Salman rushdi

Salman Rushdie

At a breakfast honouring Amos Oz in September 2008
janm Ahmed Salman Rushdie
(1947-06-19) 19 June 1947 (aayu 68 varsh)
Bombay, Bhaarat
vyavasaaya Novelist, essayist
raashtreeyata British
shaili Magic Realism, Satire, Post-Colonialism
vishay Criticism, travel
jeevanasaathi Clarissa Luard (1976-1987)
Marianne Wiggins (1988-1993)
Elizabeth West (1997-2004)
Padma Lakshmi (2004-2007)

sar Ahmad Salman rushdi (janm 19 June 1947) ek british bhaarateeya upanyaasakaar aur nibandhakaar hain. unhonne apne doosare upanyaas midnights children (1981) se prasiddhi praapt ki, jise 1981 mein bukar puraskaar mila. unke adhikaansh praarambhik upanyaas bhaarateeya up-mahaadveep par aadhaarit hain. unki shaili ka vargeekaran aksar aitihaasik kalpana ke saath sanyojit jaadui yathaarthavaad ke roop mein kiya jaata hai aur unki krutiyon ki pramukh vishay-vastu, poorvi aur pashchimi duniya ke beech kai rishton ke judne, alag hone aur deshaantaranon ki kahaani rahi hai.


unka chautha upanyaas setenik varsej (1988), "the setenik varsej" vivaad ke kendra mein tha, jiske tahat musalmaanon ki or se (pehle kait steevens ke naam se gyaat Yusuf islaam sahit) kai deshon mein iska virodh hua. kuchh virodh pradarshan hinsak the, jiske dauraan rushdi ko maut ki dhamaki aur February, 1989 mein tatkaaleen Iran ke sarvochch neta ayaatulla roohollaah khomaini dvaara jaari kiye gaye fatwe (dhaarmik aajnyaaapatr) ka saamana karna pada. unki hatya karne ke elaan ki pratikriya ke roop mein, rushdi ne lagbhag ek dashak, mukhyat: bhoomigat hokar bitaaya, jiske dauraan kabhi-kabhaar hi ve saarvajanik roop se prakat hote the, lekin un par ek lekhak ke roop mein niyantranakaari prabhaav daalne vaale aur sannihit abhivyakti ki svatantrata ke khtare ke roop mein fatwe ke khilaaf ve mukhar rahe.[tathya vaanchhit]


"saahitya ki sevaaon" ke liye June 2007 mein unhein ek night baichalar niyukt kiya gaya.[1] unhonne France ka sarvochch pad - Commandeur - in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres bhi haasil kiya. 2007 mein emori vishvavidyaalaya mein unhonne vishisht lekhak ke roop mein paanch saal ka kaaryakaal shuroo kiya.[2] May 2008 mein ve American ekedami of Arts end letars ke liye chune gaye. unka naveenatam upanyaas the encheintres of flaureins June 2008 mein prakaashit hua.[3] July 2008 ko saarvajanik vote jeetate hue midnights children ko sarvashreshth bukar ghoshit kiya gaya, puraskaar ke 40 saal ke itihaas mein bukar puraskaar jeetne wala sarvashreshth upanyaas.


anukram

vyaktigat jeevan

2009 tribeka film samaaroh vainiti fair party mein rushdi ke saath abhinetri piya glen.

anees Ahmad rushdi, Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya ke shikshit vakeel jo baad mein vyavasaayi bane aur negin bhatt, ek shikshika ke ikalaute bete rushdi ka janm Mumbai (ab Mumbai), Bhaarat mein hua tha.[4][5]unki shiksha kaithedral end John kaunan school, Mumbai, ragbi school aur kings college, kembrij mein hui, jahaan unhonne itihaas ka adhyayan kiya. ek poornakaalik lekhak banane se pehle unhonne do vigyaapan agencyon ogilvi end maather aur aayar baarkar) ke liye kaam kiya.[6]


rushdi ki chaar baar shaadi hui.apni pehli patni klerissa luaard se ve 1976 se 1987 tak vivaahit rahe jisse unhein ek beta jafr hua. unki doosari patni ameriki upanyaasakaar maariaan vigins theen; un donon ka vivaah 1988 ko aur talaak 1993 mein hua. unki teesari patni, 1997 se 2004 tak, Elizabeth vest theen; unka ek beta, milan hai. 2004 mein unhonne bhaarateeya ameriki abhinetri aur super model padma lakshmi, ameriki riyeliti telivijn kaaryakram top shef ki mejabaan, se vivaah kiya. shaadi 2 July 2007 ko toot gaya aur lakshmi ne ingit kiya ki unhonne khud vivaah samaapt karna chaaha tha. 2008 mein, Bollywood press ne bhaarateeya model riya sen ke saath unka prem sambandh joda, jiske ve anyatha ek dost the.[7] unki dosti ke baare mein media ki atakalabaaji ke uttar mein, usane (riya) sirf itna kaha "mujhe lagta hai ki jab aap Salman rushdi hain, to aap zaroor un logon se oob jaate hain jo hamesha aapse saahitya ke baare mein baat karna chaahate hain."[8]


1999 mein rushdi ne ek "kandara dasha" ko sahi karne ke liye operation karaaya, jo unke mutaabik, unki aankhein kholne ki mushkil ko teji se badha rahi thi."agar main operation naheen karaata, to kuchh hi varshon mein main apni aankhein kholne mein saksham hi naheen ho paata," unhonne kaha.[9]


kairiyr

pramukh saahityik krutiyaan

aanshik roop se ek vigyaan saahitya katha vaale unke pehle upanyaas graaimas (1975) ko aam taur par janta aur saahityik aalochakon ne najraandaaj kiya. par unke agale upanyaas midnights children (1981) ne, unhein saahityik prasiddhi pradaan ki.isne ullekhaneeya roop se us raah ko nirmit kiya jiska abhigman bhaarateeya angreji lekhan ne kreeb agale ek dashak tak kiya aur kaiyon dvaara ise pichhle 100 varshon ki mahaanatam pustakon mein se ek maana jaata hai. is kruti ne 1981 bukar puraskaar jeeta aur 1993 aur 2008 mein ise sarvashreshth bukar ka puraskaar mila, arthaat puraskaar ke kramash: pratham 25 aur 40 saal mein isne bataur sarvashreshth upanyaas puraskaar jeeta.[10] midnights children ko kai puraskaar mile aur ise rushdi ke sabse achhe, sarvaadhik pravaahamaya aur preranaadaayak kruti ke roop mein uddhrut kiya gaya hai.[tathya vaanchhit] kahaani ek bachche ke jeevan par aadhaarit hai, jo Bhaarat ki svatantrata praapti ke saath aadhi raat ko janm leta hai, jo vishesh shakti-sampann hai aur anya bhaarateeya up-mahaadveep aur aadhunik raashtra Bhaarat ke janm ke itihaas mein ek nae aur ashaant yug ke oosha kaal mein paida hue bachchon ke saath sambandh rakhata hai. saleem sinaai ke charitra ki tulana khud rushdi se ki gayi hai.[11]


midnights children ke baad, rushdi ne shem (1983) likha jismein unhonne paatron ko julfikaar Ali bhutto aur general mohammad jiya ul hak par aadhaarit karte hue Pakistan ki raajaneetik ashaanti ko darshaaya hai.shem ne France ka Prix du Meilleur Livre Éaatranger (sarvashreshth videshi pustak) jeeta aur bukar puraskaar ke liye dviteeya sthaan praapt kiya.uttar aupaniveshik saahitya ki in donon krutiyon mein jaadui yathaarthavaad aur aapravaasi drushtikon ki ek vishisht shaili hai, jiske prati rushdi bhaarateeya mool ke sadasya ke roop mein bahut jaagruk rahe hain.

rushdi ne nikaaraaguaa ke baare mein 1980 ke dashak mein upanyaas se itar ek pustak likhi, the jaguaar smaail (1987). is pustak mein ek raajaneetik kendra-bindu hai aur saindeenista raajaneetik prayog ke sthalon par yeh unke pratham anubhavon aur shodh par aadhaarit hai.jaguaar smaail ko badhaava dene ke kram mein sain Francisco vishvavidyaalaya mein ek saakshaatkaar ke dauraan unhonne is baat ki vakaalat ki ki chhaatr vah na likhein, jo ve likhna chaahate hain, lekin vah jise ve likhe bagair naheen rah sake.unhonne ek apoorn kruti ka havaala diya, jo agale varsh prakaashit hui, ek aisi pariyojana, jisne unke jeevan par aisa prabhaav daala jiski unhein kabhi ummeed naheen thi.

unki sabse vivaadaaspad kruti, the saitenik varsej 1988 mein prakaashit hui (neeche ka khand dekhein). rushdi ne East, vest (1994) sahit kai laghu kathaaen prakaashit keen.Bhaarat ke itihaas ke kreeb 100 varshon ko aavrut karne waali the moors laast saai, ek paarivaarik mahaakruti, 1995 mein prakaashit hui thi. the ground bineeth har feet (1999) aadhunik rock sangeet ka ek vaikalpik itihaas prastut karta hai. U2 dvaara isi naam ka geet, kitaab mein shaamil kai geeton ke bolon mein se hai, isliye rushdi ko geetkaar ke roop mein shreya diya gaya hai.


Salman rushdi apni pustak shaaleemaar the klaaun pesh karte hue


rushdi ke vyaavasaayik taur par safal aur sameekshakon dvaara prashansit upanyaason ki ek kadi rahi hai. unke 2005 ke upanyaas shaaleemaar the klaaun ko Bhaarat mein pratishthit krausavard fikshan award praapt hua aur Britain mein vheetabred book award ke antim chayanit pustakon mein yeh shaamil tha. ise 2007 ke antarraashtreeya IMPAC dabalin saahitya puraskaar ke liye chuna gaya.[12]


2002 ke apne kathetar saahitya sangrah step akraus dis line mein, unhonne anya logon ke alaava itaalavi lekhak itaalo kaalvino aur ameriki lekhak Thomas pinchon ke kaam ki saraahana ki. un par praarambhik prabhaav daalne vaalon mein James jauis, gyuntar graas, horahe luis borhes, mikhaail bulgaakov aur luis Carol shaamil hain. rushdi enjela Carter ke ek niji dost bhi the aur unke sangrah barning yor bots ki bhoomika mein unki atyadhik saraahana ki hai.


anya gatividhiyaan

rushdi ne khaamoshi se yuva bhaarateeya (aur sanjaateeya bhaarateeya) lekhakon ka disha-nirdeshan kiya hai, indo-aangleeya lekhakon ki ek poori peedhi ko prabhaavit kiya hai aur saamaanya roop se uttar aupaniveshik saahitya mein ek prabhaavashaali lekhak hain.[13] unhonne apne lekhan ke liye kai shaabaashiyaan pai hain jinmein shaamil hain - yooropiyn union ka eristiyn praaij for literature sahit preemiyo grinjen kevar (Italy) aur Germany mein writer of the iar award tatha saahitya ke anya kai sarvochch sammaan.[14] ve royal society of literature aur Commandeur des Arts et des Lettres ke sadasya bhi hain. rushdi 2004 se 2006 tak pen American center ke adhyaksh the.


british sarkaar dvaara nasleeya aur dhaarmik ghruna adhiniyam ki shuruaat ka ve virodh karte hain, kuchh aisa jiske baare mein unhonne fri eksapreshan ij no ofeins ke apne yogadaan mein likha hai, yeh November 2005 mein penguin dvaara prakaashit kai lekhakon ka nibandh sangrah hai. rushdi ek swayam-vyaakhyaayit naastik hain[tathya vaanchhit] aur maanavataavaadi british association ke ek pratishthit samarthak.

Salman rushdi emori vishvavidyaalaya ke chhaatron ke saath charcha karte hue


varsh 2006 mein rushdi ne agale paanch varshon ke liye, varsh mein ek maah ke liye rihaaishi pratishthit lekhak ke roop mein emori vishvavidyaalaya adhyaapak mandali mein sammilit hue.[15] haalaanki lekhan mein unhein aanand aata hai, Salman rushdi ka kehna hai ki ve ek abhineta ban gaye hote, agar unka lekhan kairiyr safal naheen hota.yahaan tak ki bachapan se hi, unhonne Hollywood ki filmon mein kaam karne ka sapana dekha tha (jise baad mein unhonne apne kai laghu bhoomikaaon dvaara poora kiya).


rushdi paup sanskruti ke prashansak hain[tathya vaanchhit] aur apne kuchh lekhanon mein ti.vi. aur film ke kaalpanik paatron ko shaamil karte hain. film brijet jons daayari mein unki ek laghu bhoomika hai jo isi naam ki pustak par aadhaarit hai, jo khud bhi saahityik chutakulon se bhari hai. 12 May 2006 ko rushdi the Charlie roj sho mein ek atithi mejbaan the, jismein unhonne Bhaarat-Canadai film nirmaata deepa Mehta ka saakshaatkaar liya, 2005 ki film, vaatar ke liye jinke kaarya ne bhi hinsak virodh pradarshanon ka saamana kiya. ve elinr lipman ke upanyaas den shi faaund mi ke filmi roopaantaran mein (hant ki pratham virdeshit film) helen hant ke prasootivijnyaaani- stri rog-visheshagya ki bhoomika mein prastut hote hain. sitmbar 2008 mein aur fir March 2009 mein, ve HBO kaaryakram "reeyal time vith bill maaher" par panel ke sadasya ke roop mein haajir hue.


the saitenik varsej aur fatwa


sitmbar 1988 mein saitenik varsej ke prakaashan ne islaami duniya mein tatkaal vivaad ko janm diya aur iska kaaran bana paiganbar mohammad ka apamaanajanak samjha jaane wala chitran.sheershak ek vivaadit muslim parampara ko sandarbhit karta hai, jiska sandarbh kitaab mein hai. is parampara ke mutaabik, teen deviyon ko, jinki daiveeya praaniyon ke roop mein makka mein pooja ki jaati thi, sveekaar karte hue mohammad (kitaab mein mahaaund) ne Quraan mein panktiyaan (sur) jodeen.kinvadanti ke mutaabik, mohammad ne baad mein in panktiyon ka pratisanharan kiya, yeh kehte hue ki shaitaan ne unhein makka vaalon ko khush karne ke liye inhein bolne ko ukasaaya (at: "shaitaani panktiyaan"). haalaanki, varnanakarta, paathak ke saamane yeh khulaasa karta hai ki yeh vivaadit panktiyaan vaastav mein aarkaenjel gibreel ke munh se nikli theen. bade muslim samudaaya vaale kai deshon mein is kitaab par pratibandh laga diya gaya tha.


14 fravari 1989 ko rushdi ko maarane ke fatwe ki radio Tehran par tatkaaleen Iran ke aadhyaatmik neta ayaatulla roohollaah khomaini dvaara yeh kehte hue ghoshana ki gayi ki pustak "islaam ke khilaaf ishanindaatmak" hai (pustak ka chaturth adhyaaya ek imaam ke charitra ko chitrit karta hai jo nirvaasan mein hai aur jo apne desh ki janta ko, unki suraksha se bina koi vaasta rakhe, bagaavat ko bhadkaava dene ke liye lautata hai. rushdi ki maut ke liye inaam ki peshakash ki gayi aur is tarah agale kai varshon ke liye vah police-suraksha ke tahat rahane ko majaboor ho gaye. 7 March 1989 ko United kingadam aur Iran ne rushdi vivaad par raajanayik sambandh tod liye.


pustak ke prakaashan aur fatwe ne duniya bhar mein hinsa ko bhadkaaya, jiske tahat kitaab ki dukaanon par aag ke gole barasaae.pashchim ke kai deshon mein muslim samudaayon ne saarvajanik railiyon ka aayojan kiya, jinmein unhonne kitaab ki pratiyon ko jalaaya. is pustak ke anuvaad se ya prakaashan se jude kai logon par hamle hue, kai gambhir roop se ghaayal hue aur yahaan tak ki maare bhi gaye.[16] teesari duniya ke deshon mein aur bhi kai log dangon mein maare gaye.


24 September 1998 ko, Britain ke saath raajanayik sambandhon ki punarbahaali ke liye ek poorv shart ke roop mein, us vakt mohammad khaatami ke netrutv waali Irani sarkaar ne, ek saarvajanik pratibaddhata jataai ki vah "rushdi ki hatya ke sanchaalan ko na to samarthan degi, na hi rok lagaaegi."[17][18]


baharahaal, Iran mein kattarpanthiyon ne maut ki saja ki pushti jaari rakhi.[19] 2005 ki shuruaat mein, makka ki vaarshik teerthayaatra karne vaale muslim teerthayaatriyon ke liye ek sandesh mein Iran ke aadhyaatmik neta, ayaatulla Ali khamene dvaara, khomaini ke fatwe ki pun: pushti ki gayi.[20] iske atirikt, rivolyooshanari guard ne ghoshana ki hai ki un par maut ki saja abhi bhi maanya hai.[21] Iran ne is fatwe ko vaapas lene ke anurodh ko is aadhaar par khaarij kar diya ki sirf vahi vyakti ise vaapas le sakta hai jisne ise jaari kiya ho,[20] aur jis vyakti ne ise jaari kiya tha - ayaatulla khomaini - usaki mrutyu 1989 mein hi ho chuki hai.


Salman rushdi ne bataaya ki unhein yeh jataate hue ki unhein maarane ki shapath vah desh bhoola naheen hai, unhein abhi bhi Iran se har saal 14 fravari ko ek valentine card jaisa kuchh praapt hota hai. unhein yeh bhi kehte hue uddhrut kiya gaya tha, "yeh aise star par pahunch gaya hai jahaan yeh ek vaastavik khatre ke bajaay bhaashan ka ek hissa hai."[22] rushdi par khatre ke baavajood, unhonne saarvajanik roop se kaha ki unke parivaar ko kabhi dhamaki naheen di gayi aur yahaan tak ki unki maan ko (jo apne jeevan ke baad ke varshon ke dauraan Pakistan mein rahati theen) bhaari samarthan praapt hua.[23]


rushdi ke ek poorv angarakshak, raun ivaans ne ek pustak prakaashit karne ki yojana banaai, jo lekhak ke un dinon ke vyavahaar ko saamane rakhati jab vah chhipe hue the. ivaans ne daava kiya ki rushdi ne fatwe se aarthik laabh paane ka prayaas kiya aur ve aatmaghaati the, lekin rushdi ne is kitaab ko jhooth ka pulinda kehte hue khaarij kar diya aur raun ivaans, uske sahayogi lekhak aur prakaashak ke khilaaf kaanooni kaarravaai ki.[24] 26 August 2008 ko London ke uchch nyaayaalaya mein rushdi se teenon pakshon ne maafi maangi.[25]


hatya ka vifal prayaas aur hijbullaah ki tippaniyaan

3 August 1989 ko jab mustafa Mehmood maajeh, paidingatan, central London ke ek hotel mein RDX visfotak se bhara hua ek kitaab bam taiyaar kar raha tha, to bam samay se pehle hi fat gaya, jismein hotel ki do manjilein baahar aa gain aur maajeh ki mrutyu ho gayi. poorv mein agyaat ek lebaaneej sangathan, organaaijeshan of the mujaahideen of islaam ne kaha ki vah "dharm bhrasht rushdi par ek hamle ki taiyaari mein maara gaya." Tehran ke behesht-A-jhara kabristaan mein mustafa Mehmood maajeh ke liye ek makabara hai, jis par likha hai ki vah "London mein shaheed, 3 August 1989. Salman rushdi ko maarane ke mission par marne wala pehla shaheed." maajeh ki maan ko Iran mein sthaanaantaran ke liye aamantrit kiya gaya aur islaamik world movement of maartars kamemoreshan ne uske makabare ko us kabristaan mein banaaya jismein Iran-Iraq yuddh mein maare gaye hajaaron sainikon ki kabrein hain.[17] 2006 jeelainds-posten mohammad kaartoon vivaad ke dauraan hijbullaah ke neta hasan nasarallaah ne ghoshana ki ki "agar paakhandi Salman rushdi ke khilaaf imaam khomeni ke fatwe ko poora karne ke liye koi muslim hua hota, to yeh nimn vargeeya jisne Denmark, naarve aur France mein hamaare paiganbar mohammad ka apamaan kiya hai, aisa karne ki himmat naheen karte.mujhe vishvaas hai ki laakhon musalmaan aise hain jo apne paiganbar ke sammaan ki raksha ke liye jeevan dene ke liye taiyaar hain aur hamein iske liye kuchh bhi karne ko taiyaar rahana chaahiye.[26] heritej foundation ke James filips ne ameriki Congress ke saamane gavaahi di ki "March 1989" ka ek visfot rushdi ki hatya ke liye hijbullaah ka ek prayaas tha, jo bam ke samay se pehle visfot ho jaane ke kaaran vifal ho gaya, jisse London mein ek hijbullaah kaaryakarta ki mrutyu ho gayi.[27]


antarraashtreeya gorille

1990 mein, setenik varsej ke prakaashan ke baad hi ek Pakistani film pradarshit ki gayi jismein rushdi ko desh mein kesino aur disco ki shrrunkhala khol kar Pakistan ke patan ki saajish rachaate hue dikhaaya gaya tha. film Pakistani darshakon ke beech lokapriya rahi aur isne "rushdi ko ek rembo sadrush charitra ke roop mein prastut kiya, jiska peechha chaar Pakistani gurilla karte hain.[28] british board of film klaasifikeshan ne ise pramaan patra ki anumati se inkaar kar diya kyonki, "yeh mahasoos kiya gaya ki rushdi ka chitran sirf unki chhavi kharaab karne ki bajaay, shaanti bhang ka kaaran bante hue aaparaadhik parivaad maana ja sakta hai.[29] is kdam ne Britain mein prabhaavi dhang se film par poorn pratibandh laga diya. haalaanki, do maheene baad rushdi ne khud board ko patra likh kar kaha ki unki ra mein yeh film "ek vikrut, aksham bekaar rachana hai" aur agar yeh pradarshit hoti hai to ve mukadama naheen kareinge.[29] baad mein unhonne kaha, "agar us film par pratibandh laga diya jaata, to vah shahar mein sarvaadhik ichhit video ban jaata: har koi use dekh leta."[29] haalaanki film Pakistan mein bade paimaane par safal rahi, pashchim mein vastut: yeh kisi ka dhyaan aakarshit naheen kar paaya.[29] unhonne kaha ki film ka ek hissa sahi maayanon mein haasyaaspad tha, jab unka charitra unki pustak saitenik varsej ko padh kar ek Pakistani ladaakoo ko yaatana deta hai.


naaitahud

16 June 2007 ko kveens birthday onars mein saahitya ki sevaaon ke liye rushdi ko naaitahud se sammaanit kiya gaya . unhonne kaha, "is mahaan sammaan ko praapt kar main romaanchit aur vinmr hoon aur bahut aabhaari hoon ki mere kaam ko is tarah se pehchaan mili hai."[30] unke night ki padavi ki pratikriya mein, muslim bahul deshon ne virodh pradarshan kiya. in deshon ke kai sansad sadasyon ne is kriya ki ninda ki aur Iran aur Pakistan ne apne british raajadooton ko aupachaarik roop se virodh pradarshan ke bulaaya. rushdi ki night ki padavi ke khilaaf Pakistan aur Malaysia mein bade paimaane par pradarshan hue.kaiyon ne saarvajanik taur par usaki mrutyu ki maang ki.kuchh gair-musalmaan bhi rushdi ki night ki padavi se niraash the, yeh maanate hue ki lekhak aise sammaan ki yogyata naheen rakhata hai.[31]


BBC ki July 2007 ki ek report ke anusaar al kaayada ne bhi rushdi ke sammaan ki ninda ki hai. al kaayada ke up pramukh aimaan al jvaahiri ko ek audio rikaurding mein yeh kehte hue uddhrut kiya gaya hai ki Bhaarat mein janme rushdi ke liye Britain ka puraskaar "islaam ka apamaan", hai aur vah "ek bahut hi sateek pratikriya" ki yojana bana raha hai.[32]


dhaarmik aur raajaneetik aasthaaen

rushdi ek shiya muslim parivaar se aae hain, lekin kehte hain ki ve vaastav mein kabhi dhaarmik naheen rahe.1990 mein, "aasha hai yeh, fatwe ke mutaabik unhein maarane ke prayaas mein muslimon ke khatre ko kam karega," unhonne ek bayaan diya jismein yeh daava kiya ki "unhonne apni muslim aastha ko naveekrut kiya hai, islaam par apne upanyaas mein hamle ki ninda ki hai aur duniya bhar mein is dharm ki behtar samajh ke liye kaam karne ke liye pratibaddhata jataayi." lekin baad mein kaha ki ve keval "naatak" kar rahe the.[33]


unki kitaabein aksar samaaj mein dharm ki bhoomika, vibhinn aasthaaon ke beech aur dhaarmik aur bina aastha vaalon ke beech takaraav par prakaash daalati hain.


rushdi, 19veen sadi ke uttaraardh ke dauraan viksit, uchchatar aalochna ki vakaalat karte hain. rushdi, the Washington post mein chhapi atithi ki rai mein aur madhya August 2005 ke the times mein islaam mein sudhaar ki maang karte hain[34] .unke bhaashan ke kuchh ansh:


What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform movement to bring the core concepts of Islam into the modern age, a Muslim Reformation to combat not only the jihadist ideologues but also the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open the windows to let in much-needed fresh air. (...) It is high time, for starters, that Muslims were able to study the revelation of their religion as an event inside history, not supernaturally above it. (...) Broad-mindedness is related to tolerance; open-mindedness is the sibling of peace.



rushdi ne yoogoslaaviya ke sangheeya ganaraajya par 1999 mein NATO ki bamabaari ka samarthan kiya, jiske kaaran vaamapanthi taarik Ali ne rushdi aur anya "yoddha lekhakon" ko "pariyuddhak"[35] ke roop mein sambodhit kiya. America ke netrutv mein Afghanistan mein Taliban ko hataane ke abhiyaan ko, jo 2001 mein shuroo hua tha, rushdi ne samarthan diya, lekin ve Iraq mein 2003 ke yuddh ke ek mukhar aalochak the. unhonne kaha ki jahaan "saddaam husain ko hataane ke liye maamala banaaya jaana tha", America ka ektarfa sainya hastakshep anuchit tha.[36]


March, 2006 mein "Denmark kaartoon maamale" ke parinaamasvaroop - jise kai logon ne 1989 mein the saitenik varsej[37] ke prakaashan ke baad di gayi maut ki dhamakiyon aur fatwe ki ek anugoonj maana - rushdi ne dhaarmik ugravaad ke khataron ke khilaaf ek chetaavani dene vaale kathan ke ghoshana-patra 'tugedar fesing the new totaleeterianism' par hastaakshar kiye. ghoshana-patra 2006 mein vaamapanthi jhukaav vaale fraanseesi saaptaahik Charlie hebdo mein prakaashit hua tha.


varsh 2006 mein rushdi ne kaha ki ve tatkaaleen house of kaumans ke neta, Jack strau ki tippani ka samarthan karte hain jinhonne nakaab (ek ghoonghat jo aankhon ko chhodkar poore chehare ko dhakata hai) pahanane ki aalochna ki. rushdi ne kaha ki unki teen bahanein kabhi ghoonghat naheen daaleingi.unhonne kaha, "mujhe lagta hai ki ghoonghat ke khilaaf ladaai, mahilaaon ki hadon ke khilaaf ek lambi aur satat ladaai rahi hai, at: us arth mein main poori tarah se [strau] ki taraf hoon."[38]


rushdi apne raajaneetik vichaaron ke liye british shaikshik pratishthaanon ke krodh ka shikaar hote rahate hain. poorv mein rushdi ki krutiyon ke prashansak rah chuke maarksavaadi aalochak teri igalatan ne unke drushtikon ke prati un par yeh kehte hue hamla kiya ki unhonne "Pentagon ke Iraq aur Afghanistan mein aaparaadhik kaaryon par khushi prakat ki".[39] haalaanki, tadanantar unhonne rushdi ke vichaaron ko glat roop mein prastut karne ke liye maafi maangi.


92nd Street Y mein ek prastuti ke dauraan, rushdi ne kaupeeraait par apne vichaar vyakt kiye jab unase ek savaal poochha gaya ki kya kaupeeraait kaanoon ko unhonne svatantr abhivyakti ke liye ek avarodh (ya baadha) maana hai.


No. But that's because I write for a living, [laughs] and I have no other source of income, and I Naïavely believe that stuff that I create belongs to me, and that if you want it you might have to give me some cash. [...] My view is I do this for a living. The thing wouldn't exist if I didn't make it and so it belongs to me and don't steal it. You know. It's my stuff.


Salman Rushdie[40]


granth soochi

kitaabein

  • graaimas (1975)
  • midnights children (1981)
  • shem (1983)
  • the jaguaar smaail: a nikaaraaguaa jarni (1987)
  • saitenik varsej (1988)
  • haaroon end the si of storeej (1990)
  • imejinri homalainds: esej end kritisism 1981 - 1991 (1992)
  • homales baai chaais (1992, aar. jhabavaala aur vi.S. naayapaul ke saath)
  • East, vest (1994)
  • the mooars laast saai (1995)
  • the faayarabards nest (1997)
  • the ground bineed har feet (1999)
  • the skreenaple of midnights children (1999)
  • fyoori (2001)
  • step akraus dis line: kalekted naan fikshan 1992 - 2002 (2002)
  • shaaleemaar the klaaun (2005)
  • the enchentres of flaureins (2008)
  • the best American short storeej (2008, atithi sampaadak ke roop mein)
  • "in the south" the new yaurkar, 18 May 2009


nibandh

.


puraskaar

  • eristion puraskaar (Europeeya sangh)
  • kala parishad raaitars award
  • varsh ka lekhak (british book puraskaar)
  • varsh ka lekhak (Germany)
  • bukar of bukars ya upanyaas ke liye bukar puraskaar vijetaaon ke beech sarvashreshth upanyaas, 1993 mein praapt
  • bukar ka sarvashreshth bukar puraskaar ke 40 saal poore hone ke upalakshya par 2008 mein praapt
  • upanyaas ke liye bukar puraskaar
  • Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France)
  • english speeking union award
  • hach krausavard fikshan praaij (Bhaarat)
  • India abraud lifetime echeevameint award (USA)
  • James tait black memoriyl puraskaar (galp)
  • kart tucholski puraskaar (sveedan)
  • manatuaa puraskaar (Italy)
  • James jauis puraskaar - university college dabalin
  • maisaachusets praudyogiki sansthaan maanad profesaraship
  • chaipamain vishvavidyaalaya maanad dauktaret - Doctor of hyooman letars
  • saanskrutik maanavataavaad mein aautastainding lifetime achievement (Harvard vishvavidyaalaya)
  • premiyo grinjen kevor (Italy)
  • priks kolet (Switzerland)
  • Prix du Meilleur Livre Éaatranger
  • seint Louis saahitya puraskaar - seint luis vishvavidyaalaya
  • saahitya ke liye state praaij (aastriya)
  • janta ke vote dvaara bukar puraskaar vijetaaon mein sarvashreshth, bukar puraskaar ki 40veen saalagirh ki smruti mein pradaan kiya gaya.
  • vhaaitabred upanyaas puraskaar (do baar)
  • raaitars gild of great Britain puraskaar, baal upanyaas ke liye


yeh bhi dekhein

  • the saitenik varsej
  • the saitenik varsej vivaad
  • naarve ke lekhak eksal jensen aur unka nibandh sangrah, gaaaind daj not reed nauvals: a vauej in the world of Salman rushdi (1994), svatantr abhivyakti ki tarafadaari mein
  • dakshin Asia mein censorship
  • antararaashtreeya PEN
  • MANIFESTO: ek saath nae sarvasattaavaad ka saamana karte hue - ek khula patra jise unhonne sah-hastaaksharit kiya, jeelainds-posten mohammad kaartoon vivaad ke sambandh mein.
  • blitkaun, british saahityik roodhivaadi
  • Indian literature: a kritikl kesabuk mein Salman rushdi ki midnights children par aalochanaatmak adhyayan


sandarbh

  1. "The UK Honours System - Queen's birthday list 2007" (PDF). Ceremonial Secretariat, Cabinet Office. 2007. http://www.honours.gov.uk/upload/assets/www.honours.gov.uk/queens_birthday_list2007.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-28.
  2. "Salman Rushdie to Teach and Place His Archive at Emory University". Emory University. http://news.emory.edu/Releases/RushdieProfessorship1160159900.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-10.
  3. "Freshnews article". http://www.freshnews.in/rushdies-the-enchantress-of-florence-is-a-historical-novel-20224.
  4. "saahityik vishvakosh: Salman rushdi," saahityik vishvakosh. 20 January 2008 ko pun:praapt
  5. "Salman rushdi (1947-)",c. 2003, 20 January 2008 ko pun:praapt
  6. "Salman rushdi jeevani", 2004, british kaaunsal, 20 January 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  7. "Salman rushdi ne apna nishaana 'Bollywood jaurdan' par set kiya", the daily mel, 12 June 2009
  8. jaise hi Salman rushdi ek aur khoobsoorat mahila ke saath baahar aate hain" 21 July 2008 the ivaning stainadard
  9. "rushdi: fatwe ki chhaaya mein se nai kitaab baahar," CNN, 15 April 1999 21 April 2007 ko pun: praapt kiya gaya
  10. "Readers across the world agree that Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children is the Best of the Booker.". Man Booker Prizes. 2008. http://www.themanbookerprize.com/news/stories/1099. abhigman tithi: 2008-07-10.
  11. saleem (sinaai) Salman (rushdi) naheen hai, (haalaanki vah ek padma se shaadi karta hai) aur saleem ke daada dau॰ aadam ajeej bhi vah naheen hai, lekin yahaan ek bhaavuk poorvajnyaaan kaaryarat hai. midnights children ke praarambhik pannon mein, dau॰ ajeej, apni praarthana chataai par jhukane ke dauraan matti ke ek kade guchhe se apni naak takara dete hain. usaki naak se khoon bahne lagta hai aur usaki aankhon mein paani aa jaata hai aur vah usi vakt vaheen tay karta hai ki vah ab dobaara kabhi Bhagwan ya aadmi ke saamane naheen jhukega. yeh faisala, baharahaal, uske bheetar ek chhed kar deta hai, ek mahatvapoorn aantarik kaksh mein ek shoonya, use mahilaaon aur itihaas ke prati asurakshit bana kar. ek fatwa aur ek fam fetaale se past, sar Salman ko iski kuchh samajh rahi hogi. saleem sinaai ke liye ek aur guladasta 20 July 2008 neena maartiris dvaara, TNN. the times of India
  12. "The 2007 Shortlist". Dublin City Public Libraries/International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. 2007. http://www.impacdublinaward.ie/2007/shortlist.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-05.
  13. rushdi ka uttar aupaniveshik prabhaav
  14. rushdi ke prabhaav aur puraskaar par times of India ki kahaani http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Review/One_more_bouquet_for_Saleem_Sinai/articleshow/3254751.cms
  15. "Salman Rushdie to Teach and Place His Archive at Emory University". Emory University Office of Media Relations. http://news.emory.edu/Releases/RushdieProfessorship1160159900.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-12-06.
  16. hitoshi igaaraashi, etori kaapriolo, William nigaard dekhiye
  17. a aa Anthony Loyd (8 June 2005). "Tomb of the unknown assassin reveals mission to kill Rushdie". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article531110.ece.
  18. "26 December 1990: Iranian leader upholds Rushdie fatwa". BBC News: On This Day. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/26/newsid_2542000/2542873.stm. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-10.
  19. Rubin, Michael (1 September 2006). "Can Iran Be Trusted?". The Middle East Forum: Promoting American Interests. http://www.meforum.org/article/1002. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-10.
  20. a aa Webster, Philip, Ben Hoyle and Ramita Navai (20 January 2005). "Ayatollah revives the death fatwa on Salman Rushdie". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article414681.ece. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-10.
  21. "Iran adamant over Rushdie fatwa". BBC News. 12 fravari 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4260599.stm. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-10.
  22. "Rushdie's term". http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2007021501382200.htm&date=2007/02/15/&prd=th&. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-15.
  23. "Cronenberg meets Rushdie". http://www.davidcronenberg.de/cr_rushd.htm.
  24. "Rushdie anger at policeman's book". BBC. August 2, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7538875.stm.
  25. "Bodyguard apologises to Rushdie". BBC. August 26, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7581842.stm.
  26. "Hezbollah: Rushdie death would stop Prophet insults". AFP. fravari 2, 2006. http://www.natashatynes.com/newswire/2006/02/hezbollah_killi.html.
  27. James Phillips (2007-06-20). "Hezbollah's Terrorist Threat to the European Union - Testimony before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Europe". http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/110/phi062007.htm.
  28. Joseph Bernard Tamney (2002). The Resilience of Conservative Religion: The Case of Popular, Conservative Protestant Congregations. Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  29. a aa i E "International Guerrillas and Criminal Libel". Screenonline. http://www.screenonline.org.uk/film/id/460938/index.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-02-07.
  30. "15 June 2007 Rushdie knighted in honours list". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6756149.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-16.
  31. sar rubish: kya rushdi night ki padavi ke paatr hain', times uchch shiksha anupoorak, 20 June 2007
  32. "10 July 2007 Al-Qaeda condemns Rushdie honour". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/6289110.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-10.
  33. rushdi: main vikshipt tha jab mainne islaam apnaaya | TimesOnline
  34. 1072-1729998,00.html musalmaanon ekajut ho!1072-1729998,00.html ek naya sudhaar aapki aastha ko aadhunik yug mein laaega 11 August 2005
  35. Michael meindal how America Gates ave vith murder, plooto press, 2004, p60
  36. patra, Salman rushdi: Pentagon raajaneeti mein koi dilchaspi naheen| vishv samaachaar | the gaardiyn
  37. StandWithUs.com - khatarnaak paakhand: denish kaartoon ke prati vishv pratikriya
  38. Wagner, Thomas (10 October 2006). "Blair, Rushdie support former British foreign secretary who ignited veil debate". SignOnSanDiego.com. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/world/20061010-0539-britain-veildispute.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-10.
  39. The ageing punk of lit crit still knows how to spit - times online
  40. Radio show Medierna broadcast on Sveriges Radio P1 on 31 January 2009.


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