Singapore ka itihaas

Singapore ke itihaas ka vivran 11veen sadi se upalabdh hai. 14veen sadi ke dauraan shreevijyan Rajkumar parameshvar ke shaasanakaal mein is dweep ka mahattv badhna shuru hua aur yeh ek mahatvapoorn bandargaah ban gaya, lekin durbhaagyavash 1613 mein purtagaali hamlaavaron dvaara ise nasht kar diya gaya. aadhunik Singapore ke itihaas ki shuruaat 1819 mein hui, jab ek angrej sar Thomas staimaford raifals dvaara is dweep par ek british bandargaah ki sthaapana ki gayi. british aupaniveshik shaasan ke tahat dakshin-poorv Asia mein Bhaarat-cheen vyaapaar aur bhandaaragruh (entreepot) vyaapaar, donon ke ek kendra ke roop mein iska mahattv kaafi badh gaya aur yeh badi teji se ek pramukh bandargaah shahar mein tabdeel ho gaya.

dviteeya vishv yudgh ke samay Japani saamraajya ne Singapore ko apne adheen kar liya aur 1942 se 1945 tak ise apne adheen rakha. yuddh samaapt hone ke baad Singapore vaapas angrejon ke niyantran mein chala gaya aur sv-shaasan ke adhikaar ke star ko vadhaaya gaya aur antat: 1963 mein federation of malaaya ke saath Singapore ka vilay kar Malaysia ka nirmaan kiya gaya. haalaanki, saamaajik ashaanti aur Singapore ki sattaaroodh people's action party tatha Malaysia ki elaayans party ke beech vivaadon ke parinaam svaroop Singapore ko Malaysia se alag kar diya gaya. 9 August 1965 ko Singapore ek svatantr ganatantr ban gaya.

gambhir berojgaari aur aavaaseeya sankat ka saamana karne ke kaaran, Singapore ne ek aadhunikeekaran kaaryakram par kaam karna shuroo kar diya jismein vinirmaan udyog ki sthaapana, bade saarvajanik aavaaseeya estate ke vikaas aur saarvajanik shiksha par bhaari nivesh karne par dhyaan keindrit kiya gaya. aajaadi ke baad se Singapore ki arthavyavastha mein prati varsh ausatan nau pratishat ki vruddhi darj ki gayi hai. 1990 ke dashak tak yeh ek atyant viksit mukt baajaar arthavyavastha, sudrudh antararaashtreeya vyaavasaayik sambandh aur Japan ke baahar Asia mein sarvochch prati vyakti sakal ghareloo utpaad ke saath duniya ke sabse samruddh deshon mein se ek ban gaya tha.[1]

anukram

praacheen kaal

ek kalaakaar dvaara parameshvar ka ek chitr, jisne 1390 ke dashak mein Singapore par shaasan kiya.

Singapore ka sabse praarambhik likhit record teesari sadi ke ek cheeni vivran mein maujood hai jismein pu luo chung () dweep ka varnan kiya gaya hai. yeh swayam bhi malaya naam "pulaaoo ujong" ya (malaya praayadveep ka) "antim dweep" ka ek lipyantaran (traansalitreshan) tha.[2] ardh-pauraanik sejaara melaayu (malaya itihaas) mein shreevijya ke ek Rajkumar, shri tribhuvan (jise saang neel uttam ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai) ki ek kahaani hai jo 13veen sadi ke dauraan dweep par aaya tha. jab Rajkumar ne ek Singh ko dekha to unhonne ise ek shubh sanket maana aur vahaan par singapura naamak ek basti ka nirmaan kar diya, jiska sanskrut mein arth hota hai "Singh ka shahar".[3] haalaanki, Singapore mein sinhon ki maujoodagi ki sambhaavana kaafi kam hai, 20veen sadi ki shuruaat tak kai baagh dweep mein vichrate rahate the.[3][4]

1320 mein, mangol saamraajya ne laang ya main (ya draigans tooth stret) naamak ek sthaan ke liye ek vyaapaar abhiyaan ko ravaana kiya tha jiske baare mein maana jaata hai ki yeh dweep ke dakshini bhaag mein sthit keppal bandargaah tha.[5] 1330 ke aaspaas dweep ki yaatra karne vaale cheeni yaatri vaang daayuaan ne daan ma ksi (malaya taamaasik se, 淡aa马aa锡) naamak malaya aur cheeni nivaasiyon waali ek chhoti si basti ka ullekh kiya tha. 1365 mein rachit ek jaavaanees mahaakaavya, nagarakretaagam mein bhi temaasek samudri shahar naamak dweep par ek basti ke baare mein sandarbhit kiya gaya hai. fort kaining mein haal ki khudaai mein yeh sanket dene vaale saboot mile hain ki 14veen sadi mein Singapore ek mahatvapoorn bandargaah tha.[6]

1390 ke dashak mein, ek paalemabang Rajkumar, parameshvar majaapahit saamraajya dvaara apadasth kar diye jaane ke baad bhaag kar temaasek pahunch gaya tha. 14veen sadi ke dauraan, Singapore mein siyaam (ab Thailand) aur jaava-aadhaarit majaapahit saamraajya ke beech malaya praayadveep par niyantran ke liye sangharsh chhid gaya tha. sejaara melaayu ke mutaabik Singapore ko ek hi majaapahit hamle mein hara diya gaya tha. malaaka jaane ke liye majaboor kiye jaane se pehle unhonne is dweep par kai varshon tak shaasan kiya tha, malaaka mein hi unhonne malaaka saltanat ki sthaapana ki thi.[3] Singapore malakka saltanat ka ek mahatvapoorn vaanijyik bandargaah aur baad mein johor saltanat[2] ban gaya tha. 15veen sadi ki shuruaat mein, Singapore ek thai maatahat ka raajya tha lekin malakka saltanat jiski sthaapana iskandar ne ki thi, unhonne sheegra hi poore dweep par apne adhikaar kshetr ka vistaar kar liya. 1511 mein purtagaaliyon dvaara malakka par kabja kiye jaane ke baad malaya ke Admiral Singapore bhaag gaye aur johor laama mein ek nai rajdhani ki sthaapana ki aur Singapore mein ek bandargaah adhikaari ko niyukt rakha. purtagaaliyon ne 1587 mein johor laama ko nasht kar diya. 1613 mein purtagaali hamlaavaron ne Singapore nadi ke muhaane par bani bastiyon ko jala diya aur tab yeh dweep gumanaami ke andhakaar mein doob gaya.[3]

aadhunik Singapore ki sthaapana (1819)

sar Thomas staimaford raifals.

16veen aur 19veen sadiyon ke beech malaya dveepasamooh par dheere-dheere Europeeya aupaniveshik shaktiyon ne niyantran kar liya jiski shuruaat 1509 mein malakka mein purtagaaliyon ke aagaman ke saath hui. purtagaaliyon ke praarambhik prabhutv ko 17veen sadi ke dauraan dach logon dvaara chunauti di gayi jinhonne is kshetr ke jyaadaatar dveepon par niyantran kar liya tha. dach logon ne dveepasamooh ke bheetar vyaapaar par ekaadhikaar sthaapit kar liya, vishesh roop se masaalon ke maamale mein jo us samay is kshetr ka sabse mahatvapoorn utpaad tha. angrejon ke saath-saath anya aupaniveshik shaktiyon ko apekshaakrut ek maamooli upasthiti tak seemit kar diya gaya tha.[7]

1818 mein sar Thomas staimaford raifals ko benakoolen par british colony ke lieutenant Governor ke roop mein niyukt kiya gaya. ve is baat ke liye pratibaddh the ki great Britain ko dveepasamooh mein prabhutvashaali shakti ke roop mein Netherland ki jagah leni chaahiye, kyonki cheen aur british Bhaarat ke beech vah vyaapaar maarg dveepasamooh se hokar gujarata tha, jo cheen ke saath afeem ke vyaapaar ki shuruaat ki drushti se atyant mahatvapoorn ho gaya tha. dach log dach-niyantrit bandaragaahon mein angrejon ki gatividhiyon par rok lagaakar ya unhein bhaari tairif dene ke liye majaboor kar is kshetr mein british vyaapaar ka gala ghont rahe the. raifals ne malakka ke jaladamaroomadhya ke saath ek nae bandargaah ki sthaapana kar dach logon ko chunauti dene ki aasha vyakt ki thi, jo Bhaarat-cheen vyaapaar ke liye jahaajon ke gujarane ka pramukh maarg tha. unhonne Bhaarat ke Governor-general aur british East India company mein apne varishth adhikaari Lord hestings ko kshetr mein ek naya british aadhaar banaane ke ek abhiyaan ko vittaposhit karne ke liye raaji kar liya.[7]

raifals ki pratima; Thomas voolnar dvaara banaai gayi yeh pratima ab Singapore mein usi sthaan par khadi hai jahaan 1819 mein raifals aaye the.

raifals 29 January 1819 ko Singapore aaye aur sheegra hi is dweep ko nae bandargaah ke liye ek svaabhaavik pasand ke roop mein maanyata de di. yeh malakka jaladamaroomadhya ke nikat malaya praayadveep ke dakshini chhor par sthit hai aur yahaan ek praakrutik gahra bandargaah, taaje paani ki aapoorti aur jahaajon ki marammat ke liye lakadiyaan upalabdh hain. raifals ko ek chhoti si malaya basti mili jiski aabaadi kuchh saikadon mein thi, yeh Singapore nadi ke muhaane par sthit thi jiska mukhiya temeingong abdur Rahman tha. dweep par johor ke sultaan teingkoo Rahman ka naam maatr ka shaasan tha jis par dach aur bugis logon dvaara niyantran kar liya gaya tha. haalaanki, saltanat ko guteeya vibhaajan se kamjor kar diya gaya tha aur temeingong abdur Rahman tatha uske adhikaari teingkoo Rahman ke bade bhaai teingkoo husain (ya teingkoo laang) ke prati vafaadaar the jo nirvaasit hokar riyaaoo mein rah rahe the. temeingong ki madad se raifals husain ko taskari ke jariye Singapore vaapas laane mein kaamayaab rahe. unhonne husain ko johor ke asli sulataan ke roop mein maanyata dene ka prastaav rakha aur unke liye vaarshik bhugataan ki vyavastha ki; badle mein husain ne angrejon ko Singapore mein ek vaanijyik bandargaah ki sthaapana karne ka adhikaar diya.[7] 6 fravari 1819 ko ek aupachaarik sandhi par hastaakshar kiya gaya aur is tarah aadhunik Singapore ka janm hua.[8][9]

praarambhik pragati (1819-1826)

Singapore shahar ki yojana, jise saamaanyat: Jackson yojana ya raifals yojana ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

raifals sandhi par hastaakshar kiye jaane ke fauran baad benakoolen laut aaye aur major William farakuhar ko kuchh topon aur bhaarateeya sainikon ki ek chhoti si tukadi ke saath nayi basti ka prabhaari banaakar vahaan chhod diya. ek bikhre dhaanche (skraich) se vaanijyik bandargaah ki sthaapana karna ek chunauteepoorn prayaas tha. farakuhar prashaasan ko uchit roop se vitt poshit kiya gaya aur raajasv jutaane ke liye bandargaah shulk jama karne se rok diya gaya kyonki raifals ne yeh tay kiya tha ki Singapore ek ni:shulk bandargaah hoga. in kathinaaiyon ke baavajood nai colony teji se viksit hui. jaise hi ni:shulk bandargaah ki khabar poore dveepasamooh mein faili, bugis, peraanaakan cheeni aur arab vyaapaari dweep ki or unmukh hue jo dach logon ke vyaapaarik pratibandhon ko darakinaar karna chaahate the. sanchaalan ke praarambhik varsh ke dauraan 400,000 dollar (Spanish dollar) ke moolya ka vyaapaar Singapore se hokar gujara. 1821 tak is dweep ki aabaadi 5,000 ke aas-paas pahunch gayi thi aur vyaapaar ki maatra 8 million dollar thi. 1825 mein aabaadi 10,000 ke aankade tak pahunch gayi aur 22 million dollar ki vyaapaar maatra ke saath Singapore lambe samay se sthaapit penaang bandargaah se aage nikal gaya.[7]

raifals 1822 mein Singapore mein laut aae aur farakuhar ke kai faisalon ke aalochak ban gaye, iske baavajood ki farakuhar ne basti ke shuruaati mushkil varshon mein iska netrutv karne mein kaamayaabi haasil ki thi. farakuhar ne logon ko Singapore mein basane ke liye aamantrit kiya. unhonne gujarane vaale jahaajon ko Singapore mein rukane ke liye aamantrit karne ke uddeshya se seint jons dweep par ek angrej adhikaari ko bhi tainaat kiya. iske alaava unhonne pratyek choohe aur seinteepeed ko maarane ke liye dhanaraashi ki peshakash ki kyonki ye vinaashakaari jeev praarambhik nivaasiyon ke liye mushkil paida kar rahe the.[10] atyaavashyak raajasv jutaane ke kram mein farakuhar ne juaa aur afeem ki bikri ke liye license bechana shuroo kar diya jise raifals saamaajik buraaiyon ke roop mein dekhte the. colony ki avyavastha par hairaan raifals ne basti ke liye nai neetiyon ke ek set ke aalekhan ka nishchaya kiya. unhonne raifals plaan of Singapore ke tahat Singapore ko kaaryaatmak aur jaateeya sabadivijnon mein sangathit kiya.[7] is sangathan ke avashesh aaj bhi jaateeya padosi kshetron mein paae ja sakte hain.

7 June 1823 ko raifals ne sultaan aur temeingong ke saath ek doosari sandhi par hastaakshar kiya jisne is dweep ke jyaadaatar hisson mein angreji adhiptya ka vistaar kar diya. sultaan aur temeingong ne dweep ke apne adhikaaainsh prashaasanik adhikaaron ka vyaapaar kiya jismein kramash: 1500 dollar aur 800 dollar ke aajeevan maasik bhugataan par bandargaah karon ka sangrah bhi shaamil tha. is samjhaute ne dweep ko british kaanoon ke adheen kar diya jismein praavadhaan tha ki yeh malaya rivaajon, paranparaaon aur dharm ko dhyaan mein rakhega.[7] raifals ne farakuhar ki jagah John kraufard ko nae Governor ke roop mein niyukt kiya jo ek kushal aur mitvyayi prashaasak tha.[11] October 1823 mein raifals Britain chale gaye aur kabhi Singapore vaapas naheen laute kyonki 44 varsh ki umr mein 1826 mein unka nidhan ho gaya tha.[12] 1824 mein sultaan ne Singapore ki satta sada ke liye East India company ko saunp di.

jaladamaroomadhya ki bastiyaan (1826-1867)

thiyn hauk keing, jise 1842 mein poora kiya gaya, shuruaati pravaasiyon ke liye ek pooja ke sthaan ke roop mein kaarya karta tha.
chaainaataaun ki ek gali mein sthit dukaan-ghar jinhein pun: bahaal kiya gaya hai; jo Singapore mein pehle ke aupaniveshik kaal ke dauraan nirmit bhavanon ki viktoriyn vaastukala ko darshaata hai; rangi gayi mahilaaon ki shaili ko bhi dekha ja sakta hai.

Singapore mein ek british chauki ki sthaapana par shuruaat mein sandeh vyakt kiya gaya tha kyonki dach sarkaar ne sheegra hi apne prabhaav kshetr ka ullanghan karne ke liye Britain ka virodh kiya tha. lekin jis tarah Singapore teji se ek mahatvapoorn vyaapaarik post ke roop mein ubhara, Britain ne dweep par apna daava majaboot kar liya. ek british adhikaar kshetr ke roop mein Singapore ki sthiti ko 1824 ki englo-dach sandhi dvaara majabooti di gayi jisne malaya dweep samooh ko do aupaniveshik shaktiyon ke beech baaaint diya jismein Singapore sahit malakka jaladamaroomadhya ka uttari kshetr Britain ke adhikaar kshetr ke antargat aa gaya. 1826 mein Singapore ko penaang aur malakka ke saath samooheekrut kar jaladamaroomadhya ki bastiyon ka nirmaan kiya gaya jin par british East India company ka niyantran ho gaya. 1830 mein jaladamaroomadhya ki bastiyaan british Bhaarat mein Bengal preseedensi ki ek rejeedeinsi ya sabadivijn ban gayeen.[13]

baad ke dashakon ke dauraan Singapore is kshetr mein ek mahatvapoorn bandargaah ban gaya. iski safalta ke kai kaaran the jismein cheen mein baajaar ka khulana, samudragaami bhaap ke jahaajon (steemaship) ka aagaman aur malaya mein rabad evam tin ka utpaadan shaamil tha.[14] ek ni:shulk bandargaah ke roop mein iski sthiti ne baataaviya (Jakarta) aur Manila mein anya aupaniveshik bandargaah shaharon par ise mahatvapoorn badhat pradaan kiya jahaan tairif lagaae jaate the, isne dakshin-poorv Asia mein kaam karne vaale kai cheeni, malaya, bhaarateeya aur arab vyaapaariyon ko Singapore ki or aakarshit kiya. baad mein 1869 mein svej nahar ke khul jaane se Singapore mein vyaapaar ko aur adhik badhaava mila. 1880 tak 1.5 million tan se adhik saamagriyaan prativrsh Singapore se hokar gujaraati theen jinmein se lagbhag 80% kaargo ka parivhan steemaship dvaara hota tha.[15] mukhya vyaavasaayik gatividhi entreeport (entrepôaat) vyaapaar ke roop mein thi jo karaadhaan rahit aur nyoonatam pratibandh ke antargat kaafi teji se nikhra. kai vyaapaari gharaanon ki sthaapana Singapore mein hui jo mukhyat: Europeeya vyaapaar companiyon dvaara ki gayi thi lekin ismein yahoodi, cheeni, arab, armeniyaai, ameriki aur bhaarateeya vyaapaari bhi shaamil the. kai cheeni bichauliye bhi the jinhonne Europeeya aur Asiaee vyaapaariyon ke beech adhikaansh vyaapaar ka sanchaalan kiya.[13]

1827 tak cheeni Singapore mein sabse bade jaateeya samooh ban gaye the. inmein peraanaakan shaamil the jo pehle ke cheeni nivaasiyon ke vanshaj the aur cheeni kooli jo afeem yuddhon ke kaaran dakshini cheen mein aarthik sankat se bachakar Singapore bhaag aaye the. kai log gareeb anubandhit majadooron ke roop mein Singapore pahunche the aur ve mukhya roop se purush the. 1860 ke dashak tak malaayi doosare sabse bade jaateeya samooh ban gaye the aur unhonne machhuaaron, kaareegaron ya majadooron ke roop mein jyaadaatar kampung mein nirantar rahakar kaam karte the. 1860 tak bhaarateeya doosare sabse bade jaateeya samooh ban gaye. unamein akushal majadoor, vyaapaari aur aise aparaadhi shaamil the jinhein jangalon ki safaai aur sadkein bichhaane jaise saarvajanik nirmaan pariyojanaaon ko poora karne ke liye bheja gaya tha. ismein bhaarateeya sipaahi dal bhi shaamil the jinhein angrejon dvaara Singapore mein morchaabandi ke roop mein tainaat kiya gaya tha.[13]

Singapore ke badhte mahatva ke baavajood dweep par shaasan karne wala prashaasan aparyaapt karmachaari se grast, nishprabhaavi aur janta ke kalyaan ke prati udaaseen tha. prashaasakon ko aam taur par Bhaarat se tainaat kiya jaata tha aur ye sthaaneeya sanskruti evam bhaashaaon se aparichit the. haalaanki 1830 se 1867 ke dauraan aabaadi chaar guna badh gayi thi, Singapore mein civil seva ka aakaar aparivrtit raha tha. adhikaansh logon ko saarvajanik svaasthya sevaaen upalabdh naheen theen aur vishesh roop se bheed-bhaad vaale kaamkaaji-varg ke kshetron mein haija (kaulera) aur chechak (smaul pauks) jaisi beemaariyaan gambhir svaasthya samasyaaon ka kaaran bani theen.[13] prashaasan ke nishprabhaavi aur mukhya roop se purush, kshanik aur ashikshit prakruti ki aabaadi hone ke parinaam svaroop samaaj kaanoon ki avamaanana karne wala aur araajak ho gaya tha. 1850 mein lagbhag 60,000 logon ke shahar mein keval baarah police adhikaari maujood the. veshyaavrutti, juaa aur maadak padaarthon ka sevan (vishesh roop se afeem ka) bade paimaane par ho raha tha. cheeni aaparaadhik gupt samaaj (aadhunik samay ke traayads ki tarah) atyant shaktishaali thi aur inmein se kuchh ke paas dasiyon hajaar sadasya maujood the. pratidvandvi samaajon ke beech sangharsh ke yuddhon ke kaaran kabhi-kabhi saikadon logon ki maut ho jaati thi aur unhein dabaane ke prayaason ko seemit safalta hi haath lagti thi.[16]

kraaun colony (1867-1942)

1888 ke Singapore ka jarman maanachitr

Singapore ki nirantar pragati ke saath-saath jaladamaroomadhya ki bastiyon mein prashaasan ki naakaami gambhir hoti gayi aur Singapore ke vyaapaari samudaaya ne british Bhaarat ke shaasan ke khilaaf aandolan karna shuroo kar diya. 1 April 1867 ko british sarkaar jaladamaroomadhya ki bastiyon ki sthaapana ek alag kraaun colony ke roop mein karne par sahamat hui. is nai colony ko London mein sthit ek aupaniveshik kaaryaalaya ke paryavekshan ke tahat ek Governor dvaara shaasit kiya gaya. Governor ko ek kaaryakaari parishad aur ek vidhaayi parishad ka sahayog mila tha.[17] haalaanki parishad ke sadasya chune naheen jaate the, sthaaneeya aabaadi ke aur adhik pratinidhiyon ko dheere-dheere kai varshon mein shaamil kiya gaya tha.

aupaniveshik sarkaar dvaara un gambhir saamaajik samasyaaon se nipatne ke liye kai upaaya shuroo kiye gaye jinka saamana Singapore ko karna pad raha tha. cheeni samudaaya ki jarooraton ko poora karne, vishesh roop se kooli vyaapaar ki buri gaaliyon par niyantran karne aur cheeni mahilaaon ko jabaran veshyaavrutti ke liye majaboor karne se rokane ke liye 1877 mein pikring ke tahat ek cheeni sanrakshit raajya ki sthaapana ki gayi.[17] 1889 mein Governor sar sesil klemeinti smith ne gupt samaajon ko pratibandhit kar diya jisse unhein bhoomigat ho jaana padau॰[17] fir bhi, yuddhoparaant kaal mein kai saamaajik samasyaaen bani raheen jismein ek gambhir aavaaseeya kami aur kharaab svaasthya aur jeevan star bhi shaamil tha. 1906 mein ek kraantikaari cheeni sangathan tongmeinghui ne King raajavansh ko ukhaad feinkane mein pratibaddhata dikhaai aur san yaat-sen ke netrutv mein Singapore mein apni naanyaang shaakha ki sthaapana ki, jisne dakshin poorv-Asia mein sangathan ke mukhyaalaya ke roop mein kaam kiya.[17] Singapore mein aapravaasi cheeni aabaadi ne tongmeinghui ko udaarata se daan diya jisne 1911 ki jinhaai kraanti ko sangathit kiya jo cheeni ganaraajya ki sthaapana ka kaaran bana.

ek vyast Victoria dauk, taajong paagar, 1890 dashak mein.

Singapore pratham vishv yuddh (1914-1918) se adhik prabhaavit naheen hua tha kyonki yeh sangharsh dakshin-poorv Asia tak naheen faila tha. yuddh ke dauraan ek maatr mahatvapoorn ghatna Singapore mein raksha-sainikon ke roop mein tainaat british muslim bhaarateeya sipaahiyon dvaara 1915 ke vidroh ke roop mein thi.[18] is tarah ki afavaahein sunane ke baad ki unhein turk saamraajya se ladne ke liye bheja jaana tha, sainikon ne vidroh kar diya, johor aur barma se aaye sainikon dvaara vidroh ko dabaaye jaane se pehle unhonne apne adhikaariyon aur kai british naagrikon ko maar diya.[19] yuddh ke baad, british sarkaar ne teji se mahatvaakaankshi ho rahe Japani saamraajya ke nivaarak ke roop mein Singapore mein ek nausena base banaane ke liye kaafi maatra mein mahatvapoorn sansaadhanon ko vahaan par bheja. 500 million dollar ki ek aashcharyajanak laagat se poora kiye gaye is nausena base ne us samay duniya ke sabse bade draai dauk ko kaafi had tak badhaava diya, yeh teesara sabse bada floting dauk tha aur yahaan poori british nausena ko chh: maheenon tak sahaayata dene vaale paryaapt indhan ke tank maujood the. yeh 15-inch ke nausena bandookon aur tenagaah air base par tainaat royal air fors skvaadranon dvaara surakshit tha. vinstan charchil ne "poorab ke jibraaltar" ka naam diya tha. durbhaagya se yeh ek jahaaji beda rahit base tha. Britain hom fleet Europe mein tainaat tha aur jaroorat padne par ise turant Singapore bhejane ki yojana banaayi gayi thi. haalaanki, 1939 mein dviteeya vishv yuddh chhidne ke baad fleet par pratirkshi Britain dvaara poori tarah kabja kar liya gaya.[20]

Singapore ke liye ladaai aur Japani adhikaar (1942-1945)

8 fravari 1942 ko ek Japani havaai hamle dvaara pahunchaai gayi kshati.in havaai hamlon mein kai naagrik maare gaye the.

7 December 1941 ko Japan ne parl haarbar par hamla kar diya aur prashaant yuddh ki vaastavik shuruaat ho gayi. Japan ke uddeshyon mein se ek dakshin-poorv Asia par kabja karna aur apni sainya evam audyogik jarooraton ko poora karne ke liye praakrutik sansaadhanon ki prachur maatra mein aapoorti surakshit karna tha. Singapore, jo is kshetr mein mitr deshon ka mukhya aadhaar tha, yeh ek pratyaksh sainya lakshya tha. Singapore mein british sena ke commanderon ka maanana tha ki Japani aakraman dakshin se samudra maarg se hoga, kyonki uttar mein ghane malaayi jungle aakraman ke khilaaf ek praakrutik baadha ka kaam kareinge. haalaanki angrejon ne uttari malaaya par hamle se nipatne ke liye ek yojana ka khaaka taiyaar kar liya tha lekin iski taiyaari kabhi poori naheen hui. sena ko poora vishvaas tha ki "Singapore kila" kisi bhi Japani hamle se surakshit rahega aur yeh vishvaas Singapore ki raksha ke liye bheje gaye british yuddhapoton ke ek squadron, fors Z ke saath-saath echaemaes prince of vels aur cruiser echaemaes reepals aane se aur sudrudh ho gaya. squadron ko ek teesari kaipitl ship, vimaan vaahak echaemaes inadomitebal ke saath istemaal kiya jaana tha, lekin yeh squadron ko havaai kavar ke bina chhodkar apne maarg mein hi dharati par fans gaya.

8 December 1941 ko Japani sena uttari malaaya mein kota bhaaru mein utari. malaaya par aakraman ki shuruaat ke sirf do din baad Japani sena ke bamavarshakon aur taarapeedo hamlaavar vimaanon ke hamle se pahaang mein kuaantaan ke tat se 50 meal ki doori par prince of vels aur reepals samudra mein doob gaya, jo dviteeya vishv yuddh mein british nausena ki sabse buri haar thi. donon kaipitl jahaajon ki suraksha ke liye mitr deshon ki havaai sahaayata samay par naheen pahunch pai thi.[21] is ghatna ke baad Singapore aur malaaya ko har din havaai hamlon ka saamana karna pada jismein aspataalon ya vyaavasaayik parisaron jaise naagrik sanrachanaaon ko nishaana banaaya jaana shaamil tha jiske kaaran pratyek baar dasiyon se lekar saikadon logon ki jaanein jaati theen.

Japani sena mitr deshon ke pratirodh ko kuchalate aur darakinaar karte hue malaya praayadveep se hokar teji se dakshin ki or badhi.[22] mitr deshon ki senaaon ke paas tank naheen the jise ve ushnakatibandheeya varshaavanon mein anupayukt maanate the aur unki paidal sena Japani laait tainkon ke viruddh shaktiheen saabit ho rahi thi. choonki unka pratirodh Japani badhat ke khilaaf vifal raha tha, mitr deshon ki senaaon ko Singapore ki or dakshin disha mein vaapasi ke liye majaboor hona padau॰ 31 January 1942 tak aakraman ke aarambh hone ke sirf 55 dinon ke baad jaapaaniyon ne poore malaya praayadveep par vijay praapt kar liya tha aur Singapore par hamle ke liye taiyaar the.[23]

ek Japani adhikaari ke netrutv mein lieutenant general aarthar persivl 15 fravari 1942 ko sangharsh viraam ke jhande ke tahat Singapore mein mitr deshon ki senaaon ki paraajaya par baatcheet ke liye March karte hue.yeh itihaas mein british netrutv waali senaaon ka sabse bada aatmasamarpan tha.

johor aur Singapore ko jodne waali pakki sadak ko mitr deshon ki senaaon ne Japani sena ko rokane ke ek prayaas mein uda diya tha. haalaanki Japani kai dinon ke baad hava waali naavon mein baithakar johor ke jaladamaroo ko paar karne mein kaamayaab rahe. aage badh rahe jaapaaniyon ke khilaaf mitr deshon ki senaaon aur Singapore ki aabaadi ke svayansevakon dvaara veerataapoorn ladaaiyaan jaise ki pasir panjaang ki ladaai isi avadhi ke dauraan hui theen.[24] haalaanki, jyaadaatar raksha pankti bikhr gayi thi aur aapoorti vyavastha charamara gayi thi, lieutenant-general aarthar parsivl ne mitr deshon ki senaaon ke liye impeeriyl Japani sena ke general tomoyuki yaamaashita ke saamane cheeni navavarsh ke din 15 fravari 1942 ko Singapore mein aatmasamarpan kar diya. lagbhag 130000 bhaarateeya, Australiaee aur british sainik yuddhabandi ban gaye, jinmein se kai logon ko baad mein das majadooron ke roop mein "hel ships" kahe jaane vaale kaidi parivhan vaahanon ke maadhyam se barma, Japan, Korea ya manchooriya le jaaya gaya. Singapore ka patan itihaas mein angreji-netrutv waali senaaon ka sabse bada aatmasamarpan tha.[25]

Singapore ka naya naam syonaan-to (昭aa南aa岛 shonaan-to (Shōanan-tō) Japani mein "laait of the south aailaind (dakshini dweep ka prakaash)" diya gaya jis par 1942 se 1945 tak jaapaaniyon ka kabja bana raha. Japani sena ne sthaaneeya aabaadi ke khilaaf kade upaaya kiye jismein sainikon, vishesh roop se kempeetaai ya Japani sainya police cheeni aabaadi ke saath khaas taur par kroorata se pesh aa rahe the.[26] sabse ullekhaneeya kroorata cheeni naagrikon ke sook ching narasanhaar ke roop mein thi jo cheen mein yuddh ke prayaas mein samarthan ke khilaaf ek javaabi kaarravaai thi. saamoohik maut (faansi) mein malaaya aur Singapore mein 25,000 aur 50,000 ke beech logon ki jeevan leela samaapt kar di gayi. bache hui aabaadi ko Japani kabje ke poore saadhe teen varshon mein gambhir kathinaaiyon ka saamana karna pada.[27]

yuddhoparaant ki avadhi (1945-1955)

15 August 1945 ko mitr raashtron ke saamane jaapaaniyon ke aatmasamarpan ke baad Singapore araajakata ki sthiti mein aa gaya; lootpaat aur prati-hinsa bade paimaane par fail gayi thi. dakshin-poorv Asia kamaan ke mitr deshon ke Supreme commander Lord luis maauntabetan ke netrutv mein british sainik general hisaaichi teraauchi ki or se general itaagaaki shishiro se is kshetr mein Japani sena se aupachaarik aatmasamarpan praapt karne ke liye 12 September 1945 ko Singapore vaapas laute aur March 1946 tak dweep par shaasan ke liye ek british sainya prashaasan ka gathan kiya. yuddh ke dauraan bijli aur paani ki aapoorti pranaaliyon, telephone sevaaon ke saath-saath Singapore bandargaah par bandargaah suvidhaaon sahit adhikaansh buniyaadi suvidhaaon ko nasht kar diya gaya. vahaan bhojan ki bhi kami ho gayi jo kuposhan, beemaari aur aniyantrit aparaadh evam hinsa ke badhne ka kaaran ban gaya. khaadya-saamagriyon ki atyadhik keematein, berojgaari aur majadooron ke asantosh ki paraakaashtha 1947 mein hamlon ki ek shrrunkhala ke roop mein dekhi gayi jiske kaaran saarvajanik parivhan aur anya sevaaon mein bade paimaane par avarodh utpann hua. 1947 ke uttaraarddh tak arthavyavastha mein sudhaar hona shuroo ho gaya jismein duniya bhar se tin aur rabad ki badhti maang ne kaafi yogadaan diya lekin arthavyavastha ke yuddh se poorv ki sthiti mein vaapas lautane mein kai aur saal lag gaye.[28]

Singapore ki raksha karne mein Britain ki vifalta ne Singapore vaasiyon ki najar mein ek Ajay shaasak ke roop mein iski vishvasaneeyata ko nasht kar diya tha. yuddh ke baad ke dashakon mein sthaaneeya janta ke beech ek raajanaitik jaagruti dekhi gayi aur mardeka ya malaya bhaasha mein "aajaadi" ke naaron ke prateek se upanivesh-virodhi aur raashtravaadi bhaavanaaon ka ubhaar hua. british apni or se Singapore aur malaya ke liye dheere-dheere sv-shaasan ko badhaava dene ke liye taiyaar the.[28] 1 April 1946 ko jaladamaroo ki bastiyon ko bhang kar diya gaya aur Singapore ek alag kraaun colony ban gaya jahaan ek Governor ke netrutv mein naagrik prashaasan kaayam ho gaya. July 1947 mein alag kaaryakaari aur vidhaan parishdon ki sthaapana ki gayi aur agale varsh vidhaan parishad ke chhah sadasyon ke chunaav ki adhisoochana jaari kar di gayi.[29]

pehla vidhaan parishad (1948-1951)

March 1948 mein aayojit Singapore ka pehla chunaav seemit tha kyonki ismein vidhaan parishad ke pachchees seaton mein se keval chh: seaton ko nirvaachit kiya jaana tha. keval british logon ko vote karne ka adhikaar tha aur yogya logon mein se keval 23,000 ya lagbhag 10% hi vote dene ke liye panjeekrut the. parishad ke anya sadasyon ko ya to raajyapaal dvaara ya vyaapaar mandal dvaara chuna gaya tha.[28] nirvaachit seaton mein se teen seaton par nav-gathit Singapore progressive party (esapeepi) ne jeet haasil ki thi jo ek roodhivaadi party thi jinke neta vyaapaari aur peshevar log the aur tatkaal sv-shaasan ke liye dabaav daalne ke prati anichhuk the. anya teen seaton ko nirdaleeya ne jeeta tha.

chunaavon ke teen maheene ke baad malaya mein saamyavaadi samoohon dvaara ek sashastr vidroh - malaayi aapaatakaal - chhid gaya. angrejon ne Singapore aur malaya donon jagah vaam-panthi samoohon ko niyantrit karne ke kade upaaya kiye aur vivaadaaspad aatanrik suraksha kaanoon laagoo kiya jisne "suraksha ke liye khatra" banane vaale sandigdh vyaktiyon ke liye sunavaai ke bina anishchitkaaleen kaaraavaas ki anumati de di. choonki vaamapanthi samooh aupaniveshik pranaali ke sabse majaboot aalochak the, sv-shaasan ki pragati kai saalon ke liye thap pad gayi.[28]

doosra vidhaan parishad (1951-1955)

vidhaan parishad ka doosra chunaav 1951 mein aayojit kiya gaya jab nirvaachit seaton ki sankhya badhaakar nau kar di gayi. is chunaav mein bhi ek baar fir esapeepi ka varchasv raha jisne chhah seatein jeeti. haalaanki isne ek vishisht sthaaneeya Singapore ki sarkaar ke gathan mein yogadaan diya, aupaniveshik prashaasan abhi bhi prabhaavi tha. 1953 mein malaaya mein saamyavaadiyon (kamyuniston) ko daba diye jaane aur aapaatakaal ki sabse buri sthiti ke samaapt hone ke saath sar George reindel ke netrutv mein ek british aayog ne Singapore ke liye ek seemit svaroop ke sv-shaasan ka prastaav rakha. battees seaton mein se lokapriya chunaav dvaara chune gaye pachchees seaton ki ek nayi vidhaan sabha ne vidhaan parishad ki jagah li jisse ek sansadeeya pranaali ke tahat sarkaar ke mukhiya ke roop mein ek mukhyamantri aur mantrimandal ke roop mein mantri parishad ka chayan kiya gaya. angrejon ne aantarik suraksha aur videshi maamalon jaise kshetron par apna niyantran aur kaanoon par apne veto ko adhikaar ko banaae rakha.

vidhaan sabha ke liye chunaav 2 April 1955 ko aayojit kiye gaye jo ek najadeeki-mukaabale ka maamala tha jismein kai nayi raajaneetik paartiyon ne chunaav mein hissa liya. pichhle chunaavon ke vipreet matadaataaon ko svachaalit roop se panjeekrut kiya gaya jisse matadaataaon ki sankhya badhkar 300,000 ke aaspaas ho gayi. chunaav mein esapeepi ko buri tarah haar ka saamana karna pada jo keval chaar seatein hi jeet paayi. navagathit, vaam-dhaara ki left frant party sabse bade vijeta ke roop mein ubhari jisne das seatein jeeti aur teen seaton par jeet haasil karne vaale yooemaenao-MCA gathabandhan ke saath milkar gathabandhan-sarkaar ka gathan kiya.[28] ek anya nai party, vaamapanthi people's action party (peeepi) ne teen seaton par jeet haasil ki thi.

sv-shaasan (1955-1963)

aanshik aantarik sv-shaasan (1955-1959)

chitr:DavidMarshall.jpg
David maarshal yahaaain apni safed bush-jacket waali raajaneetik poshaak ko pahane hue dikhaae gaye hain, ek hathaude ke saath.

left frant ke neta Dawood maarshal Singapore ke pehle mukhyamantri bane. unhonne ek asthir sarkaar ka sanchaalan kiya jismein unhein aupaniveshik sarkaar ya anya sthaaneeya paartiyon se koi khaas sahayog praapt naheen hua. saamaajik ashaanti badh rahi thi aur May 1955 mein hauk li bas dange bhadak uthe jismein chaar logon ki hatya kar di gayi aur maarshal ki sarkaar ko gambhir roop se avishvasaneeya bana diya gaya.[30] 1956 mein cheeni haai school aur anya schoolon mein cheeni middle school ke dange bhadak gaye jisse sthaaneeya sarkaar aur cheeni chhaatron evam sanghavaadiyon ke beech tanaav aur adhik badh gaya, sanghavaadiyon ko saamyavaadiyon ke prati sahaanubhooti rakhane wala maana jaata tha.

April 1956 mein maarshal ne mardeka vaarta mein poorn sv-shaasan ki baatcheet karne ke liye London jaane vaale ek pratinidhimandal ka netrutv kiya, lekin jab angrej Singapore ki aantarik suraksha par niyantran chhodne ke khilaaf ho gaye to yeh vaarta vifal ho gayi. angrej communist prabhaav aur majadooron ke hadtaalon ko lekar chintit the jo Singapore ki aarthik sthirta ko khokhala kar rahe the, unhonne yeh mahasoos kiya ki sthaaneeya sarkaar isse pehle ke dangon se nipatne mein aprabhaavi rahi thi. vaarta ki vifalta ke baad maarshal ne isteefa de diya.

nae mukhyamantri lim ev hauk ne communist aur vaamapanthi samoohon ke khilaaf ek kaanooni kaarravaai shuroo ki jismein aantarik suraksha kaanoon ke tahat kai trade union netaaon aur peeepi ke kai communist samarthak sadasyon ko kaid kar liya gaya.[31] british sarkaar ne saamyavaadi aandolanakaariyon ke khilaaf sakht rukh ko maanyata di aur March 1957 mein jab vaarta ka ek naya daur aayojit kiya gaya to vah poorn sv-shaasan pradaan karne par sahamat ho gayi. iske anusaar, ek Singapore pradesh ka nirmaan apni swayam ki naagarikta ke saath kiya jaaega. vidhaan sabha ke sadasyon ki sankhya badhaakar ikyaavan kar di jaaegi jinhein lokapriya chunaav dvaara chuna jaaega aur raksha evam videshi maamalon ko chhodkar sarkaar ke sabhi pahaluon par pradhaanamantri evam mantrimandal ka niyantran hoga. Governor ke prashaasan ki jagah ek yaang di-partuaan negaara ya raajya ke pramukh ki vyavastha ki gayi. August 1958 mein Singapore pradesh (state of Singapore) ki sthaapana ki vyavastha ke liye United Kingdom ki sansad mein Singapore pradesh adhiniyam (state of Singapore act) paarit kiya gaya.[31]

poorn aantarik sv-shaasan (1959-1963)

nayi vidhaan sabha ke liye chunaav May 1959 mein aayojit kiye gaye. people's action party (peeepi) ne ikyaavan seaton mein se taintaalees seatein jeetkar chunaavon mein ek badi jeet haasil ki. unhonne yeh kaamayaabi cheeni-bhaashi bahumat, vishesh roop se majadoor sanghon aur kattarpanthi chhaatr sangathanon ko mana kar haasil ki. unke neta li kuaan you, jo ek yuva Cambridge-shikshit vakeel tha, Singapore ke pehle pradhaanamantri bane.

peeepi ki jeet ko videshi aur sthaaneeya vyaapaar jagat ke netaaon dvaara niraasha ke saath dekha gaya tha kyonki party ke kuchh sadasya communist samarthak the. kai vyavasaayon ne turant apne mukhyaalayon ko Singapore se kuaalaalampur sthaanaantarit kar liya.[31] in ashubh sanketon ke baavajood peeepi sarkaar ne Singapore ke vibhinn aarthik aur saamaajik samasyaaon se nipatne ke liye ek prabhaavashaali kaaryakram shuroo kar diya. aarthik vikaas ki dekharekh ki jimmedaari nae vitt mantri goh keing svi ne sambhaali jinki rananeeti karon mein chhoot se lekar jurong mein ek bade audyogik estate ki sthaapana tak ke upaayon ke jariye videshi aur sthaaneeya nivesh ko protsaahit karne ki thi.[31] ek kushal kaaryabal ko prashikshit karne ke liye shiksha pranaali ka punaruddhaar kiya gaya aur cheeni bhaasha ki jagah angreji bhaasha ko shikshan ki bhaasha ke roop mein prayog karne ko badhaava diya gaya. sarkaar ki or se ek majaboot nireekshan ke saath majadooron ki ashaanti ko samaapt karne ke liye maujooda majdoor sanghon ko, kai baar bal poorvak, ek ekal chhaata sangathan ke roop mein sudrudh kiya gaya jise national trade union Congress (enateeyoosi) ka naam diya gaya. saamaajik morche par lambe samay se maujood aavaas ki samasya ka samaadhaan karne ke liye ek aakraamak aur behtar-vittaposhit saarvajanik aavaaseeya kaaryakram ki shuruaat ki gayi. kaaryakram ke pehle do varshon ke dauraan 25,000 se adhik gaganachunbi, kam laagat waali imaaraton ka nirmaan kiya gaya.[31]

vilay ke liye abhiyaan

chitr:Merdeka Singapore 1955.jpg
17 August 1955 ko faarer park mein people's action party ki mardeka rally.

Singapore par shaasan karne mein apni safalataaon ke baavajood li aur goh sahit peeepi netaaon ka maanana tha ki Singapore ka bhavishya malaaya ke saath juda hua hain. unhonne mahasoos kiya ki Singapore aur malaaya ke beech aitihaasik aur aarthik sambandh itne majaboot the ki unhein alag raashtron ke roop mein banaae rakhana sambhav naheen tha, isliye unhonne donon ke vilay ke liye ek jordaar abhiyaan chalaaya. doosari or peeepi ki badi communist samarthak shaakha ne vilay ka jordaar virodh kiya jisne malaaya ki sattaaroodh party ke roop mein United malaayaaj national organization ka prabhaav kam hone ka dar paida kar diya tha jo nishthaapoorn dhang se communist-virodhi thi aur unke khilaaf peeepi ke gair-communist gut ka samarthan mil jaata. yooemaenao neta bhi peeepi sarkaar ke prati apne avishvaas aur un chintaaon ke kaaran vilay ke vichaar ko lekar aashankit the ki Singapore ki badi cheeni aabaadi jaateeya santulan ko bigaad sakti thi jis par unki raajaneetik shakti ka aadhaar nirbhar karta tha. 1961 mein yeh mudda pramukh ban gaya jab communist samarthak peeepi mantri ong eng guaan ne party se dalabadal kar liya aur baad ke up-chunaav mein ek peeepi ummeedavaar ko hara diya, yeh ek aisa kadam tha jisne li ki sarkaar ke girne ka khatra paida kar diya. kamyuniston samarthak dvaara adhigrahan ki sambhaavana ke maddenajar yooemaenao vilay par apne rukh se palat gayi. 27 May ko malaaya ke pradhaanamantri tunku abdul Rahman ne maujooda malaya federation, Singapore, brunei aur saba evam saravaak ke british borniyo kshetron ko milaakar Malaysia ke federation ka ek vichaar prastut kiya. yooemaenao ke netaaon ka maanana tha ki borniyo ke pradeshon mein atirikt malaya aabaadi Singapore ki cheeni aabaadi ko santulit kar degi.[31]

Malaysia ke prastaav ne peeepi ke bheetar naramapanthiyon aur communist samarthakon ke beech lambe samay se chal rahe sangharsh ko prajvalit kar diya. lim chin siyong ke netrutv mein communist samarthakon ne peeepi ki yojana ke tahat Malaysia mein pravesh ke khilaaf abhiyaan chhedne ke liye peeepi ko chhod kar ek nayi vipakshi party baarisn soshiylis (soshalist frant) ka gathan kar liya. javaab mein li ne vilay par ek janamat sangrah ka aahavaan kiya aur apne prastaav ke liye jordaar abhiyaan chalaaya jismein media par sarkaar ke majaboot prabhaav ka sahayog bhi praapt hua. baarisn soshiylis ne janamat sangrah ke prapatr ko khaali chhodne ke liye prerit kiya, kyonki unhonne socha tha ki inki ginti naheen ki jaaegi. 1 September 1962 ko aayojit janamat sangrah mein 70% maton ne vilay ke liye peeepi prastaav ka samarthan kiya. ismein khaali mat bhi shaamil the kyonki peeepi ne khaali maton ki ginti vikalp A (Singapore raashtreeya janamat sangrah, 1962) ke roop mein ki thi. isse baarisn soshiylis ke sadasya naaraaj ho gaye.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

2 fravari 1963 ko sanyukt aantarik suraksha parishad (intaranal sikyoriti kaaunsil) dvaara british aupaniveshik, maleshiyn Federal aur Singapore ki sarkaaron ke pratinidhiyon ko milaakar operation koldastor ke koot naam se ek vyaapaar suraksha vistaar shuroo kiya gaya, jismein lim chin siyong jaise pramukh baarisn soshiyaalis netaaon sahit sau se jyaada communist-samarthak kaaryakartaaon ko Singapore mein hiraasat mein liya gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

9 July 1963 ko Singapore, malaya, saba evam saravaak ke netaaon ne Malaysia federation ki sthaapana ke liye Malaysia samjhaute par hastaakshar kiya.[31]

Malaysia mein Singapore (1963-1965)

inhein bhi dekhein: PAP-UMNO relations evam History of Malaysia
chitr:Mmsia1.jpg
1963 mein Malaysia ke sangh ke gathan ko ek raashtreeya samaaroh ke roop mein manaate hain.

vilay

16 September 1963 ko malaaya, Singapore, saba evam saravaak ka aupachaarik roop se vilay kar diya gaya aur Malaysia ka gathan hua.[31] peeepi sarkaar ne mahasoos kiya ki ek raashtra ke roop mein Singapore ka astitv mushkil hoga. unke paas praakrutik sansaadhanon ka abhaav tha aur unhein ek girte punarniryaat vyaapaar aur ek badhti hui janasankhya ka saamana karna pad raha tha jiske liye rojagaar ki aavashyakta thi. isliye Singapore ne mahasoos kiya ki yeh vilay ek aam mukt baajaar banaakar, vyaapaar shulkon ko hataakar, berojgaari sankat ka sandhaan kar aur nae udyogon ka samarthan kar arthavyavastha ko faayda pahunchaane ke liye kiya gaya tha. british sarkaar Singapore ko poorn svatantrata dene ke prati anichhuk thi kyonki unka maanana tha ki yeh saamyavaad ke liye ek svarg ban jaaega.

sangh shuroo se hi kathor tha. 1963 mein Singapore ke pradesh chunaavon ke dauraan yooemaenao ki ek sthaaneeya shaakha ne Malaysia ke rachanaatmak varshon ke dauraan pradesh ki raajaneeti mein hissa naheen lene ke peeepi ke saath yooemaenao ke ek poorv samjhaute ke baavajood chunaavon mein hissa liya. haalaanki yooemaenao apni sabhi boliyaan haar gayi, yooemaenao aur peeepi ke beech sambandh bigad gaye kyonki peeepi ne jaise-ko-taisa ke tarj par 1964 ke sangheeya chunaaon mein maleshiyn solideriti kanveinshan ke ek hisse ke roop mein yooemaenao ke ummeedavaaron ko chunauti di aur maleshiyaai sansad mein ek seat par jeet haasil ki.

jaateeya tanaav

jaateeya tanaav badh gaye kyonki Singapore ke cheeniyon mein us sakaaraatmak kaarravaai ki sangheeya neetiyon dvaara bhedabhaav kiye jaane ke khilaaf ghruna fail gayi, jisne Malaysia ke samvidhaan ke anuchhed 153 ke tahat malayon ko vishesh visheshaadhikaar ki guaranty pradaan ki thi. iske alaava malayon ko praathamikta ke aadhaar par anya vitteeya aur aarthik laabh bhi diye gaye the. li kuaan you aur anya raajaneetik netaaon ne "maleshiyn Malaysia!" ke pradarshanakaari naare ke saath Malaysia mein sabhi jaatiyon ke saath uchit aur ek samaan vyavahaar ki vakaalat karna shuroo kar diya.

chitr:Kallangracialriot.gif
muhammad ke janmadin par nasleeya dangon ki shuruaat, jisme baad mein saikadon ghaayal hote hain aur 23 logon ki maut ho jaati hai.

is beech Singapore mein malaayi logon ko sangheeya sarkaar ke in aaropon ke jariye teji se ukasaaya ja raha tha ki peeepi malaayi logon ke saath bura bartaav kar rahi thi. baahari raajaneetik paristhiti bhi tanaavapoorn thi jab Indonesia ke raashtrapati sukarno ne Malaysia ke viruddh ek konfrontaasi (takaraav) ki sthiti ki ghoshana ki aur nae desh ke khilaaf sainya evam anya kaarravaaiyaan shuroo kar di jismein 10 March 1965 ko indoneshiyaai commando dvaara Singapore mein maikadonaald house par bamabaari ki ki ghatna shaamil thi jahaan teen log maare gaye the.[32] Indonesia ne malaai logon ko cheeniyon ke khilaaf bhadkaane ke liye vidrohi gatividhiyon ka bhi sahaara liya.[31] iske parinaam svaroop kai jaateeya dange hue aur vyavastha ko bahaal karne ke liye lagaataar curfew lagaae gaye. sabse kukhyaat dange 1964 ke jaateeya dange the jo pehli baar 21 July ko paiganbar muhammad ke janmadin par hue the jismein teis log maare gaye aur saikadon log ghaayal ho gaye the. ashaanti ke dauraan khaadya-saamagriyon ki keematein aasmaan chhoone lagi jab parivhan vyavastha ko baadhit kar diya gaya jiske kaaran logon ke liye aur adhik kathinaai paida ho gayi.

raajya aur sangheeya sarkaaron ne bhi aarthik morche par sangharsh kiya tha. yooemaenao netaaon ko yeh dar tha ki Singapore ka aarthik prabhutv raajaneetik satta ko anivaarya roop se kuaalaalampur se door le jaaega. ek saajha baajaar ki sthaapana ke pehle ke samjhaute ke baavajood Singapore ko shesh Malaysia ke saath vyaapaar karne mein nirantar pratibandhon ka saamana karna pada. javaabi kaarravaai mein Singapore ne saba aur saravaak ko donon poorvi pradeshon ke aarthik vikaas ke liye pehle se sahamat rin ki poori seema pradaan karne se inkaar kar diya. Singapore ke bank of China ki shaakha ko kuaala lampur ki kendra sarkaar dvaara band kar diya gaya kyonki is par cheen mein kamyuniston ko vittaposhit karne ka sandeh tha. paristhiti is kadar teevr hui ki vaarta sheegra hi samaapt ho gayi aur donon or se apamaanajanak baaton aur lekhanon ka daur shuroo ho gaya. yooemaenao ke charampanthiyon ne li kuaan you ki giraftaari ki maang kar di.

alagaav

aur adhik raktapaat se bachane ka koi anya vikalp naheen dekhkar Malaysia ke pradhaanamantri tunku abdul Rahman ne Singapore ko mahaasangh (federation) se nishkaasit karne ka nirnaya liya. 9 August 1965 ko Malaysia ki sansad ne nishkaasan ke paksh mein 126-0 se matadaan kiya. us din shokaakul li kuaan you ne ek television patrakaar sammelan mein ghoshana ki ki Singapore ek samprabhu, svatantr raashtra tha. ek vyaapak roop se sansmaraneeya vaktavya mein unhonne kaha tha ki: "mere liye, yeh ek vedana ka pal hai. meri poori jindagi, meri poori yuvaavastha mein, mainne donon pradeshon ke vilay aur ekta mein vishvaas kiya tha."[33] naya desh Singapore ganaraajya (ripblik of Singapore) ban gaya aur yoosuf bin ishaak pehle raashtrapati niyukt kiye gaye.[34]

Singapore ganaraajya (1965-varttamaan)

1965 se 1979

arthavyavastha ke audyogikeekaran ke liye jurong audyogik estate ko 1960 ke dashak mein viksit kiya gaya tha.

achaanak svatantrata praapt karne ke baad Singapore ko ek anishchittaaon se bhare bhavishya ka saamana karna pada. konfrontaasi jaari tha aur roodhivaadi yooemaenao gut ne alagaav ka drudhtaapoorvak virodh kiya; Singapore ko indoneshiyaai sena dvaara hamle ke khataron aur pratikool sharton par jabaran Malaysia federation mein ekeekaran ka saamana karna pada. Singapore ne turant apni samprabhuta ki antararaashtreeya maanyata ki maang ki. naya raashtra 21 September 1965 ko sanyukt raashtra mein shaamil ho gaya aur iska 117vaan sadasya ban gaya; aur usi varsh October mein yeh raashtramandal (Commonwealth) mein shaamil ho gaya. videsh mantri sinnaathaambi raajaratnam ne ek nai videsh seva ka netrutv kiya jisne Singapore ki svatantrata aur anya deshon ke saath raajanayik sambandh sthaapit karne par jor dene mein madad ki.[35] 22 December 1965 ko samvidhaan sanshodhan adhiniyam paarit kiya gaya jiske tahat raashtra ke pramukh raashtrapati ban gaye aur Singapore raashtra Singapore ganaraajya ban gaya. Singapore ne baad mein 8 August 1967 ko dakshin-poorv Asiaee raashtra sangh ki sah-sthaapana ki aur 1970 mein yeh gut-nirpeksh aandolan mein shaamil ho gaya.[36]

ek chhota sa dweep raashtra hone ke kaaran Singapore ko ek vyaavahaarik desh hone ke liye anupayukt ke roop mein dekha gaya aur adhikaansh antararaashtreeya media Singapore ke astitv ki sambhaavnaaon ko lekar ulajhan mein tha. samprabhuta ke mudde ke alaava berojgaari, aavaas, shiksha aur praakrutik sansaadhan evam jameen ki kami dabaav daalne waali samasyaaen theen.[37] berojgaari 10-12% ke beech thi jo naagrik ashaanti badhne ka khatra utpann ho gaya tha.

Singapore ke vinirmaan kshetr ko badhaava dene par dhyaan keindrit karte hue raashtreeya aarthik rananeetiyaan taiyaar karne aur inhein laagoo karne ke liye 1961 mein aarthik vikaas board ka gathan kiya gaya tha.[38] vishesh roop se jurong mein audyogik esteton ki sthaapana ki gayi thi aur karon mein chhoot se desh mein videshi nivesh ko aakarshit kiya gaya tha. audyogeekaran ne vinirmaan kshetr ko uchch moolya-vardhit vastuon ka utpaadan karne aur adhik se adhik raajasv praapt karne vaale kshetr mein badal diya tha. is dauraan bandargaah par upalabdh jahaajon dvaara di jaane waali sevaaon ki maang mein vruddhi aur vyaapaar badhne se seva udyog mein bhi achhi pragati hui. in pragatiyon ne berojgaari ke sankat ko kam karne mein madad ki. Singapore ne shel aur esso jaisi badi tel companiyon ko bhi Singapore mein tel rifaainariyon ki sthaapana ke liye aakarshit kiya jo 1970 ke dashak ke madhya tak duniya ka teesara sabse bada tel shodhan kendra ban gaya.[37] sarkaar ne ek aisi shiksha pranaali par bhaari nivesh kiya jisne angreji ko shikshan ki bhaasha ke roop mein apnaaya aur udyog ke liye anukool saksham kaaryabal ke vikaas ke liye prashikshan par jor diya tha.

behtar saarvajanik aavaas ki kami, kharaab svachhata aur uchch berojgaari ke kaaran aparaadh se lekar svaasthya samasyaaon tak kai saamaajik samasyaaen paida ho gayi theen. avaidh bastiyon ke prasaar ke parinaam svaroop suraksha sambandhi khatre paida ho gaye aur 1961 mein yeh bukit ho svi skvaitar agnikaand ka kaaran bana jismein chaar log maare gaye aur 16,000 anya log beghar ho gaye the.[39] svatantrata se pehle gathit aavaas vikaas board ko aage bhi kaafi had tak safalta milaati rahi aur avaidh bastiyon ke punarvaas ke liye kifaayati saarvajanik aavaas pradaan karne waali vishaal bhavan nirmaan pariyojanaaen kaafi teji se aage badheen. ek dashak ke bheetar adhikaansh aabaadi ko in apaartameinton mein aavaas ki vyavastha kar di gayi. 1968 mein keindreeya bhavishya nidhi (sentral provideint fund) (seepeeef) aavaaseeya yojana shuroo ki gayi jisne yahaaain ke nivaasiyon ko apne anivaarya bachat khaate ka upayog echadeebi flaiton ki khareed ke liye karne ki anumati di aur is tarah Singapore mein gruh svaamitv dheere-dheere badhta gaya.[40]

british sainik Singapore ki svatantrata ke baad bhi vaheen bane rahe lekin 1968 mein London ne 1971 tak sainikon ki vaapasi ke faisale ki ghoshana kar di.[41] Singapore apni sena ka gathan karne ke liye taiyaar ho gaya jise Singapore armed forses kaha gaya aur 1967 mein ek raashtreeya seva kaaryakram ki shuruaat hui.[42]

1980 aur 1990 ke dashak

bukit baatook vest ka oopar se ek drushya. bade paimaane par saarvajanik aavaas ke vikaas ke kaaran kaafi saare logon ke paas apna ghar hai.

iske alaava aarthik safalta 1980 ke dashak tak nirantar jaari rahi jab berojgaari ki dar 3% tak gir gayi aur vaastavik sakal ghareloo utpaad mein 1999 tak lagbhag 8% ki ausat dar se vruddhi hoti rahi. 1980 ke dashak ke dauraan Singapore ne un apne padosiyon se mukaabala karne ke liye jinke paas ab saste majadoor upalabdh the, apne aap ko uchch-takaneeki udyogon jaise ki vefar faibrikeshan kshetr ke star tak unnat karna shuroo kar diya. Singapore chaangi havaai adda 1981 mein khola gaya tha aur Singapore airlines ko viksit kar ek pramukh airline bana diya gaya tha.[43] Singapore ka bandargaah duniya ke sabse vyast bandaragaahon mein se ek ban gaya aur is avadhi ke dauraan seva evam paryatan udyog mein bhi kaafi teji se vruddhi hui. Singapore ek mahatvapoorn parivhan hab aur ek pramukh paryatan sthal ke roop mein ubhara.

aavaas vikaas board nirantar saarvajanik housing ko badhaava deta raha aur aang mo kio jaise nae shaharon ka design aur nirmaan kiya gaya. in nae aavaaseeya esteton mein bade aur uchch-stareeya apaartament banaae gaye the aur inmein behtar suvidhaaen maujood theen. aaj 80-90% aabaadi echadeebi apaartameinton mein rahati hai. 1987 mein inmein se jyaadaatar aavaaseeya esteton aur city seintaron ko jodne vaale pratham maas raipid traanjit (emaaarati) line ka sanchaalan shuroo hua.[44]

Singapore mein raajaneetik sthiti sthir thi aur is par people's action party ka prabhutv tha jiske paas 1966 se 1981 tak ke dauraan sansad mein 15 varshon ka ekaadhikaar raha tha, jisne is avadhi ke dauraan chunaavon mein sabhi seaton par jeet haasil ki thi.[45] kuchh kaaryakartaaon aur vipakshi raajanetaaon dvaara peeepi ke shaasan ko sattaavaadi karaar diya jaata hai jo sarkaar dvaara raajaneetik evam media gatividhiyon ke sakht viniyman ko raajaneetik adhikaaron ke ullanghan ke roop mein dekhte hain.[46] avaidh pradarshanon ke liye vipakshi raajaneta chi soon juaan ko saja dene aur J.bi. jayaratnam ke khilaaf maanahaani ke mukadamon ko vipakshi dalon dvaara aise adhinaayakavaad ke udaaharanon ke roop mein uddhrut kiya gaya hai.[47] adaalat pranaali aur sarkaar ke beech shaktiyon ke vibhaajan ki kami ne vipakshi paartiyon dvaara nyaaya ki nishfalata ke aaropon ko aur adhik badhaava diya.

aatankvaad ke khatre ke kaaran badi maatra mein suraksha upaayon ko apnaaya gaya, jismein vishesh kaaryakramon mein gorakha sainik tukadi ki tainaati bhi shaamil hai.

Singapore ki sarkaar mein kai mahatvapoorn parivartan hue. sansad ke gair-sansadeeya sadasyon ki shuruaat 1984 mein vipakshi paartiyon ke teen paraajit ummeedavaaron tak ko saansad ke roop mein niyukt karne ki anumati dene ke liye ki gayi. sansad mein alpasankhyakon ka pratinidhitv sunishchit karne ke iraade se kai seaton vaale matadaata vibhaajan ke liye 1988 mein saamoohik pratinidhitv vaale nirvaachan kshetron (jeeaarasi) ki shuruaat ki gayi.[48] sansad ke manoneet sadasya ki shuruaat 1990 mein gair-nirvaachit gair-daleeya saansadon ki anumati dene ke liye ki gayi.[49] ek aise nirvaachit raashtrapati ka praavadhaan karne ke liye jinke paas raashtreeya raajasv ke upayog aur saarvajanik kaaryaalaya ki niyuktiyon mein veto ka adhikaar ho, 1991 mein samvidhaan mein sanshodhan kiya gaya.[50] vipakshi dalon ne shikaayat ki thi ki jeeaarasi pranaali ne Singapore ke sansadeeya chunaavon mein unke liye paanv jmaana mushkil bana diya tha aur anekata matadaan pranaali alpasankhyak dalon ko baahar kar deti thi.[51]

1990 mein li kuaan you ne netrutv ki baagdor goh chok tong ko saunp di jo Singapore ke doosare pradhaanamantri bane. desh ko aadhunikta ki raah par le jaate hue goh ne netrutv ki ek adhik khuli aur paraamarshi shaili prastut ki. 1997 mein Singapore ne Asiaee vitteeya sankat aur kade upaayon ke prabhaav ka anubhav kiya, jaise ki seepeeef yogadaan mein katauti ko laagoo kiya gaya.

2000 - vartamaan

2000 ke dashak ki shuruaat

2000 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein Singapore svatantrata-uparaant ke kuchh sankaton ka saamana karna pada jinme 2003 ka saars (esaeaaraes) prakop tatha aatankvaad ka khatra shaamil hai. December 2001 mein Singapore mein dootaavaason aur anya buniyaadi suvidhaaon ko bam se udaane ki ek yojana ka khulaasa hua[52] aur jemaah islaamiya samooh ke takareeban 36 sadasyon ko aantarik suraksha kaanoon ke tahat giraftaar kiya gaya.[53] sambhaavit aatankvaadi gatividhiyon ko rokane aur unka pata lagaane aur unke dvaara kiye jaane vaale nukasaanon ko kam se kam karne ke liye mahattvapoorn aatankvaad virodhi upaaya kiye gaye.[54]

2004 mein li kuaan you ke jyeshth putr li siyen loong Singapore ke teesare pradhaanamantri ban gaye. unhonne raashtreeya seva ki avadhi ko dhaai saal se ghata kar do saal karne aur kaiseeno juaa ko vaidh karne sahit kai neetigat badlaav kiye.[55] 2006 ka aam chunaav ek meal ka patthar tha kyonki ismein chunaav ko kavar karne aur is par tipnni karne ke liye sarkaari media ki bajaay Internet aur blogging ka pramukhata se istemaal kiya gaya tha.[56] 66% maton ke saath 84 sansadeeya seaton mein se 82 par jeet haasil kar peeepi satta mein lauti.[57] 2005 mein do poorv raashtrapatiyon, vi kim vi aur devan Nair ka nidhan ho gaya.

desh pratyek varsh 9 August ko apna raashtreeya diwas manaata hai.

yuva olanpik khel

(mukhya lekh - 2010 samar yooth olanpiks) November 2007 ki shuruaat mein aaiosi ne Athens, bainkaak, Singapore, Moscow aur tyoorin ko pratham yuva olanpik khelon ki mejabaani ke liye paanch ummeedavaar shaharon ke roop mein chuna. January 2008 mein ummeedavaaron ki sankhya ko aur kam kar sirf Moscow aur Singapore tak seemit kar diya gaya. ant mein 21 fravari 2008 ko Singapore ko Switzerland ke laujen se kiye jaane vaale live teleekaast ke maadhyam se 2010 ke pratham yuva olanpik khelon ka mejabaan ghoshit kiya gaya, Singapore ko Moscow ke 44 maton ke mukaabale 53 mat praapt hue the. Singapore sabhi 26 khelon mein pratispardha kar raha hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/s' not found.

  • Singapore itihaas ka ghatnaakram
  • Singapore mein varshon ki soochi
  • Singapore ka sainya itihaas

sandarbh

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  53. "Innocent detained as militants in Singapore under Internal Security Act - govt". AFX News Limited. 11 November 2005. http://www.forbes.com/work/feeds/afx/2005/11/11/afx2331703.html.
  54. "Counter-Terrorism". Singapore Police Force. http://www.spf.gov.sg/cterror/swg_index.htm.
  55. Lee Hsien Loong (2005-04-18). "Ministerial Statement - Proposal to develop Integrated Resorts". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 2005-04-20. http://web.archive.org/20050420004032/www.channelnewsasia.com/casino/text_pmlee.htm.
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  57. "Singapore's PAP returned to power". Channel NewsAsia. 7 May 2006. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/206936/1/.html.

baahya kadiyaan

  • Singapore itihaas ek sankshipt itihaas, Singapore sarkaar dvaara aayojit kiya gaya.
  • Singapore laaibreri of kaaaingres ki country stadeej haindabuk mein Singapore ke liye entry, jismein itihaas ka savistrut varnan kiya gaya hai.
  • Knowledgenet.com.sg jeevani aur bhaugolik itihaas, vishesh roop se ruchikr hain.
  • Singapore ka raashtreeya puraalekh badi sankhya mein aitihaasik dastaavej aur tasveeron ko pesh kiya gaya hai.
  • malaaya aur Singapore ka patan Singapore yuddh ka ek vistrut itihaas.
  • A dreem shaitard tunku abdul Rahman dvaara vibhaajan ki ghoshana karte hue Malaysia ki saansad mein diya gaya poorn bhaashan.
  • yesterday.sg ek roochi aadhaarit blog jisme log Singapore viraasat tatha sangrahaalaya ki kahaaniyon, vichaaron, ghatnaaon aadi ko saajha kar sakte hain.
  • iremember.sg Singapore ki smrutiyon ka drushya chitran; jo chhaviyon tatha kahaaniyon ke roop mein hai aur jinhein Singapore ke bhaugolik nakshe par chinhit kiya gaya hai. in chhaviyon ko unke kaal ke hisaab se bhi chinhit kiya gaya hai taaki aap Singapore mein samay ke saath hone vaale badlaav ko dekh sakein.