Swaraj

Swaraj ka shaabdik arth hai - 'svashaasan' ya "apna raajya" ("self-governance" or "home-rule"). Bhaarat ke raashtreeya aandolan ke samay prachalit yeh shabd aatm-nirnaya tatha svaadheenata ki maaaing par bal deta tha. praarambhik raashtravaadiyon (udaaravaadiyon) ne svaadheenata ko dooragaami lakshya maanate hue 'svashaasan' ke sthaan par 'achhi sarkaar' (british sarkaar) ke lakshya ko vareeyata di. tatpashchaat ugravaadi kaal mein yeh shabd lokapriya hua, jab baal gangaadhar tilk ne yeh udghoshana ki ki ''Swaraj mera janm siddh adhikaar hai aur main ise lekar rahooainga.'' gaaaindhi ne sarvapratham 1920 mein kaha ki ''mera Swaraj Bhaarat ke liye sansadeeya shaasan ki maang hai, jo vayask mataadhikaar par aadhaarit hoga. gaaaindhi ka mat tha Swaraj ka arth hai janapratinidhiyon dvaara sanchaalit aisi vyavastha jo jan-aavashyakataaon tatha jan-aakaankshaaon ke anuroop ho.'' vastut: Gandhiji ka Swaraj ka vichaar Britain ke raajanaitik, saamaajik, aarthik, byoorokraitik, kaanooni, sainik evam shaikshanik sansthaaon ka bahishkaar karne ka aandolan tha.

yadyapi Gandhiji ka Swaraj ka sapana poori tarah se praapt naheen kiya ja saka fir bhi unke dvaara sthaapit anek swayamsevi sansthaaon ne is disha mein kaafi prayaas kiye.

anukram

Swaraj par gaaaindhi ke vichaar

gaaaindhi ke 'Swaraj' ki avadhaarana atyant vyaapak hai. Swaraj ka arth keval raajaneetik star par videshi shaasan se svaadheenata praapt karna naheen hai, balki ismein saanskrutik va naitik svaadheenata ka vichaar bhi nihit hai. yeh raashtra nirmaan mein paraspar sahayog va mel-milaap par bal deta hai. shaasan ke star par yeh 'sachche lokatantr ka paryaaya' hai. gaaaindhi ka Swaraj 'nirdhan ka Swaraj' hai, jo deen-dukhiyon ke uddhaar ke liye prerit karta hai. yeh aatm-sayanm, gram-raajya va satta ke vikendreekaran par bal deta hai. gaaaindhi ne 'sarvodaya' arthaat sarv-kalyaan ka samarthan kiya. ahisaantmak samaaj:gaaaindhi ki drushti mein aadarsh samaaj-vyavastha vahi ho sakti hai, jo poornat: ]]ahinsa]]tmak ho. jahaaain hinsa ka vichaar hi lupt ho jaaega, vahaaain 'dand' ya 'bal-prayog' ki koi aavashyakta naheen rahegi arthaat aadarsh samaaj mein raajaneetik shakti ya raajya ki koi aavashyakta naheen hogi. gaaaindhi hinsa tatha shoshan par aadhaarit vartamaan raajaneetik dhaaainche ko samaapt karke, uske sthaan par ek aisi vyavastha sthaapit karna chaahate the, jo vyakti ki sahamati par aadhaarit ho tatha jiska uddeshya ahinsaatmak tareekon se jan-kalyaan mein yogadaan dena ho.

raajya-viheen samaaj

gaaaindhi ke anusaar ahinsaatmak samaaj raajyaviheen hoga. vah raajya ka virodh is aadhaar par karte hain, ki na to yeh svaabhaavik sanstha hai aur na hi aavashyak hai. unhonne daarshanik araajakataavaadi ki bhaaainti is aadhaar par raajya ko asveekaar kiya-

  • (1) raajya hinsa par aadhaarit hai. yeh sangathit roop mein hinsa ki pratinidhitv karta hai,
  • (2) raajya ki bal-shakti vyakti ki svatantrata tatha vyaktitv hetu vinaashakaari hai
  • (3) ek ahinsaatmak samaaj mein raajya ki koi aavashyakta naheen hai.

gaaaindhi ke anusaar raajaneetik shakti saadhya naheen balki pratyek kshetr mein logon ke vikaas mein sahayog dene ka saadhan hai. yeh raashtreeya pratinidhiyon dvaara raashtreeya jeevan ka niyman karti hai. yadi raashtreeya jeevan itna paripoorn ho jaae ki aatmaniymit ho jaaain to kisi bhi pratinidhi ki aavashyakta naheen hai. aisi sthiti mein pratyek apna shaasak swayam hai. vah swayam par is prakaar shaasan karta hai, ki vah apne padosi ke liye baadha naheen banta. aisi aadarsh sthiti mein raajaneetik shakti naheen hoti, kyonki usamein koi raajya naheen hota. gaaaindhi ne use ''prabuddh araajakata ki sthiti'' kaha hai. yahi 'Ram raajya' hai. taulastauya ne ise ''pruthvi par parameshvar ka raajya'' kaha hai.

gram : ganaraajyon ka sangh

gaaaindhi ka raajyaaviheen, vargaviheen samaaj anek sv-shaasit tatha aatmanirbhar gram-samudaayon mein vibhkt hoga. pratyek gram-samudaaya ka prashaasan paaainch vyaktiyon ki panchaayat chalaaegi, jo graamavaasiyon dvaara nirvaachit hogi. gram panchaayaton ko vidhaayi, kaaryakaari tatha nyaayik shaktiyaaain praapt hongi. gram panchaayaton ke oopar mandalon ki, unke oopar jilon ki tatha jilon ke oopar praanton ki panchaayate hongi. sabse oopar saare raashtra ke liye kendreeya (sangheeya) panchaayat hogi. pratyek gaaainv apni aavashyakataaon ki poorti tatha suraksha ki drushti se svaavalambi hoga. sainik-shakti va police naheen hogi. bade nagar, kaanooni adaalatein, kaaraagaar tatha bhaari udyog naheen honge. satta ka vikendreekaran hoga. pratyek gaaainv swayamsevi roop se sangh se sambaddh hoga. Gandhi ne ise 'vaastavik svaraajya' kaha hai.

gaaaindhi ka maanana tha ki is prakaar ke sangh ke prabandh va sanposhan ke liye sarkaar aavashyak hogi. at: ek aadhunik aalochak ka mat hai ki gaaaindhi ka aadarsh samaaj se taatparya mukhyat: ahinsak raajya tha, na ki ahinsaatmak, raajyaviheen samaaj. doosari or aabid husain ka mat hai ki gaaaindhi ka Ram raajya poorn araajakataavaadi raajyaviheen samaaj hai, jo naitik kaanoon dvaara shaasit hai. is prakaar ke ahinsak samaaj mein shaanti-vyavastha prem ki shakti ya satyaagrah ke roop mein aatmabal dvaara sthaapit hogi. gaaaindhi ke anusaar satyaagrah vyaktiyon, vargon tatha raashtron ke madhya shoshan tatha daman ka pratirodh karne ka prabhaavapoorn yantr hai.

gaaaindhi ka mat tha ki raajyaviheen tatha vargaviheen ahinsak samaaj ki sthaapana ka lakshya sahaj roop se praapt naheen hoga. at: raajya ko tatkaal samaapt karna theek hai. falat: unka lakshya raajya ko ahinsa ke siddhaanto ke anuroop dhaalana hai. ahinsak raajya mein saamaajik vyavahaar ko niyamit karne hetu ek prakaar ki sarkaar tatha raajaneetik satta hogi, kintu vah kam se kam shaasan karegi, kyonki saamaajik jeevan aatm niyamit hoga. vyakti ko poorn svatantrata praapt hogi. adhikaansh kaarya swayamsevi sansthaaon dvaara sampann honge. gaaaindhi ke ye vichaar Russel, jee0dee0echa0 kol jaise gild samaajavaadiyon se milte-julate hain.

aarthik vikendreekaran

gaaaindhi ka janataantrik samaaj ek samaajavaadi raajya hoga. Bhagwat puraan se prabhaavit hone ke kaaran unka mat tha ki -

''sampatti dhaaran karne ka arth hai, bhavishya ke liye poorvayojana banaana. ek satya ka khoji... kal ke liye kuchh naheen rakhata..... sampann vyaktiyon ke paas vastuon ka atirikt bhandaar hota hai, jabki karodon vyakti bharan-poshan ke abhaav mein bhookhon marate hain. yadi manushya apne paas itna hi rakhe, jitna aavashyak hai to koi bhi abhaavagrast naheen hoga tatha sabhi santusht jeevan ji sakeinge.''

gaaaindhi niji sampatti ke samaapan ke paksh mein naheen hain kintu aarthik samaanata laana chaahate hain. aarthik samaanata se taatparya hai-sabhi ke liye paryaapt va santulit bhojan, aavaas tatha tan dhakane ke liye khaadi. vah svadeshi ka paksh lete hue kuteer va laghu udyog tatha khaadi udyogon ke vikaas par bal dete hain.

gaaaindhi ne praudyogiki pradhaan udyogon ya masheenon dvaara utpaadan ka virodh kiya tatha iske sthaan par shram pradhaan udyogon ko vareeyata di. unke anusaar utpaadan logon dvaara kiya jaae, faiktriyon dvaara naheen. gaaaindhi ne 'shram-siddhaant'' ke antargat yeh shiksha di ki pratyek vyakti ko shaareerik shram karke apne upabhog ki vastuon mein yogadaan dena chaahiye. chooainki ismein pratyek prakaar ki seva (chaahe naai ho ya vakeel) ya shram ko ek jaisa sammaan diya jaaega, isliye shram ki garima sthaapit hogi tatha vargeeya bhed mit jaane se 'vargaviheen' samaaj ki sthaapana hogi.

gaaaindhi ne bhoosvaamiyon tatha pooainjeepatiyon ki sampatti-adhigrahan ka samarthan naheen kiya hai. isaai samaajavaadiyon ki tarah vah pooainjeepatiyon ki manovrutti mein prem va anunaya dvaara parivartan laakar apna aarthik samaanata ka lakshya praapt karna chaahate the. pooainjeepati swayam ko sampatti ka svaami na samajhakar trasti ya nyaasi samajhein. jo sampatti unke paas hai, use ve samaaj ki dharohar samajhein. usamein se ve apne liye utana hi vyaya karein, jinki unki sevaaon ke liye upayukt hai, shesh samaaj ko lota dein arthaat nirdhanon mein baaaint dein.

utpaadan ka lakshya munaafa ne hokar sampoorn samaaj ka hit hona chaahiye. shramikon ki prabandh mein bhaageedaarita honi chaahiye. yadi pooainjeepati trasti banana sveekaar na karein, to kaanoon dvaara raajya ko bhoomi tatha utpaadan ke anya saadhanon par niyantran kar lena chaahiye.

sarvodaya

saamaanya hit ya sarv kalyaan ki drushti se gaaaindhi ne sarvodaya ke siddhaant ka pratipaadan kiya hai. yeh siddhaant aisi neeti ka samarthan karta hai, jiska uddeshya jaat-paat, dharm-sampradaaya, stri-puroosh, ooainch-neech aadi ke bhedabhaav mitaakar samaaj ke sabhi staron par kalyaan kaarya ko badhaava dena hai. yeh paraspar sahayog va sadbhaavana ka vikaas karega.

gaaaindhi ke sarvodaya ka siddhaant raajya ke lakshya ka siddhaant hai. upayogitaavaadi chintak baintham tatha J.S. mil jahaaain ''adhiktam logon ke adhiktam kalyaan'' ke paksh mein the, vaheen John rasakin ne ''sabse antim ya upekshit alpasankhyak'' (antayodaya) ka paksh liya. gaaaindhi ne in donon siddhaanton ke sammishran se ek naya siddhaant pratipaadit kiya, jise sarvodaya ya ''samaaj ke sabhi logon ke utthaan ya kalyaan'' ka siddhaant kaha jaata hai. baad mein vinoba bhaave ne isi siddhaant ka anusaran kiya.

gaaaindhi paramparaagat arth mein na to raajaneetik chintak the aur na hi siddhaant nirmaata the, kintu vah bhaarateeya svaadheenata aandolan ke agradoot tatha shreshth samaaj sudhaarak the. ek or satya aur ahinsa ke aadhaar par unhonne asahayog, savinya avajnyaa tatha Bhaarat chhodo aandolan ka netrutv kiya, doosari or jaativaad, saampradaayikta tatha chhuaa-chhoot ke viruddh abhiyaan chalaaya. maikayaavali ke vipreet unhonne raajaneeti va naitikta mein sambandh sthaapit kar saadhan va saadhya mein sambandh sthaapit kiya. paashchaatya udaaravaadiyon ki tarah unhonne vyaktigat svatantrata tatha pratinidhiyaatmak prajaatantr mein vishvaas jataaya. raajya ke uddeshya ke roop mein unki sarvodaya ki sankalpana mahattvapoorn hai. karmayogi hone ke naate gaaaindhi shram ki garima me vishvaas rakhate the.

gaaaindhi ki vargaheen tatha raajyaviheen samaaj ki parikalpana avyavahaarik prateet hoti hai. swayam gaaaindhi bhi ise sveekaar karte hain. kintu unke raajaneetik va aarthik kshetr mein vikendreekaran, graameen svayattashaasi vyavastha evam rojagaar, svadeshi aadi sambandhi vichaaron ke mahattv ko asveekaar naheen kiya ja sakta. unke satyaagrah, Swaraj tatha sarvodaya ke siddhaanton ka raajaneetik darshan mein mahattvapoorn yogadaan hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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