bhi hain (chhatariyon waali chhoti imaaratein, jo ki tab pahara dene ke kaam aati hongeen, parantu ab sangrahaalaya bani huin hain.

mukhya dwaar (daravaaja) bhi ek smaarak svaroop hai. yeh bhi sangamarmar evam laal baluaa patthar se nirmit hai. yeh aarambhik mugal baadashaahon ke vaastukala ka smaarak hai. iska meharaab Tajmahal ke meharaab ki prati hai. iske pishtaak meharaabon par sulekhan se alankaran kiya gaya hai. ismein baas rileef evam peetra dyoora pachcheekaari se pushpaakruti aadi prayukt hain. meharaabi chhat evam deevaaron par yahaaain ki anya imaaraton jaise jyaamiteeya namoone banaae gaye hain.

Tajmahal ki masjid

is samooh ke sudoor chhor par do vishaal laal baluaa patthar ki imaaratein hain, jo ki makabare ki or saamana kiye hue hain. inke pichhvaade poorvi evam pashchimi deevaaron se jude hain, evam donon hi ek doosare ki pratibimb aakruti hain. pashchimi imaarat ek masjid hai, evam poorvi ko javaab kehte hain, jiska praathamik uddeshya vaastu santulan hai, evam aagantuk kaksh ki tarah prayukt hoti rahi hai. in donon imaaraton ke beech antar yeh hai, ki masjid mein ek meharaab kam hai, usamein makka ki or aala bana hai, evam javaab ke farsh mein jyaamiteeya namoone bane hain, jabki masjid ke farsh mein 569 namaaj padhne hetu bichhaune (ja-namaaj) ke pratiroop kaale sangamarmar se bane hain. masjid ka mool roop shaahajahaaain dvaara nirmit anya masjidon ke samaan hi hai, khaaskar masjid jahaaainnuma, ya Delhi ki jaama masjid; ek badaa daalaan ya kaksh ya praangan, jispar teen gumbad bane hain. is kaal ki mugal masjidein, punyasthaan ko teen bhaagon mein baantateen hain; beechon beech mukhya sthaan, evam dono or chhote sthaan. Tajmahal mein harek punyasthaan ek vruhat meharaabi tahakhaane mein khulata hai. yeh saathi imaaratein 1643 mein puri huin.

nirmaan

Tajmahal ka farsh maanachitr

Tajmahal pariseemit[14] Agra nagar ke dakshin chhor par ek chhote bhoomi pathaar par banaaya gaya tha. shaahajahaaain ne iske badle Jaipur ke mahaaraaja jayasinh ko Agra shahar ke madhya ek vruhat mahal diya tha.[15] lagbhag teen ekad ke kshetr ko khoda gaya, evam usamein koodaa karkat bhar kar use nadi satah se pachaas meter ooaincha banaaya gaya, jisse ki seelan aadi se bachaav ho paae. makabare ke kshetr mein, pachaas kuaine khod kar kankad-pattharon se bharakar neenv sthaan banaaya gaya. fir baans ke paramparaagat paid (skaiffolding) ke bajaay, ek bahut badaa inton ka, makabare samaan hi dhaaaincha banaaya gaya. yeh dhaaaincha itna badaa tha, ki abhiyaaaintrikon ke anumaan se use hataane mein hi saalon lag jaate. iska samaadhaan yeh hua, ki shaahajaahaaain ke aadeshaanusaar sthaaneeya kisaanon ko khuli chhoot di gayi ki ek din mein koi bhi chaahe jitni intein utha sakta hai aur vah dhaaaincha raat bhar mein hi saaf ho gaya. saari nirmaan saamagri evam sangamarmar ko niyat sthaan par pahuainchaane hetu, ek pandrah kilometer lamba mitti ka dhaal banaaya gaya. bees se tees bailon ko khaas nirmit gaadiyon mein jotakar shilaakhandon ko yahaaain laaya gaya tha. ek vistrut paid evam balli se bani, charakhi chalaane ki pranaali banaai gayi, jisse ki khandon ko ichhit sthaanon par pahuainchaaya gaya. nadi se paani laane hetu rahat pranaali ka prayog kiya gaya tha. usase paani oopar bane bade tank mein bhara jaata tha. fir yeh teen gaun tainkon mein bhara jaata tha, jahaaain se yeh naliyon (paaipon) dvaara sthaanon par pahuainchaaya jaata tha.

aadhaarashila evam makabare ko nirmit hone mein baarah saal lage. shesh imaaraton evam bhaagon ko agale das varshon mein poorn kiya gaya. inmein pehle meenaarein, fir masjid, fir javaab evam ant mein mukhya dwaar bane. kyonki yeh samooh, kai avasthaaon mein bana, isaliye iski nirmaan-samaapti tithi mein kai bhinnataaen hain. yeh isaliye hai, kyonki poornata ke kai pruthak mat hain. udaaharanat: mukhya makabara 1643 mein poorn hua tha, kintu shesh samooh imaaratein banti raheen. isi prakaar iski nirmaan keemat mein bhi bhinnataaen hain, kyonki iski keemat tay karne mein samay ke antaraal se kaafi fark aa gaya hai. fir bhi kul moolya lagbhag 3 arab 20 karod rupae, us samayaanusaar aanka gaya hai; jo ki vartamaan mein kharabon dollar se bhi adhik ho sakta hai, yadi vartamaan mudra mein badla jaae.[16]

Tajmahal ko sampoorn Bhaarat evam Asia se laai gayi saamagri se nirmit kiya gaya tha. 1,000 se adhik haathi nirmaan ke dauraan yaataayaat hetu prayog hue the. paraabhaasi shvet sangamarmar ko Rajasthan se laaya gaya tha, jaispar ko Punjab se, haritaashm ya Z evam sfatik ya kristal ko cheen se. Tibet se feerojaa, Afghanistan se laipij lajooli, Sri Lanka se neelam evam arabiya se indragop ya (kaarneliyn) laae gaye the. kul mila kar aththaais prakaar ke bahumoolya patthar evam ratn shvet sangamarmar mein jade. gaye the.

ek kalaakaar ki kalpana anusaar Tajmahal ka havaai chitr

uttari Bhaarat se lagbhag bees hajaar majdooron ki sena anvarat kaaryarat thi. bukhaara se shilpkaar, Syria evam Iran se sulekhan karta, dakshin Bhaarat se pachcheekaari ke kaareegar, baloochistaan se patthar taraashane evam kaatne vaale kaareegar inmein shaamil the. kangoore, burji evam kalash aadi banaane vaale, doosra jo keval sangamarmar par pushp taraashta tha, ityaadi sattaais kaareegaron mein se kuchh the, jinhonne srujan ikaai gathit ki thi. kuchh khaas kaareegar, jo ki Tajmahal ke nirmaan mein apna sthaan rakhate hain, ve hain:-

--mukhya gumbad ka abhiklpak ismaail (A.ka.ismaail khaaain),[17], jo ki ottoman saamraajya ka pramukh golaardh evam gumbad abhiklpak the.
--faaras ke ustaad isa evam isa muhammad efeindi (donon Iran se), jo ki ottoman saamraajya ke kocha mimaar sinaan aaga dvaara prashikshit kiye gaye the, inka baar baar yahaaain ke moor abhiklpana mein ullekh aata hai.[18][19] parantu is daave ke peechhe bahut kam saakshya hain.
--benaarus, faaras (Iran) se 'puru' ko paryavekshan vaastukaar niyukt kiya gaya[20]
--kaajim Khan, Lahore ka nivaasi, ne thos suvarn kalash nirmit kiya.
--chiranji laal, Delhi ka ek laipidri, pradhaan shilpi, evam pachcheekaarak ghoshit kiya gaya tha.
--amaanat khaaain, jo ki shiraaj, Iran se tha, mukhya sulekhana kartta tha. usaka naam mukhya dwaar ke sulekhan ke ant mein khuda[21]
--muhammad haneef, raaj mistriyon ka paryavekshak tha, saath hi meer abdul kareem evam mukar‍aaimat Khan, shiraaj, Iran se; inke haathion mein pratidin ka vitt evam prabandhan tha.

itihaas

1860 mein Tajmahal

Tajmahal ke poora hone ke turant baad hi, shaahajahaaain ko apne putr aurangajeb dvaara apadasth kar, Agra ke kile mein najraband kar diya gaya. shaahajahaaain ki mrutyu ke baad, use usaki patni ke baraabar mein dafna diya gaya tha. antim 19veen sadi hote hote Tajmahal ki haalat kaafi jeern-sheern ho chali thi.

yuddhakaaleen suraksha paid balli

1857 ke bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke dauraan, Tajmahal ko british sainikon evam sarkaari adhikaariyon dvaara kaafi virupan sahana padaa tha. inhonne bahumoolya patthar evam ratn, tatha laipij lajooli ko khod kar deevaaron se nikaal liya tha. 19veen sadi ke ant mein british vaaisarauya George naithainiyl karjn ne ek vruhat pratyaavartan pariyojana aarambh ki. yeh 1908 mein poorn hui. usane aantarik kaksh mein ek badaa deepak ya chiraag sthaapit kiya, jo kaahira mein sthit ek masjid jaisa hi hai. isi samay yahaaain ke baagon ko british shaili mein badla gaya tha. vahi aaj darshit hain. san 1942 mein, sarkaar ne makabare ke ird-gird, ek machaan sahit paid balli ka suraksha kavach taiyaar karaaya tha. yeh jarman evam baad mein Japani havaai hamle se suraksha pradaan kar paae. 1965 evam 1971 ke Bhaarat Pakistan yuddh ke samay bhi yahi kiya gaya tha, jisse ki vaayu bamavarshakon ko bhramit kiya ja sake. iske vartamaan khatre vaataavaran ke pradooshan se hain, jo ki yamuna nadi ke tat par hai, evam aml-varsha se, jo ki Mathura tel shodhak kaarkhaane se nikle dhune ke kaaran hai. iska sarvochch nyaayaalaya ke nideshaanusaar bhi kadaa virodh hua tha. 1983 mein Tajmahal ko yunesko vishv dharohar sthal ghoshit kiya gaya.

paryatan

godhooli ke samay taaj

Tajmahal pratyek varsh 20 se 40 lakh darshakon ko aakarshit karta hai, jismein se 200,000 se adhik videshi hote hain. adhiktar paryatak yahaaain October, November evam February ke maheenon mein aate hain. is smaarak ke aaspaas pradooshan failaate vaahan pratibndhit hain. paryatak parking se ya to paidal ja sakte hain, ya vidyut chaalit bas seva dvaara bhi ja sakte hain. khavaasapuraas ko punarsthaapit kar naveen paryatak soochana kendra ki tarah prayog kiya jaaega.[22][23] taaj mahal ke dakshin mein sthit ek chhoti basti ko taajaganj kehte hain. pehle ise mumataajaganj bhi kaha jaata th. yeh pehle kaaravaan saraaya evam dainik aavashyakataaon hetu basaaya gaya tha.[24] prashansit paryatan sthalon ki soochi mein Tajmahal sada hi sarvochch sthaan leta raha hai. yeh saat aashcharyon ki soochi mein bhi aata raha hai. ab yeh aadhunik vishv ke saat aashcharyon mein pratham sthaan paaya hai. yeh sthaan vishvavyaapi matadaan se hua tha[25] jahaaain ise das karod mat mile the.

suraksha kaaranon se[26] keval paaainch vastuen - paaradarshi botalon mein paani, chhote video camera, sthir camera, mobile phone evam chhote mahila batue - Tajmahal mein le jaane ki anumati hai.

prachalit kathaaeain

is imaarat ka nirmaan sada se prashansa evam vismaya ka vishay raha hai. isne dharm, sanskruti evam bhoogol ki seemaaon ko paarakar ke logon ke dilon se vaiyaktik evam bhaavanaatmak pratikriya karaai hai, jo ki anek vidyaabhimaaniyon dvaara kiye gaye moolyaankanon se gyaat hota hai. yahaaain kuchh Tajmahal se judee prachalit kathaaen di gain hain:-[27]

jeen baiptist taivarniyr - Tajmahal ka pratham Europeeya paryatak

--ek puraani katha ke anusaar, shaahajahaaain ki ichha thi ki yamuna ke us paar bhi ek theek aisa hi, kintu kaala Tajmahal nirmaan ho[28] jismein usaki kabr bane. yeh anumaan jeen baiptist taivarniyr, pratham yooropiyn Tajmahal paryatak, jisne Agra 1665 mein ghooma tha, ke kathanaanusaar hai. usamein bataaya hai, ki shaahajahaaain ko apadasth kar diya gaya tha, isse pehle ki vah kaala Tajmahal banava paae. kaale pade sangamarmar ki shilaaon se, jo ki yamuna ke us paar, maahataab baag mein hain; is tathya ko bal milta hai. parantu, 1990 ke dashak mein ki gain khudaai se pata chala, ki yeh shvet sangamarmar hi the, jo ki kaale pad gaye the.[29] kaale makabare ke baare mein ek adhik vishvasaneeya katha 2006 mein puraatatvavettaaon dvaara bataai gayi, jinhonne maahataab baag mein kendreeya sarovar ki punarsthaapana ki thi. shvet makabare ki gahari chhaaya ko spasht dekha ja sakta tha us sarovar mein. isse santulan ya samamiti banaae rakhane ka evam sarovar ki sthiti aise nirdhaaran karne ka, ki jisse pratibimb theek usamein prateet ho; shaahajahaaain ka junoon spasht dikhaai padta tha.[30]
--aisa bhi kaha jaata hai, ki shaahajahaaain ne un kaareegaron ke angachhedan aadi kara diye the, ya marava diya tha, jinhonne Tajmahal ka nirmaan karaaya tha. parantu iske poorn saakshya upalabdh naheen hain. kuchh logon ka kehna hai, ki Tajmahal ke nirmaan se jude logon se yeh karaaranaama likhva liya gaya tha, ki ve aise roop ka koi bhi doosari imaarat naheen banaaenge. aise hi daave kai prasiddh imaaraton ke baare mein bhi kiye jaate rahe hain.[31]
--is tathya ke bhi koi saakshya naheen hain, ki Lord William baintik, Bhaarat ke Governor general ne 1830 ke dashak mein, Tajmahal ko dhvans kar ke usaka sangamarmar neelaam karne ki yojana banaai thi. baintik ke jeevani lekhak, John raussoli ne kaha hai, ki ek katha udee thi, jab baintik ne nidhi badhaane hetu Agra ke kile ka faalatoo sangamarmar neelaam kiya tha.[32]
--san 2000 mein, Bhaarat ke sarvochch nyaayaalaya shri purushottam naagesh ok dvaara daakhil arji radd kar di thi, jismein yeh kaha gaya tha, ki ek hindu raaja ne Tajmahal banavaaya tha.[31][33] shri ok ne saakshya sahit, yeh daava kiya tha, ki Tajmahal ka udgam (mool imaarat), evam saath hi desh ki anekon etihaasik imaaratein, jo aaj muslim sultaanon dvaara nirmit bataai jaati hain, asal mein unase pehle bhi yahaaain maujood theen. falat: yeh mool imaaratein hindu raajaaon dvaara nirmit hain. evam inka udgam hindu hai.[34]
--ek aur bahucharchit katha, jo ki kaavyaatmak hai, ke anusaar maunasoon ki pratham varsha mein paani ki boondein inki kabr par girteen hain. jaisa ki gurudev ravindranaath Tagore ke is makabare ke varnan se prerit hai, "ek ashru moti ... samay ke gaal par". ek anya mithk ke anusaar, yadi shikhar ke kalash ki chhaaya ko peetein, to paani/ varsha aati hai. aaj tak adhikaari yahaaain iski chhaaya ke ird gird tooti choodiyon ke tukade paate hain. .[35]

vivaad : taaj mahal ek hindu imaarat

itihaasakaar purushottam naagesh ok dvaara daakhil arji ke anusaar taaj mahal ek hindu imaarat (Shiv-mandir) hai. ok mahodaya ki baat sveekaar na karne ka sabse bada kaaran yeh hai ki likhit itihaas ke tamaam upalabdh sroton ke anusaar Tajmahal ek muslim baadshah shaahajahaaain dvaara banavaane ki baat samaane aati hai, kintu is baat ko bhoolana na hoga ki bhaarateeya paratantrata ke yug mein itihaas ko chhati pahuainchi hai.

pratikrutiyaaain

cheen ke shenajen shahar ke pashchimi bhaag mein sthit vindo of the world theem park mein Tajmahal ki pratikruti bani hai. iske alaava Tajmahal se prerit hokar bani vishv ki anya imaaraton mein Tajmahal Bangladesh, Aurangabad, Maharashtra mein beebi ka makabara, atalaantik city, new jersey sthit tramp Tajmahal aur milvaauki, viskajin sthit tripoli shraain tempal hain. vaise british kaaleen Bhaarat mein hi angrejon ne tatkaaleen rajdhani Calcutta mein inglaind ki tatkaaleen mahaaraani Victoria ke sammaan mein Victoria memoriyl smaarak bhi banaaya tha, jo Tajmahal se kaafi had tak prerit hai, kintu gothik sthaapatyakala mein dhala hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

tippani

  1. a aa "Bhaarat ke baare mein jaanein - Tajmahal" (hindi mein) (peeechapi). raashtreeya portal vishyavastu prabandhan dal. http://bharat.gov.in/knowindia/taj_mahal.php. abhigman tithi: 2011.
  2. taail aakaar mein, arthaat sangamarmar ki chhoti chhoti int roopi aayataakaar taailon se dhanka hai.
  3. UNESCO salaahakaar sanstha aaainkalan
  4. tilitsan, ji.H.aar. (1990). aarkitekcharal guide too mugal indiya, kraunikl books
  5. Tajmahal sulekhan
  6. a aa coach, prushth.100 sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "k100" defined multiple times with different content
  7. O Soul, thou art at rest. Return to the Lord at peace with Him, and He at peace with you.pbs.org
  8. taj-mahal-travel-tours.com
  9. begale, vaayan E. (March, 1979). "the mith of the Tajmahal end a new theory of its simbaulik meening". the Art buletin 61 (1): 14.
  10. right, Karen (July), "mugals in the moonalaait - plains too restor mehataab baag niyr taaj mahal", diskavar, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_7_21/ai_63035788
  11. ailan, John (angreji mein). the Cambridge shaurtar history of indiya. kaimbrij: S. chaand. pp. 288 prushth. , pru. 318
  12. The Taj by Jerry Camarillo Dunn Jr
  13. coach, pru. 139
  14. pariseemit arthaat deevaaron se ghiri. puraane nagar praay: deevaaron se ghire hote the, suraksha kaaranon se, jaise ki Delhi, Agra, Jaipur, aadi.
  15. Chaghtai Le Tadj Mahal p54; Lahawri Badshah Namah Vol.1 p403
  16. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq
  17. Who designed the Taj Mahal
  18. William J. Hennessey, Ph.D., Director, Univ. of Michigan Museum of Art. IBM 1999 WORLD BOOK
  19. Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: from Prehistory to Post-Modernism. p223
  20. ISBN 964-7483-39-2
  21. 10877
  22. Koch, p.120
  23. Koch, p.254
  24. Koch, p.201-208
  25. Travel Correspondent (2007-07-09). "New Seven Wonders of the World announced" (English mein). The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/main.jhtml?xml=/travel/2007/07/09/etsevenwonders109.xml. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-06.
  26. [1]
  27. Koch, p.231
  28. Asher, p.210
  29. Koch, p.249
  30. Warrior Empire: The Mughals of India (2006) A+E Television Network
  31. a aa Koch, p.239
  32. Rosselli, J., Lord William Bentinck the making of a Liberal Imperialist, 1774-1839, London Chatto and Windus for Sussex University Press 1974, p.283
  33. Supreme Court Dismisses Oak's Petition
  34. Oak, Purushottam Nagesh. "The True Story of the Taj Mahal" (English mein). Stephen Knapp. http://www.stephen-knapp.com/true_story_of_the_taj_mahal.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-23.
  35. Koch, p.240

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain