Singh (pashu)

Lion[1]
jeevaashm kaal: Early Pleistocene to recent
नर
nar
मादा (शेरनी)
maada (sherani)
sanrakshan sthiti
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: Animalia
sangh: Chordata
varg: Mammalia
gan: Carnivora
kul: Felidae
prajaati: Panthera
jaati: P. leo
dvipd naam
Panthera leo
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Distribution of lions in Africa
Distribution of lions in Africa
Distribution of lions in India. The Gir Forest, in the State of Gujarat, is the last natural range of approximately 300 wild Asiatic Lions. There are plans to reintroduce some lions to Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the neighboring State of Madhya Pradesh.
Distribution of lions in India. The Gir Forest, in the State of Gujarat, is the last natural range of approximately 300 wild Asiatic Lions. There are plans to reintroduce some lions to Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the neighboring State of Madhya Pradesh.
paryaaya
Felis leo
Linnaeus, 1758[3]


Singh (penthera liyo) penthera vansh ki chaar badi billiyon mein se ek hai aur felide parivaar ka sadasya hai. yeh baagh ke baad doosari sabse badi sajeev billi hai,[4] jiske kuchh naron ka vajan 250 kilogram se adhik hota hai. jangali Singh vartamaan mein up sahaara Africa aur Asia mein paae jaate hain. iski teji se vilupt hoti bachi khuchi janasankhya uttar pashchimi Bhaarat mein pai jaati hai, ye aitihaasik samay mein uttari Africa, madhya poorv aur pashchimi Asia se gaayab ho gaye the.

pleistosen ke antim samay tak, jo lagbhag 10,000 varsh pehle tha, Singh maanav ke baad sabse adhik vyaapak roop se faila hua bada stanadhaari, bhoomi par rahane wala jaanavar tha. ve Africa ke adhikaansh bhaag mein, pashchimi Europe se Bhaarat tak adhikaansh yooreshiya mein aur yukon se peroo tak America mein paae jaate the. Singh jungle mein 10-14 varsh tak rahate hain, jabki ve kaid me 20 varsh se bhi adhik jeevit rah sakte hain. jungle mein, nar kabhi-kabhi hi das varsh se adhik jeevit rah paate hain, kyonki pratidvandviyon ke saath jhagade mein aksar unhein chot pahunchati hai.[5] ve aam taur par savaana aur chaaraagaah mein rahate hain, haalaanki ve jhaadi ya jungle mein bhi rah sakte hain. anya billiyon ki tulana mein Singh aam taur par saamaajik naheen hote hain.

sinhon ke ek samooh jise angreji me pride kahau jaata mein sambandhi maadaaen, bachche aur chhoti sankhya mein nar hote hain. maada sinhon ka samooh praaroopik roop se ek saath shikaar karta hai, jo adhikaanshataya bade anagyulet par shikaar karte hain. Singh sheersh ka aur keeston shikaari hai, haalaanki ve avsar lagne par mrutajeevi ki tarah bhi bhojan praapt kar sakte hain. Singh aamtaur par chayanaatmak roop se maanav ka shikaar naheen karte hain, fir bhi kuchh sinhon ko nar-bhakshi bante hue dekha gaya hai, jo maanav shikaar ka bhakshan karna chaahate hain. Singh ek samvedansheel prajaati hai, iski afreeki range mein pichhle do dashakon mein iski aabaadi mein sanbhavat: 30 se 50 pratishat ki aparivrtaneeya giraavat dekhi gayi hai.[6] sinhon ki sankhya naamit sarankshit kshetron aur raashtreeya udyaanon ke bahaar asthir hai. haalaanki is giraavat ka kaaran poori tarah se samjha naheen gaya hai, aavaas ki kshati aur maanav ke saath sangharsh iske sabse bade kaaran hain. sinhon ko roman yug se pinjare mein rakha jaata raha hai, yeh ek mukhya prajaati rahi hai jise athaarahaveen shataabdi ke ant se poori duniya mein chidiya ghar mein pradarshan ke liye rakha jaata raha hai. khatre mein aa gayi Asiaee up prajaatiyon ke liye poori duniya ke chidiyaaghar prajanan kaaryakramon mein sahayog kar rahe hain. drushya roop se, ek nar Singh ati vishisht hota hai aur saralata se apne ayaal (gale par baal) dvaara pahachaana ja sakta hai. Singh, vishesh roop se nar Singh ka chehara, maanav sanskruti mein sabse vyaapak gyaat jantu prateekon mein se ek hai. uchch paashaan kaal ki avadhi se hi iske varnan milte hain, jinmein lausakaaks aur chauvet gufaaon ki va nakkaashiyaan aur chitrakaariyaan sammilit hain, sabhi praacheen aur madhya yugeen sanskrutiyon mein inke pramaan milte hain, jahaan ye aitihaasik roop se paae gaye. raashtreeya dhvajon par, samakaaleen filmon aur saahitya mein chitrakala mein, moortikla mein aur saahitya mein iska vyaapak varnan paaya jaata hai.

anukram

sanjnyaa

kai romance bhaashaaon mein Singh ke naam milte julate hote hain, yeh laitin shabd liyo (leo) se vyutpann hua hai;[7] iske liye praacheen greek shabd hai λaaέaaωaaν (lion (leon)).[8] hibroo shabd laavi (lavi) (לaaָaaבaaִaaיaaא) bhi sambandhit ho sakta hai,[9] saath hi, praacheen ijipt ka shabd rw bhi sambandhit ho sakta hai.[10]yeh kai prajaatiyon mein se ek hai, jinhein athaaraveen shataabdi mein liniys ke dvaara apne kaarya sistema nechuri mein mool roop se felis liyo ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya.[3] iske vaigyaanik padanaam ka vanshaavali ghatak, penthera liyo, aksar greek shabdon pan - ("sabhi (all)") aur ther ("jaanavar (beast)") se vyutpann maana jaata hai, lekin yeh ek lok sanjnyaa ho sakti hai. yadyapi yeh saahityik bhaashaaon ke maadhyam se angreji mein aaya, penthera sanbhavataya poorvi Asia utpatti ka shabd hai, jiska arth hai, "peela jaanavar", ya "safed-peela jaanavar".[11]

vargeekaran aur vikaas

cruiser raashtreeya udyaan mein ek aadhunik Singh ki khopadi

sabse puraana Singh jaisa jeevaashm tanjaaniya mein laatoli se praapt maana jaata hai aur shaayad 35 lakh varsh puraana hai; kuchh vaigyaaniko ne is padaarth ko penthera liyo ke roop mein pahachaana hai. ye record poori tarah se theek naheen aur kaha ja sakta hai ki ve penthera se sambandhit kshetr se sambandhit hain. Africa mein penthera liyo ka sabse puraana nishchit rikord lagbhag 20 lakh varsh poorv ka hai.[12] Singh ke niktatam sambandhi hain anya penthera ki prajaatiyaaain: baagh, jaguaar (madhya America mein milne waali chitteedaar billi) aur teinduaa. aakaariki aur anuvaanshik adhyayan bataate hain ki baagh vitrit hone waali in haal hi ki prajaatiyon mein sabse pehla tha. lagbhag 19 lakh varsh poorv, jaguaar shesh samooh se alag shaakhit ho gaya, jiske poorvaj teindue aur Singh hi the. iske baad, Singh aur teinduaa, ek doosare se 10 se 12.5 lakh varsh poorv alag ho gaye.[13] penthera liyo swayam Africa mein 10 se 8 lakh varsh poorv viksit hua, iske baad poore holaaarkatik kshetr mein fail gaya.[14] yeh Italy mein ijarniya mein up prajaati penthera liyo fosilis ke saath 7 lakh varsh poorv pehli baar Europe mein prakat hua. is Singh baad ka gufa Singh (penthera liyo spelaae) vyutpann hua, jo lagbhag 3 lakh varsh poorv prakat hua. oopari pleistosane ke dauraan Singh uttari aur dakshini America mein fail gaya aur penthera liyo etroks, (ameriki Singh) mein viksit ho gaya.[15] lagbhag 10,000 varsh pehle pichhle himyug ke dauraan uttari yooreshiya aur America mein Singh mar gaye;[16] yeh pleistosane megaafona ke vilopan ka dviteeyak ho sakta hai.[17]

up-prajaati

dakshin pashchim afreeki sinhon (peinthera liyo bleyenabarghi)

paramparaagat roop se, haal hi mein Singh ki baarah up prajaatiyon ko pahachaana gaya hai, jismein se sabse bada hai baarabari Singh.[18] in up prajaatiyon ko vibhedit karne vaale mukhya antar hai sthiti, ayaal ki upasthiti, aakaar aur vitran. kyonki ye lakshan bahut naganya hain aur uchch vyaktigat vibhedan ko darshaate hain, inmein se adhikansh roop vivaadaspad hain aur sanbhavataya amaanya hain; iske atirikt, ve aksar agyaat utpatti ki chidiyaaghar saamagri par nirbhar karte hain jo "mukhya lekin asaamaanya" aakaariki lakshanon se yukt hote hain.[19] aaj keval aath up prajaatiyon ko aamtaur par sveekaar kiya jaata hai,[16][20] lekin inmein se ek (kep Singh jo poorv mein penthera liyo melaanokaaita ke roop mein varnit kiya jaata tha.[20] yahaan tak ki shesh saat up prajaatiyaan bahut adhik ho sakti hain; haal hi ke afreeki Singh mein maaitokondriya ki bhinnata saadhaaran hai, jo bataati hai ki sabhi up sahaara ke Singh ek hi up prajaati maane ja sakte hain, sanbhavataya inhein do mukhya kleds mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai: ek great rift ghaati ke pashchim mein aur doosra poorv mein. poorvi kenya mein saavo ke Singh aanuvanshik roop se, pashchimi kenya ke ebarader range ki tulana mein, traansavaal (dakshin Africa) ke sinhon ke bahut nikat hain.[21][22]

haal hi mein

vartamaan mein aath haal hi ki up prajaatiyon ko pahachaana jaata hai:

  • pi L parasika , jo eshiyaatik Singh ya dakshin Asiaee, parshiyn, ya bhaarateeya Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, ek baar Turkey se poore madhya poorv ko, Pakistan, Bhaarat aur yahaan tak ki Bangladesh tak fail gaya. haalaanki, bade samooh aur din ki roshani mein ki jaane waali gatividhiyaan unhein baagh ya teindue ki tulana mein atikraman karne mein madad karti hai; vartamaan mein Bhaarat ke gir jangalon mein aur iske aas paas 300 Singh hain.[23]
  • pi.L. liyo, jo baarbari Singh ke roop mein jaane jaate hain, atyadhik shikaar ki vajah se jangalon mein se vilupt ho gaye hain, yadyapi kaid mein rakhe gaye kuchh jantu abhi bhi maujood hain. yeh Singh ki sabse badi up prajaatiyon mein se ek thi, jinki lambaai 3-3.3 meter (10-10.8 foot) aur vajan nar ke liye 200 kilogram (440 paaund)[44] se adhik tha. ve morakko se lekar misr tak faile hue the. antim baarbari Singh ko 1922 mein morakko mein maar daala gaya.[24]
  • pi.L. senegalensis jo pashchim afreeki Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, pashchim Africa mein senegal se Nigeria tak paaya jaata hai.
  • pi.L. aajaandika, jo poorvottar kaango Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, kaango ke poorvottar bhaagon mein paaya jaata hai.
  • pi.L. nubika jo poorv afreeki ya masaai Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, poorvi Africa mein, ithiyopiya aur kenya se tanjaaniya aur mojaambik tak paaya gaya hai.
  • pi.L. bleyenabarghi, jo dakshin pashchim afreeki ya katanga Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, vah dakshin pashchim Africa, naameebiya, botsavaana, angola, katanga (jaayare), jaambiya aur Zimbabwe mein paaya jaata hai.
  • pi.L. krujeri dakshin poorvi afreeki Singh ya traansavaal Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, yeh cruiser raashtreeya udyaan sahit dakshin poorvi Africa ke traansavaal kshetr mein paaya jaata hai.
  • pi.L. melaano kaaita jo kep Singh ke roop mein jaana hai, 1860 ke aaspaas jangalon mein vilupt ho gaye. maaitokondreeya ke DNA (DNA) shodh ke parinaam ek alag up prajaati ki upasthiti ka samarthan naheen karte hain. sanbhavataya aisa prateet hota hai ki kep Singh maujooda pi L krujeri ki keval dakshini aabaadi thi.[20]

praagaitihaasik

praagaitihaasik kaal mein Singh ki kai atirikt up prajaatiyaan pai jaati theen.

  • pi.L. etroks jo ameriki Singh ya ameriki gufa Singh ke roop mein jaane jaate hain, lagbhag 10,000 saal pehle tak pleistosane yug mein America mein alaaska se lekar peroo tak prachur maatra mein paae jaate the. kabhi kabhi maana jaata hai ki yeh roop aur gufa Singh alag alag prajaatiyon ko abhivyakt karte hain, lekin haal mein kiye gaye faailojinetik adhyayan bataate hain ki ve vaastav mein, Singh (penthera liyo) ki up prajaatiyaan hain.[16] yeh Singh ki sabse badi up prajaatiyon mein se ek hai, aisa anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki iske shareer ki lambaai 1.6-2.5 meter (5-8 foot) rahi hogi.[25]
  • pi.L. fosilis jo praarambhik madhyam pleistosane Europeeya gufa Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, lagbhag 500,000 saal pehle viksit hua; iske jeevaashm Germany aur Italy se praapt hue hain. yeh aaj ke afreeki sinhon se bade aakaar ka tha, aakaar mein ameriki gufa Singh ke baraabar pahuainch gaya.[26][16]
    gufa Singh, felines ka kaksh, laaskaks ki gufaaen
  • pi.L. spela Europeeya gufa Singh, yooreshiyn gufa Singh, ya uchch pleistosane Europeeya gufa Singh ke naam se jaana jaata hai, 300,000 mein 10,000 saal pehle yooreshiya mein paaya jaata tha.[16] yeh prajaati paashaan kaal ki gufa chitrakaari (aisi hi ek daayeen or dikhaai gayi hai), haathi daant ki nakkaashi aur mitti ki pratimaaon se jaani gayi hai,[27] ye bataati hain ki ismein ubhare hue kaan, guchhedaar poonchh, or shaayad halki baagh ke jaisi dhaariyaan theen, or kam se kam kuchh naron mein ek rough ya aadim prakaar ki ayaal unki gardan par pai jaati thi.[28] is udaaharan mein ek shikaar ka drushya dikhaaya ja raha hai. sanbhavataya yeh unke samakaaleen sambandhiyon ke jaisi rananeeti ka prayog karte hue, samooh ke liye shikaar karti maadaaon ko darshaata hai aur nar is chitr ki vishay-vastu ka hissa naheen hain.
  • pi.L. vereshachagini jo poorvi saaiberiyaai - ya baringiyn gufa Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, yaakutiya (roos), alaaska (sanyukt raajya America), or yukon kendra shaasit pradesh (Canada) mein paaya jaata tha. is Singh ke meindeebal aur khopadi ka vishleshan darshaata hai ki yeh spasht roop se- yeh bhinn khopadi anupaaton ke saath Europeeya gufa Singh se bada hai aur ameriki gufa Singh se chhota hai.[16][29]

sandigdh

  • pi.L. sinhaaleyas Sri Lanka Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, maana jaata hai ki yeh lagbhag 39,000 varsh pehle vilupt ho ho gaya tha. ise keval kuruvita mein praapt kiye gaye do daanton se jaana gaya hai. in daaton ke aadhaar par pi deraaniyaagaala ne 1939 mein is up prajaati ki uypasthiti ko bataaya.[30]
  • pi.L. yuropiya Europeeya Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, sanbhavataya penthera liyo parsika ya penthera liyo spela ke samaan tha, ek up prajaati ke roop mein iski sthiti pusht naheen hai. yeh utpeedn aur ati dohan ke kaaran lagbhag 100 E. mein vilupt ho gaya. yeh baalkan, itaalavi praayadveep, dakshini France aur aaiberiyn praayadveep mein base hue the. yeh roman, yoonaani aur mekadoniyn logon mein shikaar ke liye bahut hi lokapriya the.
  • pi.L. yaungi ya penthera yongi 350000 saal pehle viksit hue.[31] vartamaan Singh ki prajaati ke saath iska sambandh aspasht hai aur sanbhavataya yeh ek vishesh prajaati ka pratinidhitv karta hai.
  • pi.L. mekooletas jo maroji ya spoted (chitkabara) Singh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, ko kabhi kabhi ek vishesh up prajaati maana jaata hai, lekin shaayad aisa bhi ho sakta hai ki kisi vyask Singh ki santaan spoted pratiroop se saath paida hui ho. yadi yeh chhoti sankhya mein kuchh rangeen dhabbon se yukt jantuon ke bajaay apne aap mein ek alag up prajaati thi to, yeh 1931 ke baad se vilupt ho gayi hogi. ek sambhaavit tathya hai ki yeh teindue aur Singh ka ek praakrutik sankar hai jise liopon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[32]

sankar

sinhon ko baagh ke saath prajanan ke liye jaana jaata hai (adhikaanshataya saaiberiyaai aur Bengal up prajaati) jisse sankar ka nirmaan hota hai jo laaigar ya taaigon kahalaate hain.[33] unhonne teindue ke saath prajanan ke dvaara liopon,[34] aur jaguaar ke saath prajanan ke dvaara jegalaayan bhi banaaye hain. maroji ek spoted Singh ya ek praakrutik liopon hai, jabki kongoleej spoted Singh ek jatil Singh-jaguaar-teindue ka sankar hai jo lijaagulep (lijagulep) kahalaata hai. aise sankar saamaanyat: kisi samay par chidiyaaghar mein prajanan karavaae jaate the, lekin ab jaatiyon aur up prajaatiyon ke sanrakshan par jor diye jaane ke kaaran yeh prakriya hatosaahit ho gayi hai. cheen mein abhi bhi chidiyaagharon aur niji pashu pakshi sangrah mein sankar prajanan karavaae jaate hain. laaigar ek nar Singh aur ek maada baagh ke beech sankar hai,[35] kyonki ek maada baagh se ek vruddhi sandamak jeen anupasthit hai, ek vruddhi ko prerit karne wala jeen nar Singh ke dvaara sthaanaantarit kiya gaya hai, parinaami laaigar kisi bhi janak ki tulana mein adhik lambe samay tak jeevit rahate hain. ve nar aur maada donon janakon ki prajaatiyon ke shaareerik aur vyaavahaarik gunon ko praapt karte hain (ek reteeli prushthabhoomi par dhabbe aur dhaariyaan). nar laaigar napunsak hain par maada laaigar praay: prajanan ke yogya hote hain. nar mein ek ayaal hone ki 50 pratishat sambhaavana hoti hai, lekin yadi ve ek ko viksit karte hain to unki ayaal maamooli hogi: ek shuddh Singh ki ayaal ka lagbhag 50 pratishat. laaigar aam taur par 3.0 aur 3.7 meter (10 se 12 feet) lambe hote hain aur unka vajan 360 aur 450 kilogram ke beech (800 se 1,000 pound) ya adhik hota hai.[35] ek kam saamaanya taaigon sinhani aur ek nar baagh ke beech sankar hai.[36]

shaareerik gunadharm

anya logon ke saath mukaabale ke dauraan, ayaal (Singh ke gale ka bada baal) ke kaaran Singh bada dikhaai deta hai.

Singh sabhi feline mein se sabse lamba hai (kandhe par) aur saath hi baagh ke baad doosra sabse bhaari felaain hai. shaktishaali taangon, ek majaboot jabade aur 8 semi (3.1 inch) [76] lambe kainaain daanton ke saath, Singh bade shikaar ko bhi kheench kar maar sakta hai.[37] Singh ki khopadi baagh se bahut milti hai, haalaanki lalaat ka kshetr aam taur par adhik daba hua aur chapata hota hai aur pashchaorbitl kshetr thoda chhota hota haisinh ki khopadi mein baagh ki tulana mein adhik bade naasa chhidr hote hain. haalaanki, donon prajaatiyon mein khopadi ki bhinnata ke kaaran aam taur par keval neechale jabade ki saranchana ko prajaati ke ek bharosemand sanketak ke roop mein kaam mein liya ja sakta hai.[38] Singh ke rangon mein bhi bahut bhinnata milti hai, yeh baf se lekar, peela, laal, ya gahra bhoora ho sakta hai. neechale bhaag aam taur par halke rang ke hote hain aur poonchh ka guchha kaala hota hai. Singh ke shaavak apne shareer par bhoore dhabbon ke saath paida hote hain, yeh teindue se milta julata lakshan hai. haalaanki jaise jaise Singh vyask hone lagta hai, ye dhabbe feeke padte jaate hain, feeke pad gaye dhabbon ko vishesh roop se maada mein, baad mein bhi neechale bhaagon aur taangon par dekha ja sakta hai. Singh billi parivaar ka ek maatr sadasya hai jo spasht laingik dviroopata pradarshit karta hai- arthaat, nar aur maada vibhedit roop se alag dikhaai dete hain. udaaharan ke liye, sinhani, jo shikaari ki bhoomika nibhaati hai, mein nar ki tarah mote bojhil ayaal ka abhaav hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, shikaari, sinhani, mein nar ki tarah mote bojhil ayaal ka abhaav hota hai. yeh lakshan shikaar ka peechha karte samay nar ki apne aap ko chhupaane ki kshamata mein avarodh banta hai aur daudte samay bahut garmi utpann karta hai. nar ke ayaal ka rang kesari se lekar kaala tak hota hai, saamaanyataya yeh rang usaki aayu ke badhne ke saath gahra hota jaata hai.

masaai maara, kenya mein do sinhaniyaan

vyask Singh ke shareer ka bhaar aam taur par nar ke liye 150-250 kilogram (330-550 lb) aur maada ke liye 120-182 kilogram (264–400 lb) hota hai.[4] novel aur Jackson report ke anusaar nar ka vajan 181 kilogram aur maada ka vajan 126 kilogram hota hai; mount kenya ke paas ek nar ka vajan 272 kilogram (600 lb) paaya gaya.[24] Singh aakaar mein bahut bhinnata rakhate hain, yeh bhinnata unke vaataavaran aur kshetr par nirbhar karti hai, iske parinaamasvaroop darj kiye gaye bhaar mein bhi bahut bhinnata pai gayi hai. udaaharan ke liye, saamaanya roop se dakshini Africa ke Singh ka bhaar poorvi Africa ke Singh ki tulana mein lagbhag 5 pratishat adhik paaya gaya hai.[39] sir aur shareer ki lanbaai nar mein 170-250 semi (5 feet 7 inch - 8 feet 2 inch) aur maada mein 140-175 semi (4 feet 7 inch - mahilaaon mein 5 feet 9 inch) hoti hai; kandhe ki oonchaai lagbhag nar mein 123 se.mi. (4 feet) aur maada mein 107 se.mi. (3 feet 6 inch) hoti hai. poonchh ki lanbaai nar mein 90-105 semi (2 feet 11 inch - 3 feet 5 inch) aur maada mein 70-100 semi (2 feet 4 - 3 feet 3 inch) hoti hai.[4] sabse lamba gyaat Singh tha kaale ayaal se yukt ek nar jise October 1973 mein dakshini angola ke maksoo ke najadeek goli se maara gaya; sabse bhaari gyaat Singh ek nar-bhakshi tha jise 1936 mein dakshini Africa ke poorvi traansavaal mein hektarasprayut ke theek baahar maara gaya, jiska vajan 313 kilo gram (690 lb) tha.[40] jangali sinhon ki tulana mein kaid mein rakhe gaye Singh bade aakaar ke hote hain- rikord mein darj sabse bhaari Singh hai 1970 mein England mein kolachestar chidiyaaghar mein rakha gaya ek simba namak ek nar Singh, jiska vajan 375 kilogram (826 lb) tha.[41]sabse vishisht visheshata jo nar aur maada donon mein pai jaati hai vah yeh hai, ki donon mein poonchh ek baalon ke guchhe mein samaapt hoti hai, is guchhe mein ek kathor "spaain (kasinhuk) " ya "spar" hota hai jo lagbhag 5 mileemeetar lamba hota hai, jo aapas mein sangalit ho gayi puchh asthi ke antim bhaag se banta hai. Singh ek maatr felid hai jismein ek guchhedaar poonchh pai jaati hai-is spaain aur guchhe ka kaarya agyaat hain. janm ke samay anupasthit yeh guchha lagbhag 5½ maah ki aayu mein viksit hota hai aur 7 maah ki aayu par aasaani se pahachaana ja sakta hai.[42]

ayaal (gardan par baal)

alag se ayaal ko darshaati hui, ek Singh ki tharmograafik chhavi.

ek vayask nar Singh ki ayaal, billiyon ke beech adviteeya hai, yeh is prajaati ka sabse vishisht vibhedi lakshan hai. yeh Singh ko bada dikhaata hai, ek shaanadaar roop deta hai; yeh anya sinhon aur prajaati ke mukhya pratispardhi, Africa ke spoted haaina, ke saath mukaabale ke dauraan Singh ki madad karta hai, [92][43] ayaal ki upasthiti, anupasthiti, rang aur aakaar, aanuvanshik saranchana, laingik paripkvata, jalavaayu aur testosteron ke nirmaan se sambandhit hota hai; thamb rul ke anusaar ayaal jitni gahari aur ghani hoti hai, Singh utana hi svasth hota hai. sinhani apne laingik saathi ke chayan ke dauraan us nar ko praathamikta deti hai jiski ayaal adhik ghani aur gahari hoti hai.[44] tanjaaniya mein anusandhaan bhi bataata hai ki nar-nar sambandh mein ayaal ki lambaai ladaai mein safalta ke signal deti hai. gahre-ayaal se yukt jantu ki prajanan aayu adhik hoti hai aur usaki santaan ke astitv ki sambhaavana bhi badh jaati hai, haalaanki unhein varsh ke sabse garm maheenon mein bahut kasht uthaana padta hai.[45] do ya teen naron se yukt ek samooh (pride) mein aisi sambhaavana hoti hai ki maada us nar ke saath sakriyta se sambhog karna chaahati hai jiski ayaal adhik ghani hoti hai.[44]

gale ke baal se rahit ek nar Singh, jiske shareer par kam baal hain-saavo poorv raashtreeya udyaan, kenya se.

vaigyaaniko ne ek baar kaha ki kuchh up prajaatiyon ki vishisht sthiti ko aakaariki ke dvaara samjha ja sakta hai, jismein ayaal ka aakaar shaamil hai. aakaariki ka upayog up prajaatiyon ki pehchaan ke liye kiya jaata hai jaise baarbari Singh aur kep Singh. haalaanki anusandhaan bataate hain ki paryaavaraneeya kaarak jaise parivesh ka taapamaan ayaal ke aakaar aur rang ko prabhaavit karte hain.[45] Europeeya aur uttari America ke chidiyaagharon mein thande parivesh taapamaan ke kaaran adhik ghani ayaal dekhi jaati hai. is prakaar se ayaal up prajaati ki pehchaan ka upayukt maarkar naheen hai.[20][46] haalaanki Asiaee up prajaati ke nar, ausat afreeki Singh ki tulana mein virli ayaal ke dvara parilkshit hote hain[47] ayaal rahit nar Singh kenya mein senegal aur saavo poorv raashtreeya park mein paae gaye hain aur timbaavati ka mool safed nar Singh bhi ayaal rahit tha. kaasatreted Singh ki ayaal nyoonatam hoti hai. kabhi kabhi antar prajanit Singh ki aabaadi mein ek ayaal ki anupasthiti pai jaati hai; yeh antarprajanan bhi janan ki kshamata mein kami ka kaaran banta hai.[48]

ek rough se yukt sinhani jo kabhi kabhi nar hone ka bhram paida karti hai.

kai sinhaniyon mein ek rough hoti hai jo vishesh sthitiyon mein spasht ho sakti hai. kabhi kabhi ise moortiyon, chitron, vishesh roop se praacheen kalaakaari mein ingit kiya jaata hai aur ise galati se ek nar ka ayaal samjha jaata hai. yeh ek ayaal se alag hoti hai, haalaanki yeh jabade ki rekha par kaan ke neeche pai jaati hai, iske baal ki lambaai kam hoti hai aur is par jaldi se dhyaan naheen jaata hai, jabki ek ayaal nar ke kaanon ke oopar tak faili hoti hai, aksar unki baahari rekha ko poori tarah se dhak deti hai. vilupt Europeeya gufa Singh ki gufa chitrakaari jaanvaron ko ayaal ke bina darshaati hai, ya keval ayaal ka ek sanket hi deti hai, isse yeh pata chalta hai ki ve kam ya adhik ayaal rahit hi the;[28] haalaanki, ek samooh ke liye shikaar karti hui maadaaen chitron ka mukhya vishay rahi hain-chooainki unhein shikaar se sambandhit samooh mein darshaaya gaya hai-isliye ye chitr is baat ka faisala karne ke liye paryaapt naheen hain ki nar ayaal se yukt the. chitr bataate hain ki vilupt prajaatiya samakaaleen sinhon ki tarah samaan saamaajik sangathan aur shikaar ki rananeetiyon ka prayog karti theen.

safed Singh

safed Singh ek aprabhaavi jeen ke kaaran apna rang praapt karte hain; ye upaprajaati peinthera liyo krujeri ke durlabh roop hain.

safed Singh ek vishisht up prajaati naheen hai, lekin ek aanuvanshik sthiti, lyukism ka vishisht roop hai,[19] jo rang mein peelepan ka kaaran hoti hai jisse safed baagh jaisa rang praapt hota hai; yeh sthiti milaaneekaran ke samaan hai, jo kaale penthars ka kaaran hai. ve albinos naheen hote hain, unki aaainkhon aur tvacha mein saamaanya abhiranjan hota hai, safed traansavaal Singh (penthera liyo krujeri) kabhi kabhi poorvi dakshini Africa mein cruiser raashtreeya udyaan aur paas hi ke timbaavati niji khel reserve mein saamane aaye, lekin saamaanyataya unhein kaid mein rakha jaata hai, jahaan prajanak soch samajh kar unka chayan karte hain. unke shareer par ek asaamaanya kreem rang ka aavaran ek aprabhaavi jeen ke kaaran hota hai.[49] kathit roop se, unhein kaind shikaar ke dauraan trofeej ko maarane ke liye kaam mein lene ke liye dakshini Africa mein shiviron mein prajanit kiya gaya.[50] safed Singh ke astitv ki pushti beesaveen sadi ke ant mein hi hui. saikadon varsh pehle ke liye, safed Singh ko dakshini Africa mein keval kaalpanik kathaaon ka ek bhaag maana jaata tha, aisa maana jaata tha ki jantu ki safed khaal sabhi praaniyon mein achhaai ka pratinidhitv karti hai. saaiting ko sabse pehle 1900 ke praarambh mein report kiya gaya aur yeh lagbhag 50 saal tak aniyamit roop se jaari rahi, jab 1975 mein safed Singh shaavak ke vyarth padaarthon ko timbaavati game reserve mein paaya gaya.[51]

jeevavijnyaaan aur vyavahaar

Singh apna adhikaansh samay aaraam karte hue bitaate hain aur ek din mein lagbhag 20 ghanton ke liye nishkriya rahate hain,[52] yadyapi Singh kisi bhi samay sakriya ho sakte hain, aam taur par unki gatividhiyaan saanjh ke baad teevratam ho jaati hain jab ve ikatthe hote hain, samooh banaate hain aur mal tyaag karte hain. achaanak aantaraayik gatividhiyaan raat ke dauraan subah tak hoti hain jab aksar shikaar kiya jaata hai. ve ausatan ek din mein do ghante chalne mein aur 50 minute khaane mein vyaya karte hain.[53]


samooh sangathan

Singh shikaari maansabhakshi hain jo do prakaar ke saamaajik sangathan ko abhivyakt karte hain. kuchh nivaasi hote hain jo pride naamak samooh mein rahate hain.[54] is pride mein saamaanyataya lagbhag paaainch ya chhah sambandhit maadaaen, donon lingon ke unke shaavak aur ek ya do nar hote hain (yadi ek se adhik hon to sahamiln kahalaata hai) jo ek vyask maada ke saath sambandh banaata hai (haalaanki bahut bade pride mein 30 sadasya tak prekshit kiye gaye hain). ek pride se sambandhit naron ka sahamiln aam taur par do tak hota hai, lekin badh kar chaar tak bhi pahuainch sakta hai aur samay ke saath fir se kam bhi ho sakta hai. nar shaavak paripakva ho jaane par apni maan ke pride ko chhod dete hain.

masaai maara, kenya mein gavarnars kemp ke paas gati kara hua ek samooh (pride)

doosare sangathanaatmak vyavahaar ko khaanaabadosh kaha jaata hai, jo vyaapak roop se ek range mein faile hote hain aur aniyamit roop se ghoomate hain, ye akele ya jodon mein rah sakte hain,[54] sambandhi naron ke jode adhik dekhe jaate hain jo apne apne mool pride se alag ho gaye hote hain. dhyaan dein ki ek Singh apni jeevan shaili ko badal sakta hai; khaanaabadosh nivaasi ban sakte hain aur iska vipreet bhi sambhav hai. nar ko is jeevan shaili se hokar gujarana hi padta hai aur kuchh kabhi bhi kisi pride mein shaamil naheen ho paate. ek maada yadi khaanaabadosh ban jaati hai to uske liye kisi nae pride mein shaamil hona adhik mushkil hota hai, kyonki ek pride mein maadaaen sambandhi hoti hain aur ve kisi asambandhi maada ke dvaara unke samooh mein shaamil hone ke adhikaansh prayaason ko asveekrut kar deti hain. ek pride ke dvaara ghera jaane wala kshetr pride kshetr kahalaata hai, jabki ek khaanaabadosh ka kshetr range kahalaata hai.[54] ek pride se sambandhit nar, apne kshetr mein gasht lagte hue, seemaant sthaanon mein rahana pasand karte hain. sinhaniyon mein samaajavaad - kisi bhi billi jaati mein sabse spasht- kyon viksit hua, yeh ek vivaad ka vishay hai. shikaar mein safalta ke badhne ka ek spasht kaaran dikhaai deta hai, lekin yeh jaanch par adhik nishchit naheen hai: ek saath mil kar shikaar karne se prakriya mein safalta milti hai, lekin saath hi yeh bhi nishchit hai ki shikaar naheen karne vaale sadasya prati sadasya kailori antargrahan ki maatra ko kam kar dete hain, haalaanki kuchh shaavakon ko utha kar bhoomika nibhaate hain, jo is vistaarit samay avadhi ke liye akele chhode ja sakte hain. pride ke sadasya niyamit roop se shikaar mein samaan bhoomika nibhaate rahate hain. shikaari ka svaasthya pride ke astitv ko banaaye rakhane ke liye praathamik aavashyakta hai aur ve saait par le jaane ke baad sabse pehle iska upabhog karte hain. anya laabhon mein shaamil hain, sambhav parijan chayan (ek ajnabi ke bajaay ek sambandhi Singh ke saath bhojan ko baantana behtar hai), chhoton ki suraksha, kshetr ka rakh rakhaav aur vyaktigat roop se chot aur bhookh ke viruddh sunishchitta.

serengeti mein shikaar kiye jaane ke dauraan bahut tej gati se bhaagati hui sinhani.

sinhani apne pride ke liye adhikaansh shikaar karti hai, kyonki yeh nar ki tulana mein adhik chhoti, furteeli aur chust hoti hai, ismein bhaari aur vishisht ayaal bhi naheen hoti jo thakaan ke dauraan ati ushmit kar de. apne shikaar ka peechha karne aur use safalataapoorvak kheench laane ke liye ve samooh mein sahayog ke saath kaarya karte hain. yadyapi, yadi shikaar paas mein hai to, ek baar jab sinhani safal ho jaati hai aur kha leti hai, nar mein mrut par haavi ho jaane ki pravruti hoti hai. ve sinhani ke bajaay shaavakon ke saath bhojan ko adhik baantate hain, lekin kabhi kabhi hi apne dvaara maare gaye bhojan ko baantate hain. chhote shikaar ko shikaar ke sthaan par hi kha liya jaata hai, ise shikaari aapas mein baaaint lete hain; jab shikaar bada ho to ise aksar ghaseet kar pride kshetr mein laaya jaata hai. bade shikaar ko adhik baanta jaata hai,[55] haalaanki pride ke sadasya aksar jyaada se jyaada bhojan ka upabhog karne ke liye ek doosare ke prati ugr vyavahaar karte hain. lekin nar aur maada ghuspaithiyon ke khilaaf apne pride ki raksha karte hain. kuchh sadasya nirntar ghuspaithiyon ke khilaaf suraksha karte hain, jabki anya peechhe ho jaate hain.[56] pride mein sinhon ki vishesh bhoomika hoti hai. peechhe hat jaane vaale sadasya samooh ke liye anya moolyavaan sevaaen pradaan kar sakte hain.[57] ek vaikalpik parikalpana hai ki ek neta hone ke saath ek puraskaar ka taalluk hai, yeh neta ghuspaithiyon se raksha karta hai aur pride mein sinhani ka pad in pratikriyaaon mein pratibinbit hota hai.[58] nar ya pride se sambandhit nar baahari naron se apne pride ke saath sambandh ki raksha karte hain, yahaan baahari nar ve nar hain jo pride ke saath sambandh banaane ka prayaas karte hain. maadaaen ek pride mein sthaayi saamaajik ikaai ka nirmaan karti hain aur baahari maadaaon ko bardaasht naheen karti hain;[59] sadasyata keval janm ke samay ya sinhani ki mrutyu ke samay hi parivrtit hoti hai,[60] haalaanki kuchh maadaaen pride ko chhod kar khaanaabadosh ban jaati hain.[61] doosari aur upavyask nar ko 2-3 varsh ki aayu mein paripkvata tak pahuainchane par pride ko chhodna padta hai.[61]

shikaar aur aahaar

ek sinhani jaise iske bahut tej daaaint hai, shikaar aamtaur par gala ghontane se maar daala jaata hai

Singh shaktishaali jaanavar hain jo aamtaur par samanvit samooh mein shikaar karte hain aur apne chayanit shikaar par hamla karte hain. haalaanki ye vishesh roop se apni sahanashakti ke liye naheen jaane jaate hain- udaaharan ke liye, ek sinhani ka hradaya uske shareer ke bhaar ka keval 0.57 pratishat banaata hai (ek nar ka uske shareer ke bhaar ka lagbhag 0.45 pratishat), jabki ek haaina ka hradaya iske shareer ke bhaar ke 1 pratishat ke kareeb hota hai.[60] is prakaar, yadyapi sinhani 60 kimi/ghanta (40 meal/ghanta)[134] ki gati tak pahuainch sakti hai,[62] ye aisa keval chhoti avadhi ke liye hi kar sakti hain,[63] isliye hamla shuroo karne se pehle unhein shikaar ke bahut kareeb hona chaahiye. ye aise kaarakon ka laabh uthaate hain jo drushyata ko kam karte hain; adhikaansh shikaar raat ke samay ya kisi dhake hue roop mein kiye jaate hain.[64] jab ve shikaar se 30 meter (98 foot) ya usase kam ki doori par pahuainch jaate hain. tab ve us par uchakate hain. aamtaur par, kai sinhaniyaan ek saath kaam karti hain aur vibhinn binduon se jhund ko gher leti hain. ek baar jab ve ek jhund ke paas pahunch jaate hain, ve aam taur par sabse najadeeki shikaar ko lakshya banaate hain. hamla bahut chhota aur shaktishaali hota hai; ve bahut tej chhalaang ke saath jaldi se shikaar ko pakadne ka prayaas karte hain. shikaar ko aamtaur par gala ghont kar maar daala jaata hai,[65] jo pramastishk isachemiya ya shvaasaavarodh (esafaaiksiya) ka kaaran ho sakta hai (jiske parinaam svarup haaipoksemik, ya 'saamaanya' haaipoksiya ho jaata hai). shikaar ko Singh ke dvaara uske panjon se jaanavar ke muhan aur naasa chhidron ko band karke bhi maara ja sakta hai[4] (yeh bhi shvaasaavarodh ka kaaran banta hai). chhote shikaar, yadyapi, keval Singh ke panje ki ek kadi chot se hi maare ja sakte hain.[4] shikaar mukhya roop se bade stanadhaari hote hain, jismein jangali beast, impaala, jebara, bhains aur Africa mein vaarthog aur neel gaaya, jangali bor aur Bhaarat mein kai hiran ki prajaatiyon ko praathamikta di jaati hai. kai anya prajaatiyon ko upalabdhata ke aadhaar par shikaar kiya jaata hai. ismein mukhya roop se 50 se 300 kilogram (110–660 lb) bhaar ke anagyulets shaamil hote hain jaise kudoo, haaratebeest, jemsbok aur eleind.[4] kabhi kabhi, ve apekshaakrut chhoti prajaatiyon jaise thaumasan ka gajela aur springakok ka shikaar karte hain. naamib ke tat par rahane vaale Singh bade paimaane par seal machhaliyon ko shikaar banaate hain.[66] samooh mein shikaar karte hue Singh adhikaansh jaanvaron ko ghaseetane mein saksham hote hain, yahaan tak ki svasth vyask ko bhi, lekin unki range ke adhikaansh bhaagon mein ve bahut bade shikaar, jaise poornataya viksit nar jiraaf par kabhi kabhi hi hamla karte hain. kyonki unhein chot lagne ka khatra rahata hai.

masaai maara park rijrv, kenya mein sadak ke kinaare saat Singh

vibhinn adhyayanon ke dvaara ekatrit vistrut aaainkade bataate hain ki Singh saamaanyataya 190-550 kilogram (420-1210 lb) range ke stanadhaariyon ko shikaar banaate hain. jangali beast sabse pasandeeda shikaar ki shreni mein sabse pehle number par aata hai (yeh lagbhag sereingeti mein Singh ke shikaar ka aadha bhaag banaata hai), iske baad jebara.[67] adhikaansh vayask hippopotemas, raainosirs, haathi aur chhote gajela, impaala aur anya furteele entilop saamaanyataya shaamil naheen hote hain. haalaanki jiraaf aur bhains ko aksar vishesh kshetron mein le jaaya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, cruiser raashtreeya park mein, jiraaf ka niyamit roop se shikaar kiya jaata hai.[68] aur manyaar paik mein, kep bhaisein Singh ke bhojan ka 62% bhaag banaati hain,[69] kyonki bhaison ka sankhya ghanatv uchch hota hai. kabhi kabhi hippopotemas ka bhi shikaar kiya jaata hai, lekin vyask raainosirs se aam taur par parahej kiya jaata hai. haalaanki 190 kilogram (420 lb) se chhote vaarthog upalabdhata ke aadhaar par hi shikaar banaaye jaate hain.[70] kuchh kshetron mein, ve ek praaroopik shikaar prajaati ke shikaar ke liye vishishteekrut ho jaate hain; yeh maamala saavuti nadi par dekha ja sakta hain, jahaan ve haathiyon ka shikaar karte hain.[71] kshetr ke park gaaidon ne report di ki bahut bhookhe Singh haathi ke bachche ko ghaseet kar le gaye, iske baad kishor haathi ko aur kabhi kabhi raat ke dauraan poorn viksit vyask haathi ko bhi shikaar banaaya gaya kyonki unki drushti kamjor hoti hai.[72] Singh ghareloo jaanvaron par bhi hamla karte hain; Bhaarat mein maveshi unke aahaar ka mukhya bhaag hain.[47] ve anya shikaariyon ko bhi maarane mein bhi saksham hain, jaise teinduaa, cheeta, haaina aur jangali kutte, yadyapi (adhikaansh felid ke vipreet) pratispardhiyon ki htya ke baad ve unhein kabhi kabhi hi khtm kar daalte hain. ve mrutajeevi ke roop mein prakruti ke dvaara maare gaye ya kisi anya shikaari ke dvaara maare gaye jantu se bhi bhojan praapt kar sakte hain aur nirantar aas paas ghoomate hue giddhon par najar rakhate hain, is baat se sachet rahate hain ki ve kisi maare hue ya sankat mein pade jaanavar ko ingit karte hain.[73] ek Singh ek baar mein 30 kilogram (66 lb) kha sakta hai.[74] yadi yeh poore mrut shikaar ko ek saath khaane mein aksham ho to yeh aur adhik upabhog se pehle kuchh ghanton ke liye aaraam karta hai. ek garm din mein, ek pride ek ya do nar sadasyon ko raksha ke liye chhodkar chhaaya mein chala jaata hai.[75] ek vayask sinhani ko pratidin ausatan 5 kilogram (11 lb) aur ek nar ko 7 kilogram (15.4 lb) maans ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[76]

ek samooh (pride ya sinhon ka samooh) ke shikaari ek jebara ko maar kar aapas mein baantate hue.

kyonki sinhaneeyaan khuli jagah par shikaar karti hain jahaan ve aasaani se apne shikaar ke dvaara dekhi ja sakti hain, sahayog se kiya gaya shikaar ek safalta ki sambhaavana ko badhta hai; yeh vishesh roop se badi prajaatiyon ke liye sach hai. mil kar kaam karne se unke shikaar ko anya shikaariyon jaise haaina se bachaaya ja sakta hai, jinhein khule savaana kshetron mein giddhon ke dvaara kai kilometer doori se bhi aakarshit kiya ja sakta hai. adhikaansh shikaar sinhaniyaan hi karti hain; pride se jude nar aam taur par shikaar mein bhaag naheen lete hain, keval bade shikaar jaise jiraaf aur bhais ke shikaar mein ve bhaag le sakte hain. praaroopik shikaar mein, har sinhani ki samooh mein vishesh sthiti hoti hai, ya to pankh se shikaar ko pakadna aur fir hamla karna, ya ek samooh ke kendra mein chhoti doori tay karna aur anya sinhaniyon se udte hue shikaar ko pakadna.[77] chhote Singh teen maah ki aayu tak peechha karne ka vyavahaar darshaate hain, haalaanki jab tak ve 1 saal ke naheen ho jaate tab tak shikaar mein bhaag naheen lete. lagbhag do saal ki aayu tak ve prabhaavi roop se shikaar karna shuroo kar dete hain.[78]

prajanan aur jeevan chakr

ek baar sanbhog ke dauraan, ek joda kai dinon tak pratidin 20 se 40 baar maithun kar sakta hai.

adhikaansh sinhaniyaan chaar saal ki umr mein prajanan karti hain,[79] Singh varsh ke kisi vishesh samay par sambhog naheen karte hain aur maadaaen bahuandak (poleeestras) hoti hain.[80] anya billiyon ki tarah, nar Singh ke shishn (ling) par kaante hote hain jo peechhe ki aur mude hote hain. shishn se vaapas baahar aate samay ye kaante maada ki yoni ki deevaaron ko ragadte hain, jiske kaaran andotsarjan hota hai.[81] ek sinhani jab ushmit hoti hai to vah ek se adhik sinhon ke saath sambhog kar sakti hai;[82] ek sanbhog chakr ke dauraan, jo kai dinon tak chalta hai, joda pratidin bees se chaalees baar sambandh bana sakta hai aur aur khaana chhod bhi sakta haisinh kaid mein bahut achhi tarah se prajanan karte hain. ausat garbhaavadhi 110 dinon ke aaspaas hai,[80] maada ek ekaant gufa (den) (jo ek jhaadi, ikh ka bistar, ek gufa ya koi anya aashray se yukt kshetr ho sakta hai) mein ek se chaar shaavakon ke samooh ko janm deti hai, saamaanyataya shesh pride se door jaakar bachchon ko janm deti hai. jab tak shaavak asahaaya hote hain, vah khud apne aap ka shikaar banti hai aur us sthaan ke kareeb bani rahati hai jahaan shaavakon ko rakha gaya hai.[83] shaavak khud netraheen paida hote hain -unki aaainkhein janm ke lagbhag ek saptaah tak khulati naheen hain, unka vajan janm ke samay 1.2-2.1 kilogram (2.6–4.6 lb) hota hai, ve lagbhag asahaaya hote hain, janm ke ek do din ke baad reingane lagte hain aur lagbhag teen saptaah ke baad chalana shuroo karte hain[84] sinhani ek maah mein kai baar apne shaavakon ko gardan se pakad kar ek ek karke nae den mein le jaati hai, aisa ek hi sthaan par bane rahane se bachane ke liye kiya jaata hai taaki shikaari unke shaavakon ko nuksaan na pahunchaae.[83] aam taur par maan apne aap ko ekeekrut naheen karti hai aur uske shaavak chhah se aath saptaah ki aayu mein pride mein laut jaate hain.[85] haalaaainki, kabhi kabhi pride mein ve jaldi aa jaate hain vishesh roop se jab anya sinhaniyon ne bhi samaan samay par shaavakon ko janm diya ho. udaaharan ke liye, ek pride mein sinhani apne prajanan chakr ka aksar tulyakaalan karti hai taaki ve chhote bachcho ke badhne aur doodh peene mein madad kar sake (jab shaavak praarambhik avastha se nikalkar apni maan se alag ho jaate hain), jo pride mein kisi bhi ya sabhi maadaaon ka doodh peete hain. iske alaava, janm ke tulyakaalan ka faayda hai ki shaavakon ka aakaar ant mein lagbhag ek hi rahata hai aur is prakaar se unke astitv ki sambhaavnaaen lagbhag baraabar ho jaati hain. yadi ek sinhani doosari sinhani ke do maah baad bachchon ko janm deti hai,

ek garbhavati sinhani (daayein)

udaaharan ke liye, to chhote shaavak apne bade bhaaiyon se bahut chhote hote hain aur bhojan se samay aksar bade shaavak un par haavi ho jaate hain- jiske parinaamasvaaroop chhote shaavakon mein bhookh se mrutyu aam hoti hai. bhukhamari ke alaava, shaavak kalaai anya khataron ka bhi saamana karte hain, jaise geedad, haaina, teindue, maarshal igal aur saanpon ke dvaara shikaar. yahaaain tak ki bhains, shaavakon ko us sthaan se ghaseet kar le jaati hai jahaaain sinhani unhein rakh kar raksha kar rahi thi aur maar daalati hai. iske alaava, jab ek ya adhik nae nar puraane nar ko pride se bedakhal kar dete hain, vijeta aksar chhote shaavakon ko maar daalte hain,[86] shaayad kyonki maadaaen tab tak prajanak aur graahi naheen banti hain jab tak unke shaavak paripakva na ho jaaen ya mar na jaaen. kul milkar lagbhag 80 pratishat shaavak do saal ki umr se pehle hi mar jaate hain.[87] jab shuroo mein shaavak apne pride mein aate hain to apni maan ke alaava kisi bhi anya vyask Singh ka saamana karne ka aatmavishvaas unamein naheen hota hai. lekin, ve jald hi pride ke jeevan mein ghul mil jaate hain, khud hi khelte hain ya vayaskon ke saath khelna shuroo kar dete hain. apne shaavakon se yukt sinhani doosari sinhani ke shaavakon ke liye bhi sahishnu hoti hai, jabki shaavak rahit sinhani sahishnu naheen hoti hai. shaavakon ke prati nar Singh ki sahishnuta alag alag hoti hai- kabhi kabhi, ek nar dhairya ke saath shaavak ko apni poonchh ya ayaal ke saath khelne ki anumati de deta hai, jabki anya gurra kar shaavak ko door bhaga dete hain.[88] chhah se saat maheene ke baad doodh chhuda diya jaata hai. nar Singh 3 saal ki umr mein paripakva ho jaata hai aur 4 saal ki aayu mein kisi anya pride se sambandhit nar ko chunauti dekar use pratisthaapit karne ki kshamata praapt kar leta hai. ve 10 aur 15 saal ki umr ke beech kamjor hone lagte hain,[89] yadi ve apne pride ki raksha ke dauraan gambhir roop se kshatigrast naheen hue hain. (ek baar jab unhein pratispardhi nar ke dvaara bedakhal kar diya jaata hai nar Singh kabhi kabhi hi kisi pride ka dubaara prabandhan kar paate hain) yeh unke apne vansh ke paida hone aur paripakva hone ke liye ek chhoti khidki chhod deta hai. pride mein aane ke samay yadi ve vinirmaan mein saksham hain, sambhaavit roop se, unke paas pratisthaapit kiye jaane se pehle adhik shaavak ho sakte hain jo paripakva ho rahe hon.

shaavakon ki bhinnata ko lekar nar sinhon ki sahishnuta. ve aamtaur sinhani ke bajaay shaavakon ke saath bhojan ko adhik baantate hain.

ek sinhani aksar baahari nar se apne shaavakon ki drudhta se raksha karti hai, lekin aise prayaas kabhi kabhi hi safal ho paate hain. aamtaur par vah un sab shaavakon ko mar daalata hai jo do saal se kam umr ke hote hain. ek sinhani ek nar ki tulana mein kamjor aur halki hoti hai; safalta ki sambhaavana tab badh jaati hai jab teen chaar maaen ek nar ka saamana karti hain.[86]lokapriya dhaarana ke vipreet, keval nar hi khaanaabadosh banane ke liye unke pride se bedakhal naheen kiye jaate hain haalaanki adhikaansh maadaaen nishchit roop se apne janm ke pride ke saath bani rahati hain. haalaanki, jab pride bahut bada ho jaata hai, maadaaon ki agali peedhi par dabaav daala jaata hai ki ve apna koi kshetr dhoondh lein. iske alaava, jab ek naya nar Singh pride par kabja kar leta hai, chhote Singh, maada ya nar, donon ko nikaala ja sakta hai.[90] ek maada khaanaabadosh ke liye jeevan bahut kathin hota hai. pride ke anya sadasyon ki suraksha ke bina, khaanaabadosh sinhani apne shaavakon ko paripkvata tak naheen pahuncha sakti hai,. ek vaigyaanik adhyayan ki report ke anusaar nar aur maada donon sam laingikta ka vyavahaar bhi kar sakte hain.[91][92] nar Singh kai dinon tak jodi bana sakte hain aur samalaingik kriya shuroo kar dete hain, jismein sneh, pyaar, laad, aadi darate hain. ek adhyayan se pata chala ki lagbhag 8 pratishat maaunting anya naron ke saath prekshit ki gayi hai. maada jode kaid mein aam hain, lekin jungle mein naheen dekhe gaye hain.

svaasthya

haalaanki vayask Singh ke praakrutik parabhakshi naheen hai, pramaan bataate hain ki adhikaansh maanav ke dvaara ya anya sinhon ke dvaara maare jaate hain.[93] yeh vishesh roop se nar sinhon ke liye satya hai, jo, pride ke mukhya sarankshak ke roop mein, pratispardhi nar ke sampark mein aane par adhik ugr ho jaate hain. vaastav mein, ek nar 15 ya 16 saal ki ek umr tak pahuainch sakta hai yadi vah is baat ka prabandhan kar le ki koi baahari nar use bedakhal na kare. jyaadaatar nar 10 saal se adhik jinda naheen rahate hain. yahi kaaran hai jungle mein ek sinhani ki tulana mein ek nar Singh ki ausat aayu kam hoti hai. haalaanki, donon hi lingon ke sadasya doosar sinhon ke dvaara ghaayal kiye ja sakte hain ya maare ja sakte hain, jab ativyaapi kshetron ke do pride sangharsh karte hain. tik ki vibhinn prajaatiyaan saamaanyat: adhikaansh sinhon ke kaan, gardan oosandhi kshetron ko sankramit karti hain.[94][95] teeniya vansh ke feetaakrumi ki prajaatiyon ke vyask roop aanton mein se nikaale gaye hain, Singh inhein entilop ke maans ke saath antargrahit kar lete hain.[96] ngorongonro kretar mein 1962 mein sinhon par ek sthir makkhi (stomoksis kelsitraans) ke dvaara aakraman kiya gaya; jiske parinaamasvaroop Singh par khuni dhabbe ho gaye ve ksheen ho gaye. sinhon ne apne aap ko makkhiyon ke kaatne se bachaane ke liye asafalataapoorvak pedon par chadhna shuroo kar diya aur haaina ke bilon mein ghusna shuroo kar diya; bahut se khtm ho gaye, aabaadi 70 se 15 tak gir gayi.[97] haal hi mein 2001 mein 6 Singh maare gaye.[98] Singh vishesh roop se kaid mein, kainaain distempar virus (CDV), felaain imyoono defeeshiyeinsi virus (FIV) aur felaain sankraamak peritonitis (FIP) se sankramit ho jaate hain.[19] CDV ghareloo kutton aur anya maansaahaariyon se failata hai; 1994 mein serengeti raashtreeya udyaan mein kai sinhon mein nyoorolojikl lakshan dekhe gaye jaise seejrs. is prakop ke dauraan, kai Singh nimoniya aur insefelaaitis se mar gaye.[99] FIV, jo HIV ke samaan hai, haalaanki sinhon par vipreet prabhaav ke liye naheen jaana gaya hai, par ghareloo billiyon mein kaafi chintaajanak prabhaav paida karta hai. at: kaid mein rakhe gaye sinhon mein vyavasthit parikshan ki salaah di jaati hai. yeh kai jangali Singh aabaadiyon mein uchch se endemik aavruti ke saath hota hai, lekin adhikaanshataya Asia aur naamib ke sinhon mein anupasthit hota hai.[19]'

sanchaar

ek pride (samooh) mein sir ragadna aur chaatana aam saamaajik vyavahaar hai.

aaraam karte samay, Singh kai prakaar ke vyavahaar se samaajeekaran prardashit karta hai aur jantu ki bhaavanaatmak gatividhiyaan bahut adhik viksit ho gayeen hain. sabse aam shaantipoorn sparshaneeya bhaav bhangimaaen hain sir ragadna aur chaatana,[100] jiski tulana praaimets mein taiyaar hone se ki gayi hai.[101] sir ragadna, kisi ke maathe ko ragadna, chehare aur gardan ko doosare Singh ke vipreet lagaana-abhivaadan ka svarup hai,[102] yeh aksar kisi jhagade ya mukaabale ke baad dekha jaata hai ya ek doosare se alag rahane ke baad milne par dekha jaata hai. nar doosare nar ko ragadte hain jabki shaavak aur maadaaen maadaaon ko ragadte hain.[103] saamaajik chaat aksar sir ragad ke saath agraanukram mein hota hai, yeh aamtaur par aapas mein hota hai aur praaptakarta khushi vyakt karta hai. chaate jaane vaale shareer ke sabse saamaanya bhaag hain sir aur gardan, jo upayogita se utpann hua hai, ek Singh in kshetron ko vyaktigat roop se naheen chaat sakta hai.[104] Singh chehare ke bhaav aur shareer ki mudraaen bhi pradarshit karte hain jo drushya sanketon ka kaam karti hain.[105] unki dhvani ke pradarshan ki soochi bhi bahut badi hai; asatat sanketon ke bajaay dhvani ki teevrata aur pitch mein bhinnataaen, sanchaar ka kendra prateet hote hain. Singh ki aavaajon mein shaamil hain gurraana, puring, hissing, kafing ya khaansana, mioing, voofing aur garjana ya dahaadna. Singh ki dahaad ek bahut vishisht tareeke se hoti hai, yeh kuchh gahre lambe garjan se shuroo hoti hai aur chhote chhote garjan ki shrrunkhalaaen iske baad utpann ki jaati hain. raat mein ve aksar dahaadte hain; dhvani jo 8 kilometer (5.0 meal)[211] ki doori se suni ja sakti hai, jantu ki upasthiti ka pata agane ke liye prayukt ki jaati hai.[106] Singh ki dahaad kisi bhi badi billi se tej hoti hai.

antarvishisht hinsak sambandh

jin kshetron mein Singh aur spoted haaina ek saath rahate hain unke beech sambandhon ki teevrata aur jatilta adviteeya hoti hai. Singh aur spoted haaina donon sheersh ke shikaari hain jo samaan shikaar se bhojan praapt karte hain aur isliye ek doosare ke pratyaksh pratispardhi hain. is prakaar, ve aksar ek doosare se ladte hain aur ek doosare ke dvaara mrut shikaar ki chori karte hain. haalaanki haaina ko Singh ki shikaar ki kshamataaon se laabh uthaane wala, ek avasaravaadi mrutajeevi maana jaata hai. aksar iska vipreet bhi satya hota hai. tanjaaniya ke ngorongonro kretar mein, spoted haaina (lakadbagdha) ki janasankhya Singh ki tulana mein bahut adhik hai jo apne bhojan ka adhikaansh hissa haaina ke shikaar ko chura kar praapt karte hain. donon prajaatiyon ke beech jhagade, baharahaal, bhojan ko lekar ladaai par khtm hote hain. pashuon mein, aam taur par dekha jaata hai ki anya prajaatiyon ko kshetreeya seemaaon ke bheetar sveekaar naheen kiya jaata hai. haaina aur Singh is ke apavaad hain; ve ek doosare ke khilaaf seemaaen tay kar dete hain, jaise ve apni hi prajaati ke khilaaf sadasya hon. vishesh roop se nar Singh bahut haaina ke prati bahut ugr hota hai aur dekha gaya hai ki vah haaina ko shikaar karke maar daalata hai par khaata naheen hai. iske vipreet, haaina Singh ke shaavakon ke pramukh shikaari hain aur sinhani ko sataate hain.[107][108] haalaanki, svasth vyask nar, yahaan tak ki ek hi, se har keemat bachane ki koshish karte hain. Singh kshetr mein chhote felaain jaise cheeta aur teinduaa par prabhaavi hote hain, jahaaain ve samapaitruk hote hain. ve unke dvaara mrut shikaar ko churaate hain aur unke shaavakon ko maar daalte hain aur yahaan tak ki mauka milne par vayaskon ko bhi naheen chhodte hain. cheete ke paas, Singh ya anya shikaariyon dvaara, apne mrut shikaar ke churaae jaane ki 50 pratishat sambhaavana hoti hai.[109] Singh cheete ke shaavakon ke mukhya hatyaare hain, jinmein se 90 pratishat tak anya shikaariyon ke hamle ke dvaara apne jeevan ke pehle saptaah mein mar jaate hain. cheete din ke bhinn samay par shikaar ke dvaara pratispardha se bachate hain aur apne shaavakon ko moti jhaadiyon mein chhupaate hain. teindue bhi aisi hi yukti ka prayog karte hain, lekin Singh ya cheete ki tulana mein chhote shikaar par nirvaah karne ki kshamata inmein jyaada hoti hai. saath hi, cheete, teindue pedon par chadh sakte hain aur apne shaavakon ko sinhon se bachane ke liye pedon ka istemaal kar sakte hain. haalaanki, sinhani kabhi kabhi teindue ke dvaara mrut shikaar ko paane ke liye ped par chadhne mein safal ho jaati hai.[110] isi prakaar, Singh afreeki jangali kutton par prabhaavi hote hain, ve na keval unka mrut shikaar le lete hain, balki chhote aur vyask donon prakaar ke kutton ka shikaar bhi karte hain (yadyapi baad wala kabhi kabhi hi hota hai).[111] neel magaramachh ekamaatr samapaitruk shikaari hai (maanav ke alaava) jo Singh ka shikaar kar sakta hai. magaramachh aur Singh ke aakaar ke aadhaar par donon mein se koi bhi shikaar ko kho sakta hai ya doosare par nirbhar kar sakat hai. Singh bhoomi par ghoomane vaale magaramachh ko maarane ke liye jaane jaate hain,[112] jabki iska vipreet bhi satya hai jab Singh magaramachh se yukt jal nikaaya mein pravesh kar jaate hain, is tathya ka pramaan tab mila jab ek magaramachh ke pet par Singh ke panje ke nishaan paae gaye.[113]

vitran aur aavaas

Africa mein, Singh savaana ghaas ki bhoomi par paae jaate hain jinmein vitrit ekesiya (babool) ke vruksh hote hain, jo chhaaya dete hain;[114] Bhaarat mein unka aavaas shushk savaana van aur bahut shushk patajhad jhaaddaar van ka mishran hai.[115] apekshaakrut haal hi ke samay mein Singh keval kendreeya varshaavan kshetr aur sahaara registaan ko chhodkar yooreshiya ke dakshini bhaagon mein grees se lekar Bhaarat tak aur adhikaansh Africa mein paae gaye. heerodots ki report ke anusaar Singh grees mein 480 E.poo. bahut aam the; unhonne desh se hokar jaate samay parshiyn raaja jerkseks ke samaan laadne vaale ooainton par hamla kar diya. arastoo ne unhein 300 E.poo. durlabh maana aur 100 E. mein samaapt ho gaya maana.[116] Asiaee sinhon ki ek aabaadi kaakaasas mein unki antim Europeeya chauki tak dasavi shataabdi tak paayi gayi.[117] athaarahaveen shataabdi mein aasaani se upalabdh agni hathiyaaron ki upalabdhi ke baad yeh prajaati madhya yug tak filisteen se aur adhikaansh shesh Asia se vilupt kar di gayi. unneesaveen sadi ke ant aur beesaveen sadi ke praarambh ke beech ke samay mein ve uttari Africa aur madhya poorv se vilupt ho gaye. unneesaveen sadi ke ant tak Singh Turkey aur adhikaansh uttari Bhaarat se gaayab ho gaye the,[19][118] jabki aakhiri baar 1941 mein Iran mein ek jeevit Asiaee Singh ko dekha gaya (shiraaj, jaharom, faaras praanton ke beech), yadyapi sinhaniyon ke ek samooh ko 1944 mein khujestaan praant mein karun nadi ke kinaare par dekha gaya. Iran se baad mein koi vishvasaneeya report naheen mili.[74] ab yeh up prajaati keval pashchimottar Bhaarat ke gir jangalon mein aur uske ke aas paas milti hain.[23] Gujarat raajya ke abhayaaranya mein 1,412 kimi ² (558 varg meal) kshetr mein 300 Singh rahate hain. jo adhikaansh jungle kshetr ko dhakata hai. unki sankhya dheere dheere badh rahi hai.[119] ve Africa ke adhikaansh bhaag mein, Europe se lekar Bhaarat tak adhikaansh yooreshiya mein aur bering bhoomi pul par aur America mein yukon se peroo tak paae jaate hain,[31] is range ke bhaag kuchh up prajaatiyon ke dvaara ghere jaate the jo aaj vilupt ho gayeen hain.

janasankhya aur sanrakshan ki sthiti

Singh ke shaavak serengeti mein khelte hue

adhikaansh Singh ab poorvi aur dakshini Africa mein rahate hain aur vahaaain par unki sankhya teji se kam ho rahi hai, pichhle do dashakon ke dauraan unamein anumaanat: 30-50 pratishat ki kami I hai.[6] vartamaan mein, afreeki sinhon ki aabaadi ki range 2002-2004 mein jangalon mein 16,500 aur 47,000 ke beech aanki gayi,[120][121] jo 1990 ke anumaan 100,000 se kam ho gayi hai, jo sanbhavataya 1950 mein 400,000 rahi hogi. is giraavat ka kaaran theek se samajh mein naheen aa raha hai aur yeh utkramaneeya naheen ho sakta hai.[6] vartamaan mein aavaas ki kshati aur maanav ke saath sangharsh is prajaati ke liye sabse bada khatra hai.[122][123] shesh aabaadeeyaan aksar bhaugolik roop se ek doosare se alag ho jaati hain, jo antarprajanan ka kaaran banti hain aur iske parinaam svarup aanuvanshik bhinnata mein kami aati hai. iseeliye prakruti aur praakrutik sansaadhanon ke sarankshan ke liye antarraashtreeya union ke dvaara Singh ko ek samvedansheel prajaati maana gaya hai, jabki Asiaee up prajaati gambhir khatre mein maani gayi hai. pashchim Africa ke kshetr mein Singh ki aabaadi kendreeya Africa ki Singh ki aabaadi se, prajanan sadasyon ke chhote vinimay ya vinimay naheen hone ke kaaran alag hain. pashchim Africa mein paripakva sadasyon ki sankhya ka anumaan haal hi ke do alag sarvekshanon 850-1,160 par (2002/2004) ke dvaara lagaaya gaya hai, pashchim Africa mein sabse jyaada sadasyon ki aabaadi ke aakaar par asahamati hai: burkina faaso ke arli-singooo paaritantr mein 100 se 400 sinhon ki range ka anumaan lagaaya gaya hai.[6]

ek Asiaee sinhani penthera liyo parsika, jiska naam moti hai, helasinki chidiyaaghar (Finland) mein kaid mein October 1994 mein paida hui; vah January 1996 mein Bristol chidiyaaghar (England) pahuainch gayi.

afreeki aur Asiaee donon sinhon ke sarankshan ke liye raashtreeya paarkon aur game reserve ki sthaapana aur rakh rakhaav ki aavashyakta hai; sarvottam gyaat mein hain naameebiya ka etosha raashtreeya udyaan, tanjaaniya mein sereingeti raashtreeya udyaan aur poorvi dakshin Africa mein cruiser raashtreeya udyaan.

in kshetron ke baahar, Singh ki pashudhan aur logon ke saath antarkriya se utpann hone vaale muddon ke parinaam svarup aam taur par pehle vaale vilupt ho gaye.[124] Bhaarat mein, lagbhag 359 Asiaee sinhon ne pashchimi Bhaarat mein gir van raashtreeya udyaan mein 1,412 varg kilometer (558 varg meal) ke kshetr mein antim sharan li. (April 2006). Africa mein, kai maanav aavaas najadeek hain, jiske parinaam svarup Singh, pashudhan, sthaaneeya aur van ke adhikaariyon ke beech samasyaaen utpann hoti hain.[125] di eshiyaatik reeintrodakashan project madhya pradesh ke bhaarateeya raajya mein kuno vanyajeev abhayaaranya mein Asiaee sinhon ki ek doosari svatantr aabaadi ki sthaapana ki yojana bana raha hai.[126] doosari aabaadi ki sthaapana mahatvapoorn hai kyonki yeh antim jeevit Asiaee Singh ke liye jeen pool ka kaam karegi aur prajaati ke astitv ko banaaye rakhane ke liye aanuvanshik bhinnata ke vikaas aur rakharakhaav mein madad karegi. ek chidiyaaghar jaanavar ke roop mein baarbari Singh ki poorv lokapriyta ka arth yeh hai ki kaid mein bikhre hue Singh baarbari Singh stock ke vanshaj hain. ismein port limpane wild eneemal park, keint, England mein sthit 12 Singh shaamil hain, ye morakko ke raaja ke jaanvaron ke vanshaj hain.[127] anya gyaarah baarbari Singh adees abaaba chidiyaaghar mein hain jo samraat heli selaaji ke jaanvaron ke vanshaj hain. wild link international ne Oxford vishvavidyaalaya ke sahayog se apni mahatvaakaankshi antararaashtreeya baarbari Singh pariyojana ka shubhaaranbh kiya, jiska uddeshya tha, morakko ke etalas parvaton mein ek raashtreeya udyaan mein kaid mein baarbari sinhon ki pehchaan aur prajanan jiske falasvaroop Singh antat: fir se utpann honge.[46] Africa mein Singh ki aabaadi mein kami ka pata lagne ke baad, Singh sanrakshan sahit kai samanvit prayaas kiye gaye hain, taaki is giraavat ko roka ja sake. Singh un prajaatiyon mein se ek hain jo speesheej sarvaaival plaan mein shaamil hain, yeh ek samanvit prayaas hai jo iske astitv ki sambhaavana ko badhaane ke liye asosiyeshan of joos end ekveriym ke dvaara kiya ja raha hai. yeh yojana mool roop se 1982 mein Asiaee Singh ke liye shuroo ki gayi, lekin ise nilambit kar diya gaya jab paaya gaya ki uttari ameriki chidiyaagharon mein paae jaane vaale adhikaansh Asiaee Singh aanuvanshik roop se shuddh naheen hain. ye afreeki Singh ke saath sankarit kiye ja chuke hain. afreeki Singh yojana ki shuruaat 1993 mein hui, ismein vishesh roop se dakshin afreeki up prajaati par dhyaan kendrit kiya gaya, haalaanki kaid mein sinhon ki aanuvanshik bhinnata ke anumaan mein kathinaaiyaan hain, chooainki adhikaansh sadasya agyaat utpatti ke hain, jo aanuvanshik bhinnata ke rakh rakhaav ko ek samasya banaate hain.[19]

nar-bhakshi

jabki aamtaur par Singh ka logon ka shikaar naheen karte hain, kuchh (aamtaur par nar) maanav ka shikaar karna pasand karte hain; bahut jaane maane maamale hain saavo nar bhakshi, jahaan 1898 mein kenya mein saavo nadi par ek pul ke nirmaan ke dauraan nau maheene mein di kenya yugaanda railway ka nirmaan kar rahe 28 railway karmachaari sinhon ka shikaar ban gaye. aur 1991 mein mfuve nar bhakshi, jisne jaambiya mein laangva nadi ghaati mein chhah logon ko maar daala.[128], donon mein, jin shikaariyon ne Singh ko maara, unhonne jaanavar ke shikaari vyavahaar ke baare mein pustakein likheen. mfuve aur saavo ghatnaaon mein samaanataayein hain: donon ghatnaaon mein Singh saamaanya se bade the, unamein ayaal naheen thi aur aisa lagta tha ki ve dant kshaya se grast hain. dant kshaya sahit durbalata siddhaant, ka paksh sabhi anusandhaanakartaaon dvaara naheen liya jaata hai; myoojiym sangrah mein rakhe gaye nar bhakshi sinhon ke daant aur jabadon ka vishleshan bataata hai ki dant kshaya kuchh ghatnaaon ko spasht kar sakta hai, maanav par Singh ke shikaar ka ek adhik sambhaavit kaaran hai, maanav prabhaavi kshetron mein shikaar ki kami ho jaana.[129] saavo aur saamaanya nar bhakshiyon ke apne vishleshan mein karbis petarahans aur noske ne maana ki beemaar aur chot khaaye hua jaanavar ke nar bhakshi hone ki sambhaavnaaen badh jaati hain. lekin yeh vyavahaar "asaamaanya naheen hai aur na hi kupathya hai" jahaan par avsar upalabdh ho; yadi avsar jaise pashudhan aur maanav ki upalabdhatata aasaan ho, Singh niyamit roop se maanav ka shikaar karne lageinge.

lekhak not karte hain ki jeevaashm vigyaan ke rikord mein peinthaarinej aur praamets ke beech saakshyaankit sambandh hai.[130] Singh ki nar bhakshi hone ki pravruti ki vyavasthit jaanch ki gayi hai. ameriki aur tanjaaniya ke vaigyaaniko ki report ke anusaar tanjaaniya ke graameen kshetron mein nar bhakshi vyavahaar 1990 se 2005 ke beech bahut adhik badh gaya. kam se kam 563 graameenon par hamla kiya gaya aur isi avadhi ke dauraan kai logon ko kha liya gaya-yeh sankhya poorv ki prasidd "saavo" ghatna mein marne vaale logon ki sankhya se adhik thi. ye ghatnaaen rufiji jile mein silos raashtreeya udyaan ke paas aur mojambikn seema ke najadeek lindi praant mein huin. bush desh mein graameenon ka vistaar ek mudda hai, lekhak tark dete hain ki sarankshan neeti khatre ko kam kare kyonki is maamale mein, sarankshan pratyaksh roop se maanav ki mrutyu mein yogadaan deta hai. lindi ke maamale darj kiye gaye hain jahaan Singh maanav ko ghane gaavon ke beech mein se utha kar le jaata hai.[131] lekhak Robert aar frump ne di main itars of Eden mein likha ki mojambikn sharanaarthi niyamit roop se raat mein dakshin Africa ke cruiser raashtreeya udyaan mein se hokar gujarte the, un par sinhon ke dvaara hamla kiya jaata tha aur unhein kha liya jaata tha; udyaan ke adhikaariyon ne maana ki nar-bhakshan yahaaain ek samasya hai. frump ka maanana tha ki jab udyaan ko rangabhed ke kaaran seal kar diya gaya aur sharanaarthi raat mein udyaan ko paar karne ke liye majaboor ho gaye, us dauraan hajaaron log maare gaye. seema ko band kiye jaane se pehle lagbhag ek shataabdi ke liye, mojaambik din mein udyaan mein se hokar gujarte the aur unhein kam hi kshati pahunchati thi.[132] paikar ke anumaan ke anusaar 200 se adhik tanjaaniya ke log prati varsh sinhon, magaramachhon, haathiyon, hippo aur saanp ke dvaara maare jaate hain aur yeh sankhya doguni ho sakti hai kyonki, inmein se 70 log Singh ke shikaar maane jaate hain. paikar aur ikanda kuchh sanrakshanavaadiyon mein se hain jinka maanana hai ki pashchimi sanrakshan prayaason ko in maamalon paar dhyaan dena chaahiye, kyonki yeh maanav ke jeevan ka keval naitik mudda hi naheen hai balki Singh suraksha aur sarankshan ke prayaason ki deerghakaaleen safalta ke liye bhi hai.[131] April 2004 mein dakshini tanjaaniya mein khel skaauts dvaara ek nar-bhakshi Singh ko maar diya gaya. aisa maana jaata hai ki isne rufji delta kinaare ke kshetr mein kam se kam lagaataar 35 logon ko maar kar kha liya tha,[133][134] dau॰ raulf di. baldus, jo GTZ vanyajeev kaaryakram samanvayak hain, ne tippani di ki sanbhavataya Singh maanav ka shikaar isliye kar raha hai ki iske charvanak ke neeche ek bada foda tha jo kai sthaanon paar foot gaya tha. unhonne aage kaha ki "is Singh ko bahut jyaada dard ho raha tha, vishesh roop se shaayad chabaate samay ".[135] GTZ jarman vikaas sahayog agency hai aur lagbhag do dashak se vanya jeev sanrakshan par tanjaaniya ki sarkaar ke saath kaam kar rahi hai. anya maamalon ki tarah yeh Singh bada tha, ismein ayaal naheen tha aur daant ki samasya thi. nar-bhakshan ka "aal-Africa" rikord saamaanyataya saavo naheen hai, lekin ek kam gyaat ghatna 1930 ke ant mein shuroo hokar 1940 ke dashak tak us samay ke tanganayika mein hui (jo aaj tanjaaniya hai). George rashbi, khel vaardan aur peshevar shikaari ne antat: pride ki hatya ki, jo teen peedhiyon se nar bhakshi ban gaya maana ja raha tha aur vartamaan ke njombe jile mein 1,500 se 2,000 logon ko kha chuka tha.[136]

kaid mein

vyaapak roop se kaid mein dekhe jaate hain,[137] Singh videshi jaanvaron ke ek samooh ka bhaag hain jo athaaraveen shataabdi ke ant se lekar chidiyaaghar pradarshan ka kendra rahe hain; is samooh ke sadasya abhinn roop se bade kasinhuki hote hain, inmein haathi, raainosirs, hippopotemas, bade praaimet aur anya badi billiyaaain shaamil hain; chidiyaaghar in prajaatiyon ke jahaan tak ho sake adhiktam jantu ikaththa karne ki koshish karte hain.[138] haalaanki kai aadhunik chidiyaaghar apne pradarshan ke baare mein adhik chayanaatmak hain,[139] duniya bhar ke chidiyaagharon aur vanyajeev park mein 1000 se adhik afreeki aur 100 Asiaee Singh hain . ve ek raajadoot prajaati maane jaate hain aur paryatan, shiksha aur sanrakshan ke uddeshyon ke liye rakhe jaate hain.[140] Singh kaid mein 20 saal ki ek umr tak pahuainch sakte hain; Apollo, jo honolooloo, havaai mein honolooloo chidiyaaghar ka ek nivaasi Singh tha, vah August 2007 mein 22 varsh ki umr mein mara. usaki do bahanein, 1986 mein paidaahui, ve abhi bhi jeevit hain.[141] ek chidiyaaghar aadhaarit Singh prajanan kaaryakram aamtaur par antarprajanan ke dvaara vibhinn Singh ki up prajaatiyon ke pruthakkaran par dhyaan deta hai, iski sambhaavana tab hoti hai jab jaanavar up prajaatiyon ke dvaara vibhaajit kiye jaate hain.[142]

peganatan chidiyaaghar mein ek Singh

sinhon ko sabse pehle 850 E.poo. eshiryan raaja ke dvaara rakha gaya aur prajanan karavaaya gaya,[116] aur elegjeindar di great ko uttari Bhaarat ke maalhi ke dvaara tem Singh ke saath prastut kiya gaya hai.[143] baad mein roman samay mein, talavaar chalaane vaale erenaas mein hissa lene ke liye Singh samraaton dvaara rakhe jaate the. sulla, pompi aur jooliys seejr sahit kai roman kuleen log ek samay mein aksar sainkadon sinhon ki saamoohik hatya ka aadesh dete the,[144] poorv mein, bhaarateeya raajakumaaron ke dvaara sinhon ko paala jaata tha aur Marco polo ne kaha ki kubalaai Khan ne sinhon ko andar rakha.[145] pehla Europeeya "chidiyaaghar" terahaveen shataabdi mein mahaan aur shaahi parivaaron mein faila tha aur ye satrahaveen shataabdi tak bane rahe, ye seraaglios kahalaate the; us samay par unhein pinjara kaha jaata tha, yeh yeh kebinet ke liye utsaah ka paatr tha. ve punarjaagaran ke dauraan France aur Italy se shesh Europe mein fail gaye.[146] England mein, haalaanki seraagliyo parampara kam viksit thi, sinhon ko terahaveen shataabdi mein raaja John ke dvaara sthaapit ek seraagliyo mein landan ke tower par rakha jaata tha,[147][148] sanbhavataya 1125 mein henari I ke dvaara shuroo kiye gaye praarambhik pinjare mein jaanvaron ko rakha jaata tha, jo Oxford ke najadeek vud stok mein uske mahal mein tha; jahaan William of maulamesabari ke dvaara paale gaye sinhon ki report milti hai.[149] seraaglios ne sampatti aur shakti ki mahanata ki abhivyakti ki. vishesh roop se jaanavar jaise badi billeeyaan aur haathi shakti ka prateek hain aur paalatoo jaanvaron ke khilaaf ladaai mein unka prayog kiya jaayega. vistaar karne par, pinjare aur seraaglios, prakruti par maanavata ki prabhaavit ko pradarshit karte hain. nateejatan, 1682 mein ek gaaya ne aisi praakrutik "yahova" ko haraaya aur darshakon ko hairaan kar diya aur ek gainde ke saamane ek haathi ki udaan ne jeers banaaye. is tarah ke jhagade dheere dheere satrahaveen shataabdi mein kam ho gaye, kyonki pinjaron ka prasaar adhik ho gaya aur unka viniyog badh gaya. paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein badi billiyon ko rakhane ki parampara unneesaveen sadi mein khtm ho gayi, jis samay par yeh atyant vilkshan ho gayi thi.[150]

albrekt dyuraar, Singh ka sankshipt varnan. 1520 ke aas paas

landan ke tauvar mein sinhon ki upasthiti antaraayik thi, inka stok fir se kiya gaya jab ek monaark ya uske konsort, jaise henari VI ki patni maargeret of anjooo, ko jaanavar diye gaye. rikaard bataate hain ki unhein satrahaveen shataabdi mein buri sthitiyon mein rakha jaata tha, ye us samay par floreins mein khuli sthitiyon ke adhik vipreet tha.[151] pinjara athaaraveen shataabdi tak saarvajanik roop se khula tha; ismein aane ke liye saadhe teen peni chukaani hoti thi ya Singh ko khilaane ke liye ek billi ya ek kutta dena hota tha.[152]ek pratirodhi pinjare ne bhi praarambhik unneesaveen shataabdi tak ekasetar vinimay par sinhon ka pradarshan kiya.[153] tower pinjaron ko William chaturth dvaara band kar diya gaya,[152] aur jaanvaron ko London chidiyaaghar mein sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya jisne 27 April 1828 ko saarvajaanik roop se apne darvaaje khol diye.[154]

Animal species disappear when they cannot peacefully orbit the center of gravity that is man.

Pierre-Améadéae Pichot, 1891[155]

jangali jaanvaron ka vyaapaar unneesaveen shataabdi ke aupaniveshik vyaapaar mein sudhaar ke saath nikhra.Singh ko kaafi aam aur sasta maana jaata tha. haalaaainki baagh ki tulana mein inka vaastu vinimay adhik hota tha, ye kam manhage aur bade the, ya jiraaf aur hippopotemas jaise jaanvaron ka parivhan adhik kathin tha aur paanda ki tulana mein kam kathin tha.[156] anya jaanvaron ki tarah Singh ko ek praakrutik aseemit vyaapak vastu ke roop mein dekha jaata tha, jiska pakadne aur sthaanaantaran mein nirdayata se shoshan hota tha aur iska bahut nuksaan hota tha.[157] vyaapak roop se prajanit ek saahasi shikaari ka chitr jo darshaata hai ki Singh ko pakadna sadi ka bada hissa tha.[158] khojakartaaon aur shikaareeon ne jaanvaron ke ek lokapriya menikn vibhaajan ko "achhe" aur "bure" mein vibhajit kiya, jisse unke sahason ka moolya badh gaya, isne unhein saahasi aakrutiyaan bana diya. iska parinaam badi billiyaan theen, in par hamesha nar bhakshi hone ka sandeh tha, "yeh prakruti ke bhaya aur ise paar karne ki santushti donon ka pratinidhitv karta tha".[159]

melaborn chidiyaaghar mein Singh kisi ped ke neeche ooainche ghaas kshetr ka aanand lete hue.

sinhon ko 1870 tak landan ke chidiyaaghar mein tang aur malin paristhitiyon mein rakha jaata tha, jab tak kamre jaise pinjare se yukt ek bada Singh ghar naheen banaaya gaya,[160] beesavi sadi ke praarambh mein aur parivartan hue, jab kaarl hegenabek ne praakrutik aavaas se bahut adhik milta julata aavaas banaaya, jo konkreet ki chattaanon se yukt tha, adhik khula sthaan tha, jismein salaakhon ke bajaay ek khaai thi. beesaveen sadi ke praarambh mein bahut se logon ke beech unhonne melaborn chidiyaaghar aur Sydney ke taaronga chidiyaaghar donon ke liye Singh ke baadon ko design kiya, yadyapi unke design lokapriya the, puraani salaakhein aur pinjare kai chidiyaagharon mein 1960 tak bane rahe,[161] beesaveen sadi ke baad ke dashakon mein bade adhik praakrutik aavaas banaaye gaye aur gahre den ke bajaay taaron ke jaal ka ya leminet kiye gaye kaanch ka prayog kiya jaane laga, jisse darshak adhik paas aa sakte the, kuchh aakarshan darshakon se oonchaai par rakhe gaye, jaise ki Kate faurest / laayan ovaraluk of oklaahoma city julojikl park.[19] ab sinhon ko adhik bade praakrutik aavaas mein rakha jaata hai; aadhunik bataaye gaye dishaanirdesh jungle ki paristhitiyon ke adhik kareeb hote hain, Singh ki aavashyakataaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue banaaye gaye hain, yeh alag kshetron mein den ki aavashyakta par prakaash daalata hai, dhalaan waali bhoomi jo dhoop aur chhaaya donon ke liye upayukt hai jahaan Singh baith sakta hai aur upayukt bhoomi kavar aur jal nikaas pranaali aur ghoomane ke liye paryaapt sthaan hai.[140] aise udaaharan bhi rahe hain jahaan ek Singh ko kisi vyakti ke dvaara niji roop se rakha gaya ho, jaise sinhani elsa, jise George edamasan aur patni joya edamasan dvaara uthaaya gaya tha aur unka uske saath ek prabal sambandh ban gaya tha, vishesh roop se unki patni ka. baad mein sinhani ko prasiddhi mili, usaka jeevan pustakon aur filmon ki ek shrrunkhala mein darj kiya gaya.

batting (chuga daalna) aur teming (paalatoo banaana)

sinhon ke ek pinjare mein unneesaveen sadi ke ek Singh paalak ki nakkaashi.

Singh-batting ek khooni khel hai jismein sinhon ko anya jaanvaron ka chuga daala jaata hai, aam taur par kutton ka. iske rikaard praacheen samay mein satrahaveen shataabdi tak milte hain. antat: viyna mein 1800 mein aur England mein 1825 mein is par pratibandh lagaaya diya gaya.[162][163] Singh teming manoranjan ke liye Singh ko paalatoo banaana hai, yeh ek sthaapit sarkas ka bhaag ho sakta hai ya koi vyaktigat abhyaas, jaise seegafraaid aur Roy. is shabd ka upayog bhi aksar badi billiyon jaise baagh, teinduaa aur kaugar ke pradarshan aur teming ke liye hi kiya jaata hai. yeh prakriya fraanseesi vyakti henari Martin aur ameriki aaijaik vaan amburgh ke dvaara unneesaveen sadi ke pehle aadhe bhaag mein shuroo ki gayi, in donon ne bahut yaatra ki thi, unki takaneek ko kai logon ke dvaara anusaran kiya gaya.[164] vaan amburgh ne sanyukt raashtra ki raani Victoria ke saamane 1838 mein pradarshan kiya, jab ve great Britain gaye the. Martin ne ek mookaabhinya banaaya jiska sheershak tha Les Lions de Mysore ("(Mysore ka Singh) the lions of Mysore"), ek vichaar jo amburgh ne jaldi hi le liya. ye kriyaaeain sarkas ke sho ke kendreeya pradarshan ke roop mein ubhar kar aayeen, lekin vaastav mein beesaveen shataabdi ke praarambh mein cinema ke saath jan chetna mein pravesh kar gayeen. pajaanavaron par maanav ki shreshthata ke pradarshan mein, Singh teming ne poorv cinema ke pashuon ki ladaai ke samaan uddeshya ko poora kiya.[164] ab sanketak Singh ki temar kursi sanbhavataya sabse pehle ameriki klaide betti ke dvaara prayukt ki gayi.[165]

saanskrutik chitran

chitr:Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.jpg
ashok ki Singh rajdhani, mool roop se 250 E.pu. saaranaath mein ashok stambh ke roop mein khed ki gayi, jo Bhaarat ka raashtreeya prateek hai.
maayeseene ka Singh gate (vistaar)-do sinhaniyaan kendreeya stambh ki disha mein, si.1300 E.poo.

Singh, hajaaron saalon se maanavata ke liye aaikan raha hai, Europe. Asia aur Africa ki sanskrutiyon mein prakat hua hai. insaanon par hamle ki ghatnaaon ke baavajood, Singh ka sanskruti mein ek sakaaraatmak chitran kiya gaya hai jo prabal hai lekin mahaan bhi. ek aam chitran hai use "jungle ka raaja" ya "jaanvaron ka raaja" kaha jaata hai; at: Singh shaahi aur raajavanshon ka ek lokapriya prateek raha hai,[166] aur saath hi bahaaduri ka prateek hai; kai kathaaon mein parilkshit kiya gaya hai. ye kathaaen chhathi shataabdi isa poorv ek greek kathaakaar esop ki kathaaye hain.[167] sinhon ka pratinidhitv 32000 varsh poorv ka hai; dakshin pashchim Germany mein svabiyn alb mein vogaalhaard gufa se Singh ke sheersh yukt haathi daant ki nakkaashi 32,000 saal puraani hai yeh aurigneshiyn sanskruti se sambandh rakhati hai.[16] laaskaaks ki gufaaon mein 15,000-varsh puraani paashaan kaal ki gufa chitrakaari mein felaain ke kaksh mein do sinhon ko sambandh banaate hue dikhaaya gaya hai. gufa Singh ko chauvet ki gufa mein bhi varnit kiya gaya hai, iski khoj 1994 mein hui; yeh 32,000 saal puraani hai,[27] yadyapi yeh laaskaaks ki samaan ya usase chhoti aayu ki ho sakti hai.[168] praacheen misr ne sinhani ko (kroor shikaari) apne yuddh devataaon ke roop mein ankit kiya hai aur inmein hain ijipt ke pentheron baast, maafdet, menahit, pakhet, sekhamet, tefanat aur sfiniks;[166] ijipt ke pentheron ke beech in deviyon ke putr bhi hain jaise maahis aur, jaisa ki ijipt ke logon ke dvaara ek nubiyn devata, dedoon ke roop mein pramaanit kiya gaya hai.[169][170] kai praacheen sanskrutiyon mein Singh devataaon ki saavadhaani poorvak jaanch bataati hai ki kai sinhaniyaan bhi hain. sinhaniyon ke dvaara sahayog se shikaar ki prashansa ka pramaan bahut praacheen kaal mein milta hai. adhikaansh Singh faatak sinhaniyon ko chitrit karte hain. nimen Singh praacheen yoonaan aur rom mein prateekaatmak tha, yeh nakshatr aur raashi chinh liyo ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya aur pauraanik kathaaon mein iska varnan kiya jaata hai, jahaan iski tvacha ki utpatti hero hiraakles se hui.[171]

yerushalaam ka prateek hai pashchimi deevaar ke saamane ek khada hua Singh jo jaitoon ki tahaniyon par latak raha hai.

Singh yahooda ke gotra mein baaibil ka prateek hai aur baad mein yahooda saamraajya ka prateek hai. yeh jaakob ke apne chauthe bete ko diye gaye aasheervaad mein shaamil hai, jo book of jinesis, " Judah is a lion's whelp; On prey, my son have you grown.mein diya gaya hai. He crouches, lies down like a lion, like the king of beasts—aawho dare rouse him?"(jinesis 49:9[172] isaraail ke aadhunik raajya mein, Singh yerushalaam ki rajdhani ka prateek hai, yeh shahar ke jhande aur hathiyaaron ke aavaran par rahata hai. Singh puraane bebeelon aur nae bebeelon saamraajya donon ka ek ek pramukh prateek tha. classic bebeelon ki lohe ki moorti milti hai, jo deevaaron par peint ya nakkaashi ke roop mein hai, ise aksar striding laayan of bebeelon kaha jaata hai. bebeelon mein kaha gaya ki baaibil dainiyl Singh ki gufa se vitrit kiya gaya hai. [339] aise prateekon ko Iraq mein saddaam husain ke shaasan ke dvaara apne laayan of bebeelon tank ke liye apnaaya gaya, iski takaneek ko rusi namoone se liya gaya. aise prateekon unke Singh baabul tank ke liye raak mein, praudyogiki ek roosi model se anukoolit se viniyojit tha. hindu dharm ke pauraanik paath mein narasinh ("aadmi-Singh") ek aadha Singh, aadha aadmi vishnu ka avataar hai, uske bhakt usaki pooja karte hain, usane apne bhakt prahalaad ko uske pita se bachaaya jo bura raaja hirnyakashyap tha;[173] vishnu, narasinh mein, aadhe manushya/ aadhe Singh ka roop lete hain, jismein neechala shareer aur dhad maanav ka hai aur Singh ka chehara aur panje hain.[174] narasinh Singh ki pooja "Singh Bhagwan" ke roop mein ki jaati hai. Singh ek praacheen bhaarateeya vaidik naam hai jiska arth "Singh" hai (Asiaee Singh), jo praacheen Bhaarat ke liye 2000 varshon se adhik puraana hai. yeh moolat: sirf raajapooton dvaara prayukt kiya gaya jo Bhaarat mein ek hindu kshatriya ya sainya jaati thi. 1699 mein khaalasa bhaaichaare ke janm ke baad, sikkhon ne bhi guru gobind Singh ki ichha ke kaaran naam "Singh" ko apnaaya. laakhon hindu raajapooton ke saath aaj yeh poori duniya mein 20 million sikkhon ke dvaara prayukt kiya jaata hai.[175][176] yeh poore Asia aur Europe mein asankhya jhandon aur hathiyaaron ke aavaran par paaya jaata hai, Asiaee Singh Bhaarat ke raashtreeya prateek par bhi chinhit hain.[177] bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke sudoor dakshin mein Asiaee Singh sinhaalej ka prateek hai,[178] yeh Sri Lanka ka jaateeya bahumat hai, yeh shabd bhaarateeya-aaryan sinhaala se vyutpann hui hai, jiska arth hai "Singh log" ya "Singh ke khoon se yukt log" shri lanka ke raashtreeya dhvaj par talavaar yukt Singh ek kendreeya aakruti hai.[179]


Asiaee Singh cheeni kala mein ek aam mool bhaav hai. ve pehle basant ke ant mein aur patajhad ki shuruaat mein kala mein prayukt kiye jaate the (paanchaveen ya chhathi shataabdi isa poorv) aur haan raajavansh mein adhik lokapriya ho gaye, (206 E.poo. - E. 220), jab shaahi sanrakshak sinhon ko suraksha ke liye shaahi mahalon ke saamane rakha jaata tha. kyonki Singh kabhi kabhi bhi cheen mein naheen janme, praarambhik varnan vaastavik naheen the; cheen mein buddh kala ke aane ke baad teing raajavansh mein (chhathi shataabdi isvi mein) sinhon ko aam taur par bina pankhon ke varnit kiya jaata tha. unke shareer mote aur chhote ho gaye aur unki ayaal ghungharaali ho gayi.[180] Singh nrutya cheeni sanskruti ka ek paaramparik nrutya hai jismein kalaakaar Singh ki poshaak mein Singh ki gatiyon ki nakl karta hai, aksar simbal, drum aur gong par sangeet bhi saath mein bajaay jaata hai. ve cheeni navavarsh par, August moon utsav aur anya utsavon mein achhe bhaagya ke liye pradarshan karte hain,[181] [Singapore|Singapore]] ke dweep raashtra (singaapura) ka naam malaya shabd Singh aur pur (city), se vyutpann hua hai. jo greekπaaόaaλaaιaaς, póaalis.[182][361] se sambandhit hai. malaya bhaashamalaya itihaas ke anusaar, yeh naam chaudaveen sadi ke sumaatra malaya Rajkumar, saang neela utaama ke dvaara diya gaya jo dweep ko ek garjan ke baad yeh naam diya jise mukhyamantri ke ek Singh (Asiaee Singh) ke roop mein pehchaan di.[183]

Sri Lanka ka dhvaj

"asalan" ya "arsalan (ottoman اaaرaaسaaلaaاaaن arslāaan aur اaaصaaلaaاaaن aṣalāan) "Singh " ke liye Turkey aur mangoliyn shabd hain. ise kai seljuk aur otoman shaasakon ne ek sheershak ke roop mein apnaaya, jismein alp arsalan aur Ali paasha shaamil hain aur ek Turkey/Irani naam hai. "Singh" ek madhyakaaleen veriyr shaasak ka upanaam tha, jo bahaaduri ke liye diya gaya, jaise England ke richrd I richrd di laayan heart kahalaate hain,[166] [364] henari di laayan, (jarman : Heinrich der Löawe[365]), Duke of seksoni aur Robert III of flaindars ka upanaam "di laayan of fleindars"- jo aaj tak ek mukhya pratishtha ka chinh hai. sinhon ko baar baar hathiyaaron ke aavaran par darshaaya jaata raha hain, ya to khud upakaran par shield par ya samarthak par. (is sinhani ko kam darshaaya jaata hai) heraladri ki aupachaarik bhaasha jo blejan kahalaati hai, chhaviyon ko vyakt karne ke liye fraanseesi bhaasha ka prayog karti hain. aise varnan spasht karte hain ki Singh ya anya praani "rempeint" hain ya "peseint" hain. yaani ve paalan kar rahe hain ya dubak rahein hain,[184] Singh ka prayog national asosiyeshan futabaal team se khel team ke prateek ke roop mein kiya jaata hai jaise England, skotalaind aur singaapoor se prasidd club jaise detroit laayans[185] of di NFL, chelasa[186] angreji Premier league ke estan vila,[187] (aur khud preemiyraship) duniya bhar ke chhote clubon ki mejabaani ke liye. vila ke shikhar par ek skautish Singh rempeint hai, jaisa ki United of skautish Premier league ke reinjars aur dandi mein hai.

Singh poore sanyukt raajya America mein haai school, college aur vishvavidyaalayon ek lokapriya prateek aur shubhankar hai. yeh moorti uttari alaabaama ke vishv vidyaalaya parisar mein hai.

Singh nirantar aadhunik saahitya mein bana raha hai, yeh di laayan mein mijenik asalan se, di vich end di vaardaraub end tak aur uske baad si S levis ke dvaara likhit naaraniya series se lekar,[188] di vandaraful vijaard of oj mein komedik kavardali laayan tak.[189] chalachitron ke aagaman ke baad Singh prateek ki upasthiti nirantar bani rahi; sabse aaikonik aur vyaapak roop se jaane maane sinhon mein se ek hai liyo di laayan, jo metro-goldavin-mayor (MGM) studio ke liye meskot hai. jo 1920 se prayog mein raha hai.[190] 1960 mein sabse prasidd sinhani ki upasthiti prakat hui, yeh thi moovi born free mein di kenyan eneemal elasa.[191] yeh isi sheershak ki vaastavik jeevan ki sabse jyaada bikne waali antarraashtreeya kitaab par aadhaarit thi.[192] jaanvaron ke raaja ke roop mein Singh ki bhoomika ko kaartoonon par prayukt kiya jaata hai, 1950 ki maanga se yeh shuruaat hui jisne pehle Japani kalar ti vi eneemeshan shrrunkhala ko janm diya. fir kimba di white laayan, lionaardo laayan of King lionaardo aur uske chhote vishay, donon 1960 se 1994 tak dijni animated feature film di laayan King mein darshaae gaye.[193][194] jismein lokapriya geet "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" bhi hai. ek Singh dakshin Africa ke 50 -reind bainkanots par pradarshit hai. (dekhein dakshin afreeki raind).

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