Sayyed Ahmad Khan

sar Sayyed Ahmad Khan
Syed Ahmed Khan.jpg
sar Sayyed Ahmad Khan
anya naam Sayyed Ahmad Khan
janm Sayyed Ahmad takvi
17 October 1817
Delhi, Bhaarat
nidhan 27 March 1898(1898-03-27) (umr 80)
Aligadh, uttar pradesh
hrudaya gati rukane ke kaaran
yug aadhunik yug
kshetr Bhaarat(british saamraajya)
dhaarmik maanyata islaam
abhiruchi samaaj seva, raajaneeti aur darshan
sanstha akhil bhaarateeya muslim league
ullekhaneeya vichaar Aligadh aandolan, Aligadh muslim vishvavidyaalaya, do raashtra ke siddhaant

sar Sayyed Ahmad Khan (urdoo:سaaیaaد اaaحaaمaaد خaaاaaن بaaہaaا دaرa‎) (17 October 1817 - 27 March 1898) hindustaani shikshak aur neta the jinhonne Bhaarat ke musalmaanon ke liye aadhunik shiksha ki shuruaat ki.[1] unhone muhammadan englo-oriyental kaalej ki sthaapana ki jo baad mein viksit hokar Aligadh muslim vishvavidyaalaya bana. unke prayaason se Aligadh kraanti ki shuruaat hui, jismein shaamil muslim buddhijeeviyon aur netaaon ne bhaarateeya musalmaanon ka raajanaitik bhavishya sudrudh kiya. sayyad Ahmad Khan East indiya company mein kaam karte hue kaafi prasiddh hue. unhone pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke vishay mein ek kitaab likhi: asabaab-A-bagaavat-A-hind, jismein unhone british sarkaar ki neetiyon ki aalochna ki. ye apne samay ke sabse prabhaavashaali muslim neta the. unka vichaar tha ki Bhaarat ke musalmaanon ko british sarkaar ke prati vafaadaar naheen rahana chaahiye. unhone urdoo ko bhaarateeya musalmaanon ki saamoohik bhaasha banaane par jor diya.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan evam shiksha

Sayyed Ahmad khaaain ka janm 27 October 1817 mein Delhi ke saadaat (Sayyed) khaanadaan mein hua tha. unhe bachapan se hi padhne likhne ka shauk tha aur un par pita ki tulana mein maaain ka vishesh prabhaav tha. maaain ke kushal paalan poshan aur unase mile sanskaaron ka asar sar Sayyed ke baad ke dinon mein spasht dikha, jab vah saamaajik utthaan ke kshetr mein aae. 22 varsh ki avastha mein pita ki mrutyu ke baad parivaar ko aarthik kathinaaiyon ka saamana karna pada aur thodi si shiksha ke baad hi unhein aajeevika kamaane mein lagana pada. unhone 1830 E. mein East India company mein lipik ke pad par kaam karna shuroo kiya, kintu 1841 E. mein mainapuri mein up-nyaayaadheesh ki yogyata haasil ki aur vibhinn sthaanon par nyaayik vibhaagon mein kaam kiya. haalaanki sarvochch ohade par hone ke baavajood apni saari jindagi unhone fatehaali mein gujaari.

krutiyaaain

  • atahar asanaadeed (urdoo, 1847).
  • paignbar muhammad saahab ke jeevan par lekh (urdoo, 1870) jiska unke putr ke dvaara essej on the laaif of muhammad sheershak se angreji mein anuvaad kiya gaya. saath hi unke baaibil tatha kuraan par urdoo bhaasha mein teekaaeain sammilit hai.
  • asabaabe-bagaavate-hind (urdoo,1859).
  • aasaarussanaadeed (Delhi ki 232 imaaraton ka shodhaparak aitihaasik parichay). gaarsaan-the-taasi ne iska fraanseesi bhaasha mein anuvaad kiya jo 1861 E. mein prakaashit hua.

raashtrabhakti ki bhaavana

1857 ki mahaakraanti aur usaki asafalata ke dushparinaam unhonne apni aaainkhon se dekha. unka ghar tabaah ho gaya, nikat sambandhiyon ka ktl hua, unki maaain jaan bachaakar ek saptaah tak ghode ke astabal mein chhupi raheen. apne parivaar ki is barbaadi ko dekhkar unka man vichlit ho gaya aur unke dilo-dimaag mein raashtrabhakti ki lahar karavatein lene lageen. is bechaini se unhone pareshaan hokar Bhaarat chhodne aur misr mein basane ka faisala kiya. angrejon ne unako apni or karne ke liye meer saadik aur meer rustam Ali ko unke paas bheja aur unhe taalluka jahaanaabaad dene ka laalach diya. yeh aisa mauka tha ki ve inke jaal mein fains sakte the. ve dhanaadhya ki jindagi basar kar sakte the, lekin ve bahut hi buddhimaan aur samajhdaar vyakti the. unhone us vakt laalach ko buri bala samajhakar thukara di aur raashtrabhakti ko apanaana behtar samjha.

baad mein unhone yeh mahasoos kiya ki agar Bhaarat ke musalmaanon ko is kothari se naheen nikaala gaya to ek din hamaari kaum tabaah aur barbaad ho jaaegi aur vah kabhi bhi uth na sakegi. isliye unhonne misr jaane ka iraada badal diya aur kalyaan va astitv ki mashaal lekar apni kaum aur mulk ki taraf badhne lage. yeh sach hai ki unhonne gair fauji angrejon ko apne ghar mein panaah di, lekin unke samarthak bilkul na the, balki vah islaami shiksha va sanskruti ke chaahane vaale the. unki dooradrushti angrejon ke shadyantr se achhi tarah se vaakif thi. unhein maaloom tha ki angreji hukoomat Bhaarat par sthaapit ho chuki hai aur unhone unhein haraane ke liye shaikshik maidaan ko behtar samjha. isliye apne behatareen lekhon ke maadhyam se kaum mein shiksha va sanskruti ki bhaavana jagaane ki koshish ki taaki shaikshik maidaan mein koi hamaari kaum par haavi na ho sake. musalmaan unhein kufr ka ftava dete rahe baavajood iske kaum ke dushman bankar ya bigdkar na mile balki narami se unhein samajhaane ki koshish karte rahe. ve achhi tarah se jaante the ki yeh kaum jaahil hai, isliye unki baaton ki paravaah kiye bina ve apni manjil par pahuainchane ke liye koshish karte rahe. aaj muslim kaum ye baat sveekaar karti hai ki sar Sayyed Ahmad khaaain ne kaum ke liye kya kuchh naheen kiya.

sansthaaon ki sthaapana

  • 1858 mein muraadaabaad mein aadhunik madarase ki sthaapana ki.
  • 1863 mein Gazipur mein bhi ek aadhunik school ki sthaapana ki.
  • unhone "saaintifik society" ki sthaapana ki, jisne kai shaikshik pustakon ka anuvaad prakaashit kiya urdoo tatha angreji mein dvibhaashi patrika nikaali.
  • 1860 ke dashak ke antim varshon ka ghatnaakram unki gatividhiyon ka rukh badalne wala siddh hua. unhein 1867 mein hinduon ki dhaarmik aasthaaon ke kendra, ganga tat par sthit banaaras (vartamaan Varanasi) mein sthaanaantarik kar diya gaya. lagbhag isi dauraan musalmaanon dvaara poshit bhaasha, urdoo ke sthaan par hindi ko laane ka aandolan shuroo hua. is aandolan tatha saaintifik society ke prakaashanon mein urdoo ke sthaan par hindi laane ke prayaason se Sayyed ko vishvaas ho gaya ki hinduon aur musalmaanon ke raaston ko alag hona hi hai. isaleee unhonne England ki apni yaatra 1869-1870 ke dauraan 'muslim keinbrij' jaisi mahaan shiksha sansthaaon ki yojana taiyaar keen. unhonne Bhaarat lautane par is uddeshya ke liye ek samiti banaai aur musalmaanon ke utthaan aur sudhaar ke liye prabhaavashaali patrika tahadeeb-al-akhlaak (saamaajik sudhaar) ka prakaashan praarambh kiya.
  • unhone 1886 mein all India muhamadan aijukeshanal kaunfreins ka gathan kiya, jiske vaarshik sammelan musalmaanon mein shiksha ko badhaava dene tatha unhein ek saajha manch upalabdh karaane ke liye vibhinn sthaanon par aayojit kiya jaate the.
  • May 1875 mein unhone Aligadh mein 'madarasatulauloom' ek muslim school sthaapit kiya aur 1876 mein sevaanivrutti ke baad unhone ise college mein badalne ki buniyaad rakhi. unki pariyojanaaon ke prati roodhivaadi virodh ke baavajood college ne teji se pragati ki aur 1920 mein yeh Aligadh muslim vishvavidyaalaya mein parivrtit ho gaya.

raajaneeti

muslim raajaneeti mein sar Sayyed ki parampara muslim league (1906 mein sthaapit) ke roop mein ubhari. bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress (1885 mein sthaapit) ke viroodhd unka propeganda tha ki Congress hindu aadhiptya party hai aur propeganda aajaad-poorv Bhaarat ke muslimon mein jeevit raha. kuchh apavaadon ko chhodkar ve Congress se door rahe aur yahaaain tak ki ve aajaadi ki ladaai se bhi hissa naheen liya. ismein koi aashcharya ki baat naheen ki british-Bhaarat ke muslim bahul raajyon masalan-Bengal, Punjab mein lagbhag sabhi svatantrata senaani hindu ya sikh the.[2]

mrutyu

inki mrutyu 27 March 1898 ko hrudaya gati ruk jaane ke kaaran hui.

sandarbh