Syria

جaaمaaهaaوaaرaaيaaة سaaوaaرaaيaaا اaaلaaعaaرaaبaaيaaة
Al-Jumhūariyyah al-ʿaArabiyyah as-Sūariyyah

Syriai arab ganaraajya
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtragaan: Homat el Diyar
bhoomi ke paalak
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
damishk
33°a30′aN 36°a18′aE / 33.5°aN 36.3°aE / 33.5; 36.3
raajabhaasha(eain) arabi
nivaasi seeriyn
sarkaar adhyaksheeya ganatantr aapaatakaal kaanoon ke antargat 1963 se
- raashtrapati bashar al-asaad
- pradhaanamantri mohammad naaji al-otaari
svatantrata France se
- pratham ghoshana September 19361
- doosari ghoshana 1 January 1944
- maanyata 17 April 1946
kshetrafal
- kul 185180 varg kilometer (88 vaan)
71479 varg meal
- jal (%) 0.06
janasankhya
- 2007 janaganana 19,405,000 (55 vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2007 praakkalan
- kul $87.09 billion (63 vaan)
- prati vyakti $4,488 (111 vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2007 praakkalan
- kul $37.76 billion (73 vaan)
- prati vyakti $1,946 (114 vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Red Arrow Down.svg 0.658[1]
madhyam · 118vaaain
mudra seeriyn pound (SYP)
samay mandal EET (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+2)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) EEST (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
doorabhaash koot 963
Internet teeeladi .sy
1. The Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence (1936), not ratified by France.

Syria (arabi: سaaوaaرaaيaaّaaةSūarriya or Sūarya), aadhikaarik roop se Syriai arab ganaraajya (arabi: اaaلaaجaaمaaهaaوaaرaaيaaة اaaلaaعaaرaaبaaيaaة اaaلaaسaaوaaرaaيaaة ), dakshin-pashchim Asia ka ek raashtra hai. iske pashchim mein lebanaun tatha bhoomadhyasaagar, dakshin-pashchim mein isaraayal, dakshin mein jaurdan, poorab mein iraak tatha uttar mein Turkey hai. isaraail tatha iraak ke beech sthit hone ke kaaran yeh madhya-poorv ka ek mahatvapoorn desh hai. iski rajdhani damishk hai jo umayyad khilaaft tatha maamaluk saamraajya ki rajdhani rah chuka hai.

April 1946 mein France se svaadheenata milne ke baad yahaaain ke shaasan mein baath party ka prabhutv raha hai. 1963 se yahaaain aapaatakaal laagoo hai jiske kaaran 1970 ke baad se yahaaain ke shaasak asad parivaar ke log hote hain.

anukram

naam

Syria naam praacheen greek se aaya hai. praacheen kaal mein yavan is kshetr ko seereeyoi kehte the. is pad ka prayog praay: sabhi tarah ke aseeriyaai logon ke liye hota tha. vidvaanon ka kehna hai ki greek logon dvaara prayukt shabd aseeriya hi Syria ke naam ka janak hai. aseeriya shabd khud akkadi bhaasha ke assur se aaya hai. [2]

Syria shabd ka matlab badalta raha hai. puraane jamaane mein Syria ka arth hota tha bhoomadhyasaagar ke poorab mein misr tatha arab ke uttar tatha sileesiya ke dakshin ka kshetr jiska vistaar mesopotaamiya tak ho aur jise pehle aseeriya bhi kehte the.[3] roman saamraajya ke samay is Syriai kshetron ko kai vibhaagon mein baaaint daala gaya tha. judaya (jisko san 135 mein fleesteen naam diya gaya - aaj us faleesteen ke antargat aaj ka isaraayal, fileesteen tatha jaurdan aate hain) sabse dakshin pashchim mein tha, foneshiya lebanaun mein, koele-Syria tatha mesopotaamiya iske khandon ke naam the.

raajaneeti

Syria ki kaaryapaalika ke ang hain - raashtrapati, do uparaashtrapati, pradhaanamantri mantreeparishd. yahaaain ki vidhaayika mein ekamaatr sadan hai.

nyaayapaalika ke ang hain - saanvaidhaanik uchchatam nyaayaalaya, uchch nyaayaalaya tatha do anya nyaayaalaya.

raajanaitik paartiyaaain: arab samaajavaadi (baath) party, seeriyn arab samaajavaadi dal, arab samaajavaadi sangh, Syriai saamyavaadi dal, arab samaajavaadi evam ekataavaadi dal, tatha koi 15 anya dal.

The famouse incident of karbala in year 61, the holy family of Imam Husain was arresed at karbala (Iraq) and shifted here in Shaam (and old city and capital of Yazeed), for around one year..the mousque of Bibi sakina (daughter of Imam Husain is situated here)

samvidhaan aur sarkaar

Syria ka samvidhaan 1973 mein apnaaya gaya tha jismein baath party ko netrutv ka adhikaar mila hua hai. raashtrapati ka chunaav 7 saalon ke liye hota hai jiske liye janamat sangrah ka prayog kiya jaata hai. raashtrapati baath party ka mahaasachiv bhi hota hai. samvidhaan ke anusaar raashtrapati ek musalmaan hi ho sakta hai par islaam raajadharm naheen hai. raashtrapati ko mantriyon ko bahaal kaarane ka, yuddh tatha aapaatakaal ki ghoshana karne ka tatha kaanoon paas karne ka adhikaar deti hai.

aapaatakaal

san 1963 se desh mein aapaatakaal laagoo hai. desh ki sarkaar ne ise isaraayal ke saath yuddh tatha aatankvaadiyon dvaara di gayi dhamakiyon jaise kaaranon ka havaala dekar sahi thaharaaya hai.

itihaas

elbi sabhyata

elba ke shahar ki sthaapana san 3000 isaapoorv mein hui thi. is sabhyata ke avashesh san 1975 mein uttari Syria mein mile the. sumer tatha akkad se iska vyaapaarik sampark tha.[4] fraao ke upahaaron ke yahaaain milne se yeh bhi spasht hota hai ki misr se bhi inke sambandh the. seemetik bhaashaaon ka sabse puraana abhilekh bhi yaheen mila hai. yadyapi aadhunik sandhaanon se pata chalta hai ki yeh poorvi semechik bhaasha thi aur akkadi bhaasha ke adhik kareeb thi.[5] elba ke saamraajya ko isaapoorv 2260 mein akkad ke saaragon ne tatha uske baad isapoorv 1900 mein hittiyon ne ftah kiya.

praacheen kaal

bosara mein roman theatre.
arab fileep - Syriai not ka vivran

kainnanaaich, foneshiyaai tatha araamiynon ka prabhutv doosari shahastraabdi mein bana raha. hibroo log damishk ke dakshin mein bas gaye. aseeriyaai, sumeriyaai, misri thatha bebeeloniyaai logon ke vibhinn basaavon ke baad chhathi sadi isaapoorv mein faaras ke hakhaamani saamraajya ne is par apna adhikaar kar liya. aane waali do sadiyon tak poore pashchim Asia par faarasiyon ka adhikaar bana raha. isa ke 330 saal pehle jab makadooniya (mesedoniya) ke sikndar ne faaras ke shaah daara truteeya ko teen vibhinn yuddhon mein haraaya tab yahaaain par yavanon ka adhikaar ho gaya. iske baad saasaani tatha romanon ke beech Syria vibhaajit raha.[4]

roman shaasan mein entiok shahar Syria ki rajdhani raha. teesari sadi mein rom ke do shaasak hue jo Syria se the.

ummayad masjid, damishk

isaaiyat ke itihaas man Syria bahut mahatvapoorn hai.{Acts 9:1-6 Paul's Encounter with Yahweh on the Road to Damascus}

isi prakaar islaam mein bhi Syria ka sthaan bahut mahatvapoorn hai. ummayad khilaaft (650-735) ke samay damishk islaam ki rajdhani tha aur musalmaan damishk ki taraf namaaj ada karte the. san 1260 tak yeh abbaasiyon ke adheen raha jiski rajdhani bagdaad thi. mangolon ke aakraman ki vajah se 1258 mein bagdaad ka patan ho gaya. mangolon ki sena ki kamaan kitbuga ke haathon saup di gayi thi jisko misr ke maamalukon ne aage badhne se rok diya. mangolon ne 1281 mein maamalukon par dubaara bhaari aakraman kiya par ve haar gaye. [6]

san 1400, taimoor lang, athva tameralen ne Syria par aakraman kiya aur aleppo tatha damishk mein bhaari tabaahi machaai. bhittikaaron ko chhod kar sabon ko maar daala gaya aur bhittikaaron ko samarakand le jaaya gaya.[7][8] taimoor lang ke samay se Syria ke sthaaneeya isaaiyon ko prataadna di jaane lagi. solahaveen sadi se lekar beesaveen sadi ke aarambh tak yeh usmaani saamraajya (otoman turk) ka ang bana raha.

iske baad yahaaain praans ka shaasan aaya jo 1946 tak chala. iske baad se yahaaain raajanaitik asthirta rahi hai. baath party ne shaasan par apna sikka jamaaya aur aajkal shaasan mein asad parivaar ka prabhutv hai.

vibhaag

Syria ke 14 praant hain. inhein muhaafjaat (ekavachan - muhaafja) kehte hain. iraak ke praanton ko bhi isi naam se jaana jaata hai. praanton ko 60 jilon mein baaainta jaata hai jinhein mintaka (ekavachan - mantik) kehte hain. jile ke prakhandon ko navaahi kehte hain.

aantarik maamalon ke mantri har raajya ke liye ek raajyapaal (soobedaar) ki niyukti karta hai. iske liye mantreeparishd ka anumodan aavashyak hota hai. har soobedaar ke paas raajya ki ek alag nirvaachit parishad hoti hai.


bade nagar

damishk - aleppo - lataakiya - homs - hama

chhote nagar

al-hasaakh - deer aj-jor - ar-rakka - idalib - daara - as-suvayada - taratoos.

shahar

al kameeshali - nava - ar-raastaan - mayasaf - safita - jaableh - ath-thavaara - duma - baniyaas - an-nabk- kusair - maalaula - jbaadaani - bosara - jaraamaana - at-taal - salaamiye- saidaanya - al-Bob - jisr al-shugur

bhoogol

Satellite image of Syria (border lines added).

Syria ka adhikaansh kshetr shushk hai. pashchim mein bhoomadhya saagar se lage tatha furaat nadi ke tateeya pradesh nam aur harit hain. in sthaanon par aabaadi ka mukhya hissa nivaas karta hai. furaat nadi Syria ki sabse mahatvapoorn nadi hai. yeh kshetr vishv ke sabse praacheen sabhyata ka palana raha hai.


desh ke dakshin poorv mein damishk hai jo desh ki rajdhani ke saath sabse bada nagar bhi hai.

Syria ka maanachitr

Syria ki jalavaayu shushk aur garm hai. sardiyaan thandi hoti hain. kabhi kabhi himpaat bhi hota hai. sabse pehle 1956 mein yahaaain petrolium ki khoj hui thi. suvaayadiya, kratsui tatha rumaaiyaaain mein pramuth tel kshetr hain. ye tel kshetr Iraq ke mosul tatha kirkuk ke paas ke tel kshetron ke praakrutik vistaar hain. jabesa mein 1940 mein praakrutik gas ke bhandaaron ka pata laga tha. petrolium Syria ka pramukh niryaat hai.

janavrutt

Syria mein janasankhya ka ghanatv pratikilomeetar 100 ke kareeb hai aur aabaad ilaakon mein mukhyat: furaat nadi ki ghaati tatha pahaadon aur tateeya pradeshon ke beech basati hai. 2008 mein kiye gaye ek sarve mein paaya gaya ki Syria mein koi 18 lakh sharanaarthi iraak, somaaliya aur faleesteen se aakar base hain. [9]

chh: se gyaarah saal ke bachchon ke liye shiksha muft aur anivaarya hai. 15 saal ya usase adhik ki umr ke logon ke liye saaksharata ki dar purushon mein 86 pratishat hai jabki mahilaaon mein 74 pratishat.

nasl

teen Syriai log, 1873.

adhikaansh Syriai yahaaain ke mool laivaintaain log hain. ve apne padosiyon se nasli rishte rakhate hain - fleesteeniyon, lebanaaniyon tatha jaurdaniyon se inki nrujaatik kareebi hai.[10] aajkal seeriyaaiyon ko arab kaha jaata hai - jaisa ki arab bhaashi kisi bhi arab dunaya ke mubaalik ko kaha jaata hai - ye log usi kshetr mein paaainch hajaar saal se rah rahe logon ke anya jaatiyon ke saath nasli mishran se bane hain. Syria ke log, chaahe vo muslim hon ya isaai, poore arabi log hain - sanskruti, bhaasha aur tahajeeb ke hisaab se. seereeyaai arabon ki aabaadi Syria ki kul aabaadi ka 90 pratishat hai.[11]

gair arab alpasankhyakon mein se pramukh hain:

  • kurd - 9%).[12] kurd mukhyat: uttar poorvi kshetr mein rahate hain jo Turkey tatha Iraq ke sate kshetr hain.
  • turk. - inhein Syriai turkamen kaha jaata hai. ye mukhyat: aleppo, damishk tatha lataakiya mein rahate hain.
  • aseeriyaai log-
  • armeniyaai.

Syriai log laatin amereeki deshon mein bhi pravaas karte hain. Brazil tatha Argentina mein Syriai log achachhi sankhya mein vaas karte hain.[13][14]

dharm

Syria ki 90 pratishat aabaadi muslim hai aur 10 pratishat isaai. sunni muslim kul janasankhya ke 74 pratishat hain jabki shiya kreeb 13 pratishat.

damishk mein kuchh yahoodi bhi rahate hain.[15]

bhaasha

arabi aadhikaarik bhaasha hai. kurd ilaakon ke log kurd bhaasha bhi bolte hain. shikshit log angreji tatha French bhi bolte hain.

arthavyavastha

Syria ek vikaasasheel arthavyavastha hai jiske pramukh stambh krushi, petrolium, udyog aur paryatan hain. tel ke utpaadan mein aa rahi giraavat, gair-sarkaari pratishthaanon ke kharaab pradarshan tatha nimn audyogik tatha krushi utpaadan ke kaaran Syria ki arthavyavastha kamzor ho gayi hai.

yahaaain ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ke vikaas ki dar 2.9 pratishat hai.

aisa anumaan lagaaya jaata hai ki Syria 2012 tak tel ke niryaatak ki bajaay aayaatak ban jaaega. Syria se gas ka niryaat naheen hota. sarkaar is disha mein kadam utha rahi hai.

berojgaari ki dar, Syria ki sarkaar ke mutaabik 7.5 feesadi hai.

videshi vyaapaar

1951 mein isaraayal ke adhikaar ke virodh mein Syria ne kar aur chungiyon ki saamaanya sahamati se apna naam vaapas le liya aur iske baad se Syria vishv baajaar mein apna sthaan banaane mein aksham raha hai.

parivhan

Syria ke do pramukh havaai adde hain - damishk aur aleppo. maal dhone ka kaam railgaadiyon dvaara hota hai. seeefes (saariyaai railway company) tatha taaseedeedi (turk railway company) do relaseva pradaan karne waali kampaniya hain. Syria ki relaseva achhi khaasi tej aur durust hai.[16].

Syria ke seema vivaad

Turkey ke saath iskaandaran (hataaya) praant ko lekar vivaad

saariya ka kehna hai ki iskaandaraan praant Turkey ko France dvaara anuchit roop se 1930 mein de diye gaye the. us samay Syria par France ka adhikaar tha. turkon ko kehna hai ki hataaya (iskaandaraan) usmaani (otoman) saamraajya ka ang tha aur is kaaran is kshetr par unka adhikaar banta hai. turkon ki nazar mein Syria ka sampoorn kshetr bhootapoorv turk vilaayat hai. Syriai log is kshetr ko liva aliskendaruna naam se sambodhit karte hain jabki turk prashaasan ise hataaya naam deta hai.


golaan pathaar par isaraayal ka daava

golaan dakshin pashchim ka ek kshetr hai jo 1850 varg kilometer ka kshetr hai. is pahaadi kshetr ki uainchaai 2500 meter se adhik hai aur isse maidaani kshetron par niyantran rakhane mein aasaani hoti hai. 1949 mein isaraayal ke saath hui ek sandhi ke mutaabik iske paas donon deshon ki seema tay hui thi aur is pahaadi kshetr ko asainik kshetr banaane ka faisala kiya gaya tha. par Syria ne is kshetr ka istemaal isaraaili kisaanon par hamla karne ke liye kiya jiske falasvaroop isaraayal ne san 1967 mein 6 dini ladaai mein chheen liya. [17] iska javaab Syria ne yahoodi (isaraayal ke logon ka dharm) logon ke pavitratam din yom kippur ke din san 1973 mein isaraayal par aakraman karke dene ki koshish ki. [18] iske baad 1974 mein sanyukt raashtra ke hastakshep ke baad isaraayal ne golaan ke seeriyaaiyon ko Syria mein vyaapaar karne ki ijaajat de di. [19] golaan ke Syriai chhaatron ko seechiyaai vishvavidyaalaya mein padhne ki bhi anumati mil gayi hai.[20]

sanskruti

Palmyra.

keelaakaar lip ki khoj Syria mein isaapoorv 14veen sadi mein hui thi. Syria ka itihaas bahut puraana hai aur yahaaain paaramparik saanskrutik moolyon ko aadarabhaav se dekha jaata hai. parivaar, dharm, shiksha, anushaasan tatha aadar ko mahatva diya jaata hai. al-sama aur dabakes paaramparik nrutya hain. vivaah aur santaan praapti par saanskrutik kaaryakramon ki adhikta dekhne ko milti hai.

paaramparik roop se nivaas ek ya adhik aangan ke chaaro or banaae jaate hain. inke beech praay: ek jharana hota hai aur chaaro or neenboo, angoor aur foolon ke paudhe lage hote hain.

Syriai logon ne arabi bhaasha mein bahumoolya yogadaan diya hai. kai Syriai lekhak misr chale gaye jinhonne 19veen sadi ke arabi lekhan ke punarjaagaran mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada ki. inmein se pramukh hain - Ali Ahmad said, muhammad magaut, haidar haidar, gada al-samman, nijaar kbbaani aur jkariya taamer.

Syriai khaanon mein dakshini bhoomadhyasaagareeya, pashchim Asiaee aur turk khaanon ka prabhaav hai.

mele aur tyauhaar

parv aur tyauhaar nagar maas
foolon ka tyauhaar lataakiya April
paaramparik paalameera May
antarraashtreeya fool mela damishk May
Syriai geet mela aleppo July
maaramarita maaramarita August
latti tyauhaar assuvaayada sitmbar
kapaas tyauhaar aleppo sitmbar
damishk ka antarraashtreeya mela damishk sitmbar
prem aur aman ka parv lataakiya 2 - 12 August
bosara tyauhaar bosara sitmbar
film aur naatya tyauhaar damishk November
chameli ka tyauhaar damishk April

sambandhit vishay

  • Syria ke praant
  • Arab diaspora
  • Communications in Syria
  • Foreign relations of Syria
  • Great Syria
  • Health in Syria
  • History of Syria
  • Human rights in Syria
  • List of prominent Syrian people
  • Military of Syria
  • Politics of Syria
  • Religion in Syria
  • Scouting in Syria
  • Terrorism in Syria
  • Transportation in Syria

teeka

  1. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21-25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.
  2. sabse pehle Theodor Nöaldeke dvaara san 1881 mein ; cf. Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Syria". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Syria. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-13. .
  3. Pliny. "Book 5 Section 66". Natural History. University of Chicago Website. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/5*.html.
  4. a aa "Syria: A country Study - Ancient Syria". Library of Congress. Data as of April 1987. http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_syriaancient.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-05.
  5. "The Aramaic Language and Its Classification". Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies Vol. 14 (No. 1). http://www.jaas.org/edocs/v14n1/e8.pdf.
  6. Timeframe pp. 59-75
  7. Battle of Aleppo
  8. The Eastern Mediterranean, 1400–1600 A.D.
  9. "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 2008-06-19. http://www.refugees.org/survey.
  10. Phoenicians Online Extra @ National Geographic Magazine
  11. "Syria". The World Factbook. 2007. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sy.html.
  12. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". Library of Congress Country Studies. http://countrystudies.us/syria/23.htm.
  13. bhraajeel ke arab
  14. laatin America mein arabon ke nishaan
  15. Syrian Jews
  16. How to travel by train from London to Syria | Train travel in Syria
  17. "What Led To The Six Day War?". http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1948to1967_sixday_backgd.php.
  18. "BBC NEWS". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/3393813.stm.
  19. http://www.zawya.com/Story.cfm/sidZAWYA20070611075008/SecCountries/pagSyria/chnSyria%20Analysis/obj13F83CD8-8988-11D5-867E00D0B74A0D7C/
  20. Worldandnation: Golan families dream of reunion

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain

sarkaar
sanskruti
arthavyavastha
samaachaar
Syrian Cities, towns & Villages websites