Ram prasaad 'bismil'

Ram prasaad 'bismil'
11 June 1897 se 19 December 1927
neeche box mein daayeen or hastaakshrar sahit raamaprasaad 'bismil' ka chitr

raamaprasaad 'bismil'
upanaam : 'bismil', 'Ram', 'agyaat' va 'pandit ji'
janmasthal : shaahajahaaainpur, british Bhaarat
mrutyusthal: Gorakhpur, british Bhaarat
maata-pita: moolamati/ muraleedhar
bhaai/bahan: ramesh Singh,shaastri devi,brahmaadevi ,bhagavati devi
dharm: hindu
aandolan: bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam
pramukh sangathan: Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan
upajeevika: kavi, saahityakaar
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
smaarak: amar shaheed pan॰ Ram prasaad bismil udyaan, greater Noida
sangrahaalaya, shaahajahaaainpur

amar shaheed pan raamaprasaad bismil sangrahaalaya, ijla-muraina,m.pr.

Ram prasaad 'bismil' (11 June 1897-19 December 1927) bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan ki kraantikaari dhaara ke ek pramukh senaani the, jinhein 30 varsh ki aayu mein british sarkaar ne faaainsi de di. ve mainapuri shadyantr va kaakori-kaand jaisi kai ghatnaaon me shaamil the tatha Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan ke sadasya bhi the.

Ram prasaad ek kavi, shaayar, anuvaadak, bahubhaashaabhaashi, itihaasakaar va saahityakaar bhi the. bismil unka urdoo takhallus (upanaam) tha jiska hindi mein arth hota hai aatmik roop se aahat. bismil ke atirikt ve Ram aur agyaat ke naam se bhi lekh va kavitaayein likhte the.

shukravaar jyeshth shukl ekaadashi (nirjala ekaadashi) vikrami sanvat 1954 ko uttar pradesh ke shaahajahaaainpur mein janme Ram prasaad ko 30 varsh ki aayu mein somvaar paush Krishna ekaadashi (safala ekaadashi) vikrami sanvat 1984 ko ve shaheed hue. unhonne san 1916 mein 19 varsh ki aayu mein kraantikaari maarg mein kadam rakha tha. 11 varsh ke kraantikaari jeevan mein unhonne kai pustakein likheen aur swayam hi unhein prakaashit kiya. un pustakon ko bechakar jo paisa mila usase unhonne hathiyaar khareede aur un hathiyaaron ka upayog british raaj ka virodh karne ke liye kiya. 11 pustakein hi unke jeevan kaal mein prakaashit huin aur british sarkaar dvaara jbt ki gayeen.

bismil ko tatkaaleen sanyukt praant Agra va avadh ki Lucknow sentral jail ki 11 number bairak mein rakha gaya tha. isi jail mein unke dal ke anya saathiyoain ko ek saath rakhakar un sabhi par british raaj ke viruddh saajish rachane ka aitihaasik mukadama chalaaya gaya tha.


anukram

poorvaj

muraina (ma॰apra॰) ke barabai gaaainv mein Ram prasaad bismil ki pratima

bismil ke daada ji Narayan laal ka Patrick gaaainv barabaai tha. yeh gaaainv tatkaaleen gvaaliyr raajya mein chambal nadi ke beehadon ke beech sthit tomaraghaar kshetr ke muraina jile mein tha aur vartamaan mein yeh madhya pradesh mein hai. barabaai gram-vaasi aaye din angrejon va angreji aadhiptya vaale gram-vaasiyon ko tang karte the. paarivaarik kalah ke kaaran Narayan laal ne apni patni vichitra devi evam donon putron - muraleedhar va kalyaanamal sahit apna Patrick gaaainv chhod diya.[1] unke gaaainv chhodne ke baad barabaai mein keval unke do bhaai - amaan Singh va samaan Singh hi rah gaye jinke vanshaj aaj bhi usi gaaainv mein rahate hain.[2] aaj barabaai gaaainv ke ek park mein madhya pradesh sarkaar dvaara Ram prasaad bismil ki ek pratima sthaapit kar di gayi hai.vaheen 'barabaai' gram ko 'saansad aadarsh gram yojana 'ke tahat bhi viksit kiya ja raha hai.iske atirikt muraina mein bismil ka ek mandir evam jila mukhyaalaya par 'amar shaheed pan raamaprasaad bismil sangrahaalaya' bhi banaaya gaya hai,jo chambal anchal ke amar shaheedon evam anchal ke aitihaasik va pura sthalon ki jaankaari pradaan karta hai.[3]

kaalaantar mein yeh parivaar uttar pradesh ke aitihaasik nagar shaahajahaaainpur aa gaya. shaahajahaaainpur mein munnooganj ke faatak ke paas sthit ek attaar ki dukaan par maatr teen rupaye maasik mein Narayan laal ne naukri kar li. itne kam paise mein unke parivaar ka gujaara naheen hota tha. bismil ki daadi vichitra devi ne apne pati ka haath bataane ke liye anaaj peesane ka kaarya shuroo kar diya. yeh silsila lagbhag do-teen varshon tak chalta raha.[1]

bismil ke pita muraleedhar

Narayan laal yaheen ke prasiddhtomar vansh ke kshatriya the. kintu unke aachaar-vichaar, satyanishtha va dhaarmik pravrutti se sthaaneeya log praay: unhein "pandit ji" hi kehkar sambodhit karte the. isse unhein ek laabh yeh bhi hota tha ki pratyek teej - tyohaar par daan - dakshina va bhojan aadi ghar mein aa jaaya karta. isi beech Narayan laal ko sthaaneeya nivaasiyon ki sahaayata se ek paathashaala mein saat rupaye maasik par naukri mil gayi. kuchh samay pashchaat unhonne yeh naukri bhi chhod di aur rejagaari (ikanni-duanni-chavanni ke sikke) bechne ka kaarobaar shuroo kar diya. isse unhein pratidin paaainch-saat aane ki aay hone lagi. Narayan laal ne rahane ke liye ek makaan bhi shahar ke khirneebaag mohalle mein khareed liya aur bade bete muraleedhar ka vivaah apne sasuraal vaalon ke parivaar ki hi ek kanya moolamati se karke use is naye ghar mein le aaye. shaadi pashchaat muraleedhar ko shaahajahaaainpur ki nagarapaalika mein 15 rupaye maasik vetan par naukri mil gayi. kintu unhein yeh naukri pasand naheen aayi. kuchh din baad unhonne naukri tyaag kar kachahari mein staamp pepar bechne ka kaam shuroo kar diya. is vyavasaaya mein unhonne achha khaasa dhan kamaaya. teen bailagaadiyaaain kiraaye par chalne lageen va byaaj par rupaye udhaar dene ka kaam bhi karne lage.[1]

praarambhik jeevan evam shiksha

11 June 1897 ko uttar pradesh ke shaahajahaaainpur shahar ke khirneebaag muhalle mein muraleedhar aur unki patni moolamati ko janme bismil apne maata-pita ki doosari santaan the. unase poorv ek putr paida hote hi mar chuka tha. baalak ki janm-kundali va donon haath ki daso uaingaliyon mein chakr ke nishaan dekhkar ek jyotishi ne bhavishyavaani ki thi - "yadi is baalak ka jeevan kisi prakaar bacha raha, yadyapi sambhaavana bahut kam hai, to ise chakravarti samraat banane se duniya ki koi bhi taakat rok naheen paayegi.''[4] maata-pita donon hi Singh raashi ke the aur bachcha bhi Singh-shaavak jaisa lagta tha at: jyotishiyon ne bahut soch vichaar kar tula raashi ke naamaakshar r par naam rakhane ka sujhaav diya. maata-pita donon hi Ram ke aaraadhak the at: baalak ka naam raamaprasaad rakha gaya. maaain moolamati to sadaiv yahi kehti theen ki unhein Ram jaisa putr chaahiye tha. baalak ko ghar mein sabhi log pyaar se Ram kehkar hi pukaarate the. raamaprasaad ke janm se poorv unki maaain ek putr kho chuki theen at: jaadoo-tone ka sahaara bhi liya gaya. ek kharagosh laaya gaya aur navajaat shishu ke oopar se utaar kar aaaingan mein chhod diya gaya. kharagosh ne aaaingan ke do-chaar chakkar lagaaye aur fauran mar gaya. iska ullekh Ram prasaad bismil ne apni aatmakatha mein kiya hai. muraleedhar ke kul 9 santaanein huin jinmein paaainch putriyaaain evam chaar putr the. aage chalakar do putriyon evam do putron ka bhi dehaant ho gaya.[1]

baalyakaal se hi raamaprasaad ki shiksha par vishesh dhyaan diya jaane laga. usaka man khelne mein adhik kintu padhne mein kam lagta tha. iske kaaran unke pitaaji to usaki khoob pitaayi lagaate parantu maaain hamesha pyaar se yahi samajhaati ki "beta Ram! ye bahut buri baat hai mat kiya karo." is pyaar bhari seekh ka uske man par kaheen na kaheen prabhaav avashya padta. uske pita ne pehle hindi ka akshar-bodh karaaya kintu u se ulloo na to unhonne padhna seekha aur na hi likhkar dikhaaya. un dinon hindi ki varnamaala mein u se ulloo hi padhaaya jaata tha. is baat ka vah virodh karte the aur badle mein pita ki maar bhi khaate the. haar kar use urdoo ke school mein bharti kara diya gaya. shaayad yahi praakrutik gun raamaprasaad ko ek kraantikaari bana paaye. lagbhag 14 varsh ki aayu mein raamaprasaad ko apne pita ki sandookachi se rupaye churaane ki lat pad gayi. churaaye gaye rupayon se unhonne upanyaas aadi khareedkar padhna praarambh kar diya evam cigarette peene va bhaaaing chadhaane ki aadat bhi pad gayi thi. kul milaakar rupaye - chori ka silsila chalta raha aur raamaprasaad ab urdoo ke premaras se paripoorn upanyaason va gajalon ki pustakein padhne ka aadi ho gaya tha. sanyog se ek din bhaaaing ke nashe mein hone ke kaaran raamaprasaad ko chori karte hue pakad liya gaya. khoob pitaai hui, upanyaas va anya kitaabein faad daali gayeen lekin rupaye churaane ki aadat naheen chhooti. aage chalakar jab unako thodi samajh aayi tabhi ve is durgun se mukt ho sake.[1]

raamaprasaad ne urdoo middle ki pareeksha mein utteern na hone par angreji padhna praarambh kiya. saath hi pados ke ek pujaari ne raamaprasaad ko pooja-paath ki vidhi ka gyaan karva diya. pujaari ek sulajhe hue vidvaan vyakti the. unke vyaktitv ka prabhaav raamaprasaad ke jeevan par bhi pada. pujaari ke upadeshon ke kaaran raamaprasaad pooja-paath ke saath brahmacharya ka paalan karne laga. pujaari ki dekha-dekhi raamaprasaad ne vyaayaam karna bhi praarambh kar diya. kishoraavastha ki jitni bhi kubhaavanaaeain evam buri aadatein man mein theen ve bhi chhoot gayeen. keval cigarette peene ki lat naheen chhooti. parantu vah bhi kuchh dinon baad vidyaalaya ke ek sahapaathi susheelachandr sen ki satsangati se chhoot gayi. cigarette chhootane ke baad raamaprasaad ka man padhaai mein lagne laga. bahut sheegra hi vah angreji ke paaainchavein darje mein aa gaye.[1]

raamaprasaad mein apratyaashit parivartan ho chuka tha. shareer sundar va balishth ho gaya tha. niyamit pooja-paath mein samay vyateet hone laga tha. isi dauraan vah mandir mein aane vaale munshi indrajeet se usaka sampark hua. munshi indrajeet ne raamaprasaad ko aarya samaaj ke sambandh mein bataaya aur svaami dayaanand sarasvati ki likhi pustak satyaarth prakaash padhne ko di. satyaarth prakaash ke gambheer adhyayan se raamaprasaad ke jeevan par aashcharyajanak prabhaav pada.[1]

svaami somadev se bheint

raamaprasaad jab gavarnament school shaahajahaaainpur mein aathaveen kaksha ke chhaatr the tabhi sanyog se svaami somadev ka aarya samaaj bhavan mein aagaman hua.[1] munshi indrajeet ne raamaprasaad ko svaameeji ki seva mein niyukt kar diya. yaheen se unke jeevan ki dasha aur disha donon mein parivartan praarambh hua. ek or satyaarth prakaash ka gambheer adhyayan va doosari or svaami somadev ke saath raajaneetik vishyon par khuli charcha se unke man mein desh-prem ki bhaavana jaagrut hui. san 1916 ke Congress adhiveshan mein svaagataadhyaksh pan॰ jagat Narayan 'mulla' ke aadesh ki dhajjiyaaain bikherate hue raamaprasaad ne jab lokamaanya baalagangaadhar tilk ki poore Lucknow shahar mein shobhaayaatra nikaali to sabhi navayuvakon ka dhyaan unki drudhata ki or gaya. adhiveshan ke dauraan unka parichay keshav baliraam hedagevaar (chhdmanaam: keshav chakravarti), somadev sharma va mukundeelaal aadi se hua. baad mein inheen somadev sharma ne kinheen siddhagopaal shukl ke saath milkar naagari saahitya pustakaalaya, Kanpur se ek pustak bhi prakaashit ki jiska sheershak rakha gaya tha - America ki svatantrata ka itihaas. yeh pustak babu ganeshaprasaad ke prabandh se kurmi press, Lucknow mein san 1916 mein prakaashit hui thi.[5] raamaprasaad ne yeh pustak apni maataaji se do baar mein do-do sau rupaye lekar prakaashit ki thi. iska ullekh unhonne apni aatmakatha mein kiya hai. yeh pustak chhapate hi jabt kar li gayi thi baad mein jab kaakori kaand ka abhiyog chala to saakshya ke roop mein yahi pustak prastut ki gayi thi. ab yeh pustak sampaadit karke sarafaroshi ki tamanna naamak granthaavali ke bhaag-teen mein sankalit ki ja chuki hai aur teen moorti bhavan pustakaalaya, nai-Delhi sahit kai anya pustakaalayon mein dekhi ja sakti hai.[6]

mainapuri shadyantr

pan॰ geindaalaal Dixit : mainapuri shadayantr mein bismil ke maargadarshak

san 1915 mein bhaai paramaanand ki faaainsi ka samaachaar sunakar raamaprasaad british saamraajya ko samool nasht karne ki pratijnyaa kar chuke the, 1916 mein ek pustak chhapakar aa chuki thi, kuchh navayuvak unase jud chuke the, svaami somadev ka aasheervaad bhi unhein praapt ho chuka tha. ek sangathan unhonne pan॰ geindaalaal Dixit ke maargadarshan mein maatruvedi ke naam se khud khada kar liya tha. is sangathan ki or se ek ishtihaar aur ek pratijnyaa bhi prakaashit ki gayi. dal ke liye dhan ekatr karne ke uddeshya se raamaprasaad ne, jo ab tak 'bismil' ke naam se prasiddh ho chuke the, June 1918 mein do tatha sitmbar 1918 mein ek - kul milaakar teen dakaiti bhi daaleen, jisse police satark hokar in yuvakon ki khoj mein jagah-jagah chhaape daal rahi thi. 26 se 31 December 1918 tak Delhi mein laal kile ke saamane hue Congress adhiveshan mein is sangathan ke navayuvakon ne chilla-chilla kar jaise hi pustakein bechana shuroo kiya ki police ne chhaapa daala kintu bismil ki soojh boojh se sabhi pustakein bach gayeen.

pandit geindaalaal Dixit ka janm yamuna kinaare sthit May gaaainv mein hua tha. itaava jile ke ek prasiddh kasbe auraiya ke deeevi school mein adhyaapak the. deshbhakti ka junoon savaar hua to shivaaji samiti ke naam se ek sanstha bana li aur hathiyaar ekatr karne shuroo kar diye. Agra mein hathiyaar laate hue pakade gaye the. kile mein kaid the vahaaain se police ko chakama dekar rafoochakkar ho gaye. bismil ki maatruvedi sanstha ka vilay shivaaji samiti mein karne ke baad donon ne milkar kai kaam kiye. ek baar pun: pakade gaye, police peechhe padi thi, bhaag kar Delhi chale gaye jahaan unka praanaant hua. bismil ne apni aatmakatha mein pandit gendaalaal ji ka bada maarmik varnan kiya hai.

mainapuri shadayantr mein shaahajahaaainpur se 6 yuvak shaamil hue the jinke leedar raamaprasaad bismil the kintu ve police ke haath naheen aaye, tatkaal faraar ho gaye. 1 nabambar 1919 ko magistrate bee॰ esa॰ kris ne mainapuri shadayantr ka faisala suna diya. jin-jin ko sajaayein huin unamein mukundeelaal ke alaava sabhi ko February 1920 mein aam maafi ke ailaan mein chhod diya gaya. bismil poore 2 varsh bhoomigat rahe. unke dal ke hi kuchh saathiyon ne shaahajahaaainpur mein jaakar yeh afavaah faila di ki bhaai raamaprasaad to police ki goli se maare gaye jabki sachchaai yeh thi ki ve police muthabhed ke dauraan yamuna mein chhalaaaing lagaakar paani ke andar hi andar yogaabhyaas ki shakti se tairate hue meelon door aage jaakar nadi se baahar nikle aur jahaaain aajkal greater Noida aabaad ho chuka hai vahaaain ke nirjan beehadon mein chale gaye. vahaaain un dinon keval babool ke hi vruksh hua karte the; aur oosar jameen mein aadmi to kaheen door-door tak dikhta hi naheen tha.

palaayanaavastha mein saahitya-srujan

greater Noida ke beeta van sector sthit Rampur jaageer gaaainv mein amar shaheed pan॰ Ram prasaad bismil udyaan

Ram prasaad bismil ne yahaaain ke ek chhote se gaaainv Rampur jaageer (Rampur jahaaaingeer) mein sharan li aur kai maheene yahaaain ke nirjan jangalon mein ghoomate hue gaaainv ke goojaron ki gaaya bhains charaain. iska bada hi rochak varnan unhonne apni aatmakatha ke dviteeya khand : svadesh prem (upasheershak - palaayanaavastha) mein kiya hai. yaheen rahakar unhonne apna kraantikaari upanyaas bolshevikon ki kartoot likha. vastut: yeh upanyaas moolaroop se baangla bhaasha mein likhit pustak nihilist-rahasya ka hindi - anuvaad hai jiski bhaasha aur shaili donon hi badi rochak hain. aravind ghosh ki ek ati uttam baangla pustak yaugik saadhan ka hindi - anuvaad bhi unhonne bhoomigat rahate hue hi kiya tha. yamuna kinaare ki[1] jameen un dinon police se bachane ke liye surakshit samajhi jaati thi at: bismil ne us niraapad sthaan ka bharpoor upayog kiya. vartamaan samay mein yeh gaaainv chooainki greater Noida ke beeta van sector ke antargat aata hai at: uttar pradesh sarkaar ne Rampur jaageer gaaainv ke kshetr mein aane waali van vibhaag ki aarakshit bhoomi par unki smruti mein amar shaheed pan॰ Ram prasaad bismil udyaan viksit kar diya hai jiski dekharekh greater Noida prashaasan ke vitt-poshan se pradesh ka van vibhaag karta hai.[7]

'bismil' ki ek visheshata yeh bhi thi ki ve kisi bhi sthaan par adhik dinon tak thaharate naheen the. kuchh din Rampur jaageer mein rahakar apni sagi bahan shaastri devi ke gaaainv kosama jila mainapuri mein bhi rahe. maje ki baat yeh ki unki apni bahan tak unhein pehchaan naheen paayeen.[8] kosama se chalakar baah pahuainche. kuchh din baah rahe fir vahaaain se pinhat, Agra hote hue gvaaliyr riyaasat sthit apne daada ke gaaainv barabai (jila muraina, madhya pradesh) chale gaye. unhonne vahaaain kisaan ke bhes mein rahakar kuchh dinon hal bhi chalaaya. palaayanaavastha mein rahate hue unhonne 1918 mein prakaashit aaingreji pustak di grendamadar of rasiyn rivolyooshan ka hindi - anuvaad kiya. unke sabhi saathiyon ko yeh pustak bahut pasand aayi. is pustak ka naam unhonne kaitheraain rakha tha. itna hi naheen, bismil ne susheelamaala series se kuchh pustakein bhi prakaashit keen theen jinmein man ki lahar naamak kavitaaon ka sangrah, kaitheraain ya svaadheenata ki devi - kaitheraain brashkovaski ki sankshipt jeevani, svadeshi rang va uparokt bolshevikon ki kartoot naamak upanyaas pramukh the. svadeshi rang ke atirikt anya teenon pustakein aam paathakon ke liye aajkal pustakaalayon mein upalabdh hain.

pun: kraanti ki or

sarkaari ailaan ke baad Ram prasaad bismil ne apne vatan shaahajahaaainpur aakar pehle Bhaarat silk mainufaikcharing company mein manager ke pad par kuchh din naukri ki uske baad sadar baajaar mein reshami saadiyon ki dukaan kholkar banaaraseelaal ke saath vyaapaar shuroo kar diya. vyaapaar mein unhonne naam aur naama donon kamaaya. Congress jila samiti ne unhein lekha pareekshak ke pad par kaaryakaari committee mein le liya. sitmbar 1920 mein ve Calcutta Congress mein shaahajahaaainpur kaaaingres committee ke adhikrut pratinidhi ke roop mein shaamil hue. kalakatte mein unki bheint laala laajapat rai se hui. laala ji ne jab unki likhi hui pustakein dekheen to ve unase kaafi prabhaavit hue. unhonne unka parichay Calcutta ke kuchh prakaashakon se kara diya jinmein ek umaadatt sharma bhi the, jinhonne aage chalakar san 1922 mein Ram prasaad bismil ki ek pustak kaitheraain chhaapi thi. san 1921 ke Ahmedabad Congress adhiveshan mein raamaprasaad'bismil' ne poorn Swaraj ke prastaav par maulaana hasarat mohaani ka khulkar samarthan kiya aur antatogatva Gandhi ji se asahayog aandolan praarambh karne ka prastaav paarit karva kar hi maane. is kaaran ve yuvaaon mein kaafi lokapriya ho gaye. samooche desh mein asahayog aandolan shuroo karne mein shaahajahaaainpur ke svayansevakon ki aham bhoomika thi. kintu 1922 mein jab chaureechaura kaand ke pashchaat kisi se paraamarsh kiye bina Gandhi ji ne asahayog aandolan vaapas le liya to 1922 ki gaya Congress mein bismil va unke saathiyon ne Gandhi ji ka aisa virodh kiya ki Congress mein fir do vichaaradhaaraayein ban gayeen - ek udaaravaadi ya libral aur doosari vidrohi ya ribeliyn. Gandhi ji vidrohi vichaaradhaara ke navayuvakon ko Congress ki aam sabhaaon mein virodh karne ke kaaran hamesha hulladbaaj kaha karte the. ek baar to unhonne javaaharalaal Nehru ko patra likhkar kraantikaari navayuvakon ka saath dene par buri tarah fatkaar bhi lagaayi thi.[9]

echa॰aaara॰ae॰ ka gathan

laala haradayaal jinhonne echa॰aaara॰ae॰ ke gathan mein apni aham bhoomika nibhaayi

January 1923 mein Motilal Nehru va deshabandhu chitranjan das sareekhe dhanaadhya logon ne milkar Swaraj party bana li. navayuvakon ne tadarth party ke roop mein rivolyooshanari party ka ailaan kar diya. sitmbar 1923 mein hue Delhi ke vishesh Congress adhiveshan mein asantusht navayuvakon ne yeh nirnaya liya ki ve bhi apni party ka naam va samvidhaan aadi nishchit kar raajaneeti mein dakhal dena shuroo kareinge anyatha desh mein lokatantr ke naam par lootatantr haavi ho jaayega. dekha jaaye to us samay unki yeh badi dooradarshi soch thi. suprasiddh kraantikaari laala haradayaal, jo un dinon videsh mein rahakar Hindustan ko svatantr karaane ki rananeeti banaane mein jute hue the, Ram prasaad bismil ke sampark mein svaami somadev ke samay se hi the. laala ji ne hi patra likhkar Ram prasaad bismil ko shacheendranaath saanyaal va yadu gopaal mukharji se milkar nayi party ka samvidhaan taiyaar karne ki salaah di thi. laala ji ki salaah maankar Ram prasaad Allahabad gaye aur shacheendranaath saanyaal ke ghar par party ka samvidhaan taiyaar kiya.[10]

navagathit party ka naam sankshep mein echa॰ aara॰ e॰ rakha gaya va iska samvidhaan peele raing ke parche par chhaap karke sadasyon ko bheja gaya. 3 October 1924 ko is party (Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan) ki ek kaaryakaarini-baithak Kanpur mein ki gayi jismein shacheendranaath saanyaal, yogesh chandr chatarji va Ram prasaad bismil aadi kai pramukh sadasya shaamil hue. is baithak mein party ka netrutv bismil ko saunpakar saanyaal va chatarji Bengal chale gaye. party ke liye fand ekatr karne mein kathinaai ko dekhte hue aayaralaind ke kraantikaariyon ka tareeka apnaaya gaya aur party ki or se pehli dakaiti 25 December 1924 (christmas ki raat) ko bamarauli mein daali gayi jiska kushal netrutv bismil ne kiya tha. iska ullekh cheef court of avadh ke faisale mein milta hai.[11]

"di rivolyooshanari" (ghoshana-patra) ka prakaashan

kraantikaari party ki or se 1 January 1925 ko kisi gumanaam jagah se prakaashit evam 28 se 31 January 1925 ke beech samooche Hindustan ke sabhi pramukh sthaanon par vitrit 4 prushth ke paimfalet "di rivolyooshanari" mein Ram prasaad bismil ne vijay Kumar ke chhadm naam se apne dal ki vichaar-dhaara ka likhit roop mein khulaasa karte hue saaf shabdon mein ghoshit kar diya tha ki kraantikaari is desh ki shaasan vyavastha mein kis prakaar ka badlaav karna chaahate hain aur iske liye ve kya-kya kar sakte hain? keval itna hi naheen, unhonne Gandhi ji ki neetiyon ka majaak banaate hue yeh prashn bhi kiya tha ki jo vyakti swayam ko aadhyaatmik kehta hai vah aaingrejon se khulkar baat karne mein darata kyon hai? unhonne Hindustan ke sabhi naujavaanon ko aise chhadmaveshi mahaatma ke bahakaave mein na aane ki salaah dete hue unki kraantikaari party mein shaamil ho kar aaingrejon se takkar lene ka khula aavaahan kiya tha. di rivolyooshanari ke naam se aaingreji mein prakaashit is kraantikaari (ghoshana patra) mein kraantikaariyon ke vaichaarik chintan*[12] ko bhali-bhaaainti samjha ja sakta hai. is patra ka avikl hindi kaavyaanuvaad[13] ab hindi vikeesrot[14] par bhi upalabdh hai.

kaakori-kaand

kaakori-kaand ke kraantikaari
sabse oopar Ram prasaad 'bismil' evam Ashfaq ulla khaaain neeche group photo mein kramash: (from left to right)1.yogeshachandr chatarji, 2.premakrushn khanna, 3.mukundi laal, 4.vishnusharan dublish, 5.sureshachandr Bhattacharya, 6.raamakrushn khatri, 7.manmathanaath gupt, 8.Rajkumar sinha, 9.thaakur roshanasinh, 10.pan॰ raamaprasaad 'bismil', 11.raajendranaath laahidi, 12.govindacharan car, 13.raamadulaare trivedi, 14.raamanaath paandeya, 15.shacheendranaath saanyaal, 16.bhoopendranaath saanyaal, 17.pranaveshakumaar chatarji

di rivolyooshanari naam se prakaashit is 4 prushtheeya ghoshanaapatr ko dekhte hi british sarkaar iske lekhak ko Bengal mein khojane lagi. sanyog se shacheendr naath saanyaal baaainkura mein us samay giraftaar kar liye gaye jab ve yeh ghoshanaapatr apne kisi saathi ko post karne ja rahe the. isi prakaar yogeshachandr chatarji Kanpur se party ki meeting karke jaise hi haavada station par train se utare ki echa॰ aara॰ e॰ ke samvidhaan ki dher saari pratiyon ke saath pakad liye gaye. unhein hajaareebaag jail mein band kar diya gaya. donon pramukh netaaon ke giraftaar ho jaane se Ram prasaad bismil ke kandhon par uttar pradesh ke saath-saath Bengal ke kraantikaari sadasyon ka uttaradaayitv bhi aa gaya. bismil ka svabhaav tha ki ve ya to kisi kaam ko haath mein lete na the aur yadi ek baar kaam haath mein le liya to use poora kiye bagair chhodte na the. party ke kaarya hetu dhan ki aavashyakta pehle bhi thi kintu ab to aur bhi adhik badh gayi thi. kaheen se bhi dhan praapt hota na dekh unhonne 7 March 1925 ko bichpuri tatha 24 May 1925 ko dvaarakaapur mein do raajaneetik dakaitiyaaain daaleen. parantu unhein unamein kuchh vishesh dhan praapt naheen ho saka.

in donon dakaitiyon mein ek-ek vyakti mauke par hi maara gaya. isse bismil ki aatma ko apaar kasht hua. antat: unhonne yeh pakka nishchaya kar liya ki ve ab keval sarkaari khajaana hi looteinge, Hindustan ke kisi bhi rais ke ghar dakaiti bilkul na daaleinge.[15]

shaahajahaaainpur mein unke ghar par 7 August 1925 ko hui ek imarjensi meeting mein nirnaya lekar yojana bani[15] aur 9 August 1925 ko shaahajahaaainpur railway station se bismil ke netrutv mein kul 10 log, jinmein Ashfaq ulla khaaain, Rajendra laahidi, chandrashekhar aajaad, shacheendranaath bakhshi, manmathanaath gupt, mukundi laal, keshav chakravarti (chhadmanaam), muraari sharma (vaastavik naam muraari laal gupt) tatha banavaari laal shaamil the, 8 daaun sahaaranapur-Lucknow passenger relagaadi mein savaar hue. in sabke paas pistaulon ke atirikt Germany ke bane chaar maaujr pistaul bhi the jinke bat mein kunda laga lene se vah chhoti svachaalit rifle ki tarah lagta tha aur saamane vaale ke man mein bhaya paida kar deta tha. in maaujaron ki maarak kshamata[16] bhi saadhaaran pistaulon se adhik hoti thi. un dinon ye maaujar aaj ki e॰ ke॰ - 47 raayafal ki tarah charchit the. Lucknow se pehle kaakori railway station par ruk kar jaise hi gaadi aage badhi, kraantikaariyon ne chen kheenchakar use rok liya aur guard ke dibbe se sarkaari khajaane ka baksa neeche gira diya. use kholne ki koshish ki gayi kintu jab vah naheen khula to Ashfaq ulla khaaain ne apna maaujar manmathanaath gupt ko pakada diya aur hathauda lekar baksa todne mein jut gaye. manmathanaath gupt ne utsukataavash maaujar ka trigr daba diya jisse chhooti goli Ahmad Ali naam ke musaafir ko lag gayi. vah mauke par hi dher ho gaya. sheeghrataavash chaaaindi ke sikkon va noton se bhare chamade ke thaile chaadaron mein baaaindhakar vahaaain se bhaagane mein ek chaadar vaheen chhoot gayi. agale din akhbaaron ke maadhyam se yeh khabar poore sansaar mein fail gayi. british sarkaar ne is train dakaiti ko gambheerata se liya aur dee॰ aai॰ jee॰ ke sahaayak (see॰ aai॰ dee॰ inspector) mistar aara॰ e॰ haartan[17] ke netrutv mein skautalaind ki sabse tej tarraar police ko iski jaaainch ka kaam saunp diya.

giraftaari aur abhiyog

see॰ aai॰ dee॰ ne gambheer chhaanabeen karke sarkaar ko is baat ki pushti kar di ki kaakori train dakaiti kraantikaariyon ka ek suniyojit shadyantr hai. police ne kaakori kaand ke sambandh mein jaankaari dene va shadyantr mein shaamil kisi bhi vyakti ko giraftaar karavaane ke liye inaam ki ghoshana ke vigyaapan sabhi pramukh sthaanon par laga diye. iska parinaam yeh hua ki police ko ghatnaasthal par mili chaadar mein lage dhobi ke nishaan se is baat ka pata chal gaya ki chaadar shaahajahaaainpur ke hi kisi vyakti ki hai. shaahajahaaainpur ke dhobiyon se poochhane par maaloom hua ki chaadar banaarasi laal ki hai. banaarasi laal se milkar police ne saara bhed praapt kar liya. yeh bhi pata chal gaya ki 9 August 1925 ko shaahajahaaainpur se usaki party ke kaun-kaun log shahar se baahar gaye the aur ve kab-kab vaapas aaye? jab khufiya taur se is baat ki pushti ho gayi ki Ram prasaad bismil, jo echa॰ aara॰ e॰ ka leedar tha, us din shahar mein naheen tha to 26 sitmbar 1925 ki raat mein bismil ke saath samooche Hindustan se 40 se bhi adhik[18] logon ko giraftaar kar liya gaya.

kaakori kaand mein keval 10 hi log vaastavik roop se shaamil hue the at: un sabhi ko naamajad kiya gaya. inmein se paaainch - chandrashekhar aajaad, muraari sharma[19] (chhadmanaam), keshav chakravarti (chhadmanaam), Ashfaq ulla khaaain va shacheendr naath bakhshi ko chhodkar, jo police ke haath naheen aaye, shesh sabhi vyaktiyon par abhiyog chala aur unhein 5 varsh ki kaid se lekar faaainsi tak ki saja sunaayi gayi. faraar abhiyukton ke atirikt jin-jin kraantikaariyon ko echa॰ aara॰ e॰ ka sakriya kaaryakarta hone ke sandeh mein giraftaar kiya gaya tha unamein se 16 ko saakshya na milne ke kaaran riha kar diya gaya. special magistrate ainuddeen ne pratyek kraantikaari ki chhabi kharaab karne mein koi kasar baaki naheen rakkhi. sirf itna hi naheen, case ko session court mein bhejane se pehle hi is baat ke sabhi saakshi va saakshya ekatr kar liye the ki yadi appeal bhi ki jaaye to ek bhi abhiyukt bina saja ke chhootane na paaye. banaarasi laal ko havaalaat mein hi police ne kadi saja ka bhaya dikhaakar tod liya. shaahajahaaainpur jila kaaaingres committee mein party-fand ko lekar isi banaarasi ka bismil se jhagada ho chuka tha. bismil ne, jo us samay jila kaaaingres committee ke odeetar the, banaarasi par party-fand mein gaban ka aarop siddh karte hue use kaaaingres party ki praathamik sadasyata se nilmbit kar diya tha. baad mein jab Gandhi ji 16 October 1920 (shanivaar) ko shaahajahaaainpur aaye to banaarasi ne unase milkar apna paksh rakkha. gaandhi ji ne us samay yeh kehkar ki chhoti-moti hera-feri ko itna tool naheen dena chaahiye, in donon mein sulah kara di. parantu banaarasi bada hi dhoort aadmi tha. usane pehle to bismil se maafi maaaing li fir Gandhi ji ko alag le jaakar unke kaan bhar diye ki raamaprasaad bada hi aparaadhi kism ka vyakti hai. ve iski kisi baat ka na to swayam vishvaas karein na hi kisi aur ko karne dein.

aage chalakar isi banaarasi laal ne bismil se mitrata kar li aur meethi-meethi baaton se pehle unka vishvaas arjit kiya aur uske baad unke saath kapde ke vyaapaar mein saajheedaar ban gaya. jab bismil ne gaandhi ji ki aalochna karte hue apni alag party bana li to banaarasi laal atyadhik prasann hua aur mauke ki talaash mein chup saadhe baitha raha. police ne sthaaneeya logon se bismil va banaarasi ke pichhle jhagade ka bhed jaanakar hi banaarasi laal ko aproovar (sarkaari gavaah) banaaya aur bismil ke viruddh poore abhiyog mein ek achook aujaar ki tarah istemaal kiya. banaarasi laal vyaapaar mein saajheedaar hone ke kaaran party sambandhi aisi-aisi gopaneeya baatein jaanta tha, jinhein bismil ke atirikt aur koi bhi na jaan sakta tha. iska ullekh Ram prasaad bismil ne apni aatmakatha mein kiya hai.

Lucknow jila jail, jo un dinon sanyukt praant (yoo॰apee॰) ki sentral jail kahalaati thi, ki 11 number bairak[20] mein sabhi kraantikaariyon ko ek saath rakkha gaya aur hajarataganj chauraahe ke paas ring theatre naam ki ek aaleeshaan bilding mein asthaai adaalat ka nirmaan kiya gaya. ring theatre naam ki yeh bilding kothi hayaat bakhsh aur mallika ahad mahal ke beech hua karti thi jismein british afsar aakar film va naatak aadi dekhkar manoranjan kiya karte the. isi ring theatre mein lagaataar 18 maheene tak King imparar versus Ram prasaad 'bismil' end adars ke naam se chalaaye gaye aitihaasik mukadame mein british sarkaar ne 10 lakh rupaye[18] us samay kharch kiye the jab sone ka moolya 20 rupaye tola (12 gram) hua karta tha. british hukmaraanon ke aadesh se yeh bilding bhi baad mein dhaha di gayi aur usaki jagah san 1929-1932 mein jee॰ pee॰ o॰ (mukhya daakaghar) Lucknow[21] ke naam se ek doosra bhavya bhavan bana diya gaya. 1947 mein jab Bhaarat aajaad ho gaya to yahaaain Gandhi ji ki bhavya pratima sthaapit karke rahi sahi kasar Nehru sarkaar ne poori kar di. jab kendra mein gair kaaaingresi janta sarkaar ka pehli baar gathan hua to us samay ke jeevit kraantikaariyon ke saamoohik prayaason se san 1977 mein aayojit kaakori shaheed arddhashataabdi samaaroh ke samay yahaaain par kaakori stambh ka anaavaran uttar pradesh ke raajyapaal ganapatiraav devaraav tapaase ne kiya taaki us sthal ki smruti bani rahe.

is aitihaasik mukadame mein sarkaari kharche se harakarananaath mishr ko kraantikaariyon ka vakeel niyukt kiya gaya jabki javaaharalaal Nehru ke rishte mein saale lagne vaale suprasiddh vakeel jagatanaaraayan 'mulla' ko ek sochi samajhi rananeeti ke antargat sarkaari vakeel banaaya gaya.[22] jagat Narayan ne apni or se sabhi kraantikaariyon ko kadi se kadi saja dilvaane mein koi kasar baaki na rakkhi. yeh vahi jagat Narayan the jinki marji ke khilaaf san 1916 mein bismil ne lokamaanya baalagangaadhar tilk ki bhavya shobhaayaatra poore Lucknow shahar mein nikaali thi. isi baat se chidh kar mainapuri shadayantr mein bhi inheen mullaaji ne sarkaari vakeel ki haisiyat se kaafi jor lagaaya parantu ve Ram prasaad bismil ka ek bhi baal baaainka na kar paaye kyonki mainapuri shadayantr mein bismil faraar ho gaye the aur do saal tak police ke haath hi na aaye.

faaainsi ki saja aur appeal

6 April 1927 ko vishesh session judge e0 haimiltan ne 115 prushth ke nirnaya mein pratyek kraantikaari par lagaaye gaye aaropon par vichaar karte hue likha ki yeh koi saadhaaran train dakaiti naheen, apitu british saamraajya ko ukhaad feinkane ki ek sochi samajhi saajish hai. haalaaainki inmein se koi bhi abhiyukt apne vyaktigat laabh ke liye is yojana mein shaamil naheen hua parantu chooainki kisi ne bhi na to apne kiye par koi pashchaataap kiya hai aur na hi bhavishya mein is prakaar ki gatividhiyon se swayam ko alag rakhane ka vachan diya hai at: jo bhi saja di gayi hai soch samajh kar di gayi hai aur is haalat mein usamein kisi bhi prakaar ki koi chhoot naheen di ja sakti. fir bhi, inmein se koi bhi abhiyukt yadi likhit mein pashchaataap prakat karta hai aur bhavishya mein aisa na karne ka vachan deta hai to unki appeal par upper court vichaar kar sakti hai.

faraar kraantikaariyon mein Ashfaq ulla khaaain aur shacheendr naath bakhshi ko bahut baad mein police giraftaar kar paayi. vishesh judge je॰ aara॰ dabloo॰ bainet ki adaalat mein kaakori shadyantr ka atirikt case daayar kiya gaya aur 13 July 1927 ko yahi baat doharaate hue Ashfaq ulla khaaain ko faaainsi tatha shacheendranaath bakhshi ko aajeevan kaaraavaas ki saja suna di gayi. session judge ke faisale ke khilaaf 18 July 1927 ko avadh cheef court mein appeal daayar ki gayi. cheef court ke mukhya nyaayaadheesh sar Louis shart aur vishesh nyaayaadheesh mohammad raja ke saamane donon maamale pesh hue. jagatanaaraayan 'mulla' ko sarkaari paksh rakhane ka kaam saunpa gaya jabki sajaayaafta kraantikaariyon ki or se ke॰ see॰ datt, jayakarananaath mishr va krupaashankar hajela ne kramash: Rajendra naath laahidi, thaakur roshan Singh va Ashfaq ulla khaaain ki pairavi ki. Ram prasaad bismil ne apni pairavi khud ki kyonki sarkaari kharche par unhein lakshmeeshankar mishr naam ka ek bada saadhaaran-sa vakeel diya gaya tha jisko lene se unhonne saaf mana kar diya.

bismil ne cheef court ke saamane jab dhaaraapravaah angreji mein faisale ke khilaaf bahas ki to sarkaari vakeel mulla ji bagalein jhaaainkate najar aaye. bismil ki is tark kshamata par cheef Justice Louis shartas ko unase yeh poochhana pada - "mistar raamaprasaad! fraum vhich yooneevarsiti you haiv teken the degree of laaai?" (Ram prasaad! tumane kis vishvavidyaalaya se kaanoon ki degree li hai?) is par unhonne hains kar kaha tha- "eksakyooj mi sar! A kingamekar dajant rikvaayar aini degree." (kshama karein mahodaya! samraat banaane vaale ko kisi degree ki aavashyakta naheen hoti.) adaalat ne is javaab se chidhkar bismil dvaara 18 July 1927 ko di gayi swayam vakaalat karne ki arji khaarij kar di. uske baad unhonne 76 prushth ki tarkapoorn likhit bahas pesh ki. use padh kar judgeon ne yeh shanka vyakt ki ki yeh bahas bismil ne swayam na likhkar kisi vidhivetta se likhvaayi hai. aakhirkaar adaalat dvaara unheen lakshmeeshankar mishr ko bahas karne ki ijaajat di gayi jinhein lene se bismil ne mana kar diya tha.

kaakori kaand ka mukadama Lucknow mein chal raha tha. pandit jagatanaaraayan mulla sarkaari vakeel ke saath urdoo ke shaayar bhi the. unhonne abhiyukton ke liye "muljimaan" ki jagah "mulaajim" shabd bol diya. fir kya tha, pandit Ram prasaad 'bismil' ne tapaak se un par ye chuteeli fabti kasi: "mulaajim hamako mat kahiye, bada afsos hota hai; adaalat ke adab se ham yahaaain tashareef laaye hain. palat dete hain ham mauje-havaadis apni jurrat se; ki humne aaaindhiyon mein bhi chiraag aksar jalaaye hain." unke kehne ka matlab tha ki mulaajim ve (bismil) naheen, balki mulla ji hain jo sarkaar se tanakhvaah paate hain. ve (bismil aadi) to raajaneetik bandi hain at: unke saath tameej se pesh aayein. iske saath hi yeh chetaavani bhi de daali ki ve samudra ki laharon tak ko apne dussaahas se palatane ka dam rakhate hain; mukadame ki baaji palatana kaun si badi baat hai? bhala itna bolne ke baad kiski himmat thi jo bismil ke aage thaharata. mulla ji ko paseene chhoot gaye aur unhonne kanni kaatne mein hi bhalaai samajhi. ve chupachaap pichhle darvaaje se khisak liye. fir us din unhonne koi jirah naheen ki.

cheef court mein shacheendr naath saanyaal, bhoopendr naath saanyaal va banavaari laal ko chhodkar shesh sabhi kraantikaariyon ne appeal ki thi. 22 August 1927 ko jo faisala sunaaya gaya uske anusaar Ram prasaad bismil, Rajendra naath laahidi va Ashfaq ulla khaaain ko aai॰ pee॰ see॰ ki dafa 121 (A) va 120 (bi) ke antargat aajeevan kaaraavaas tatha 302 va 396 ke anusaar faaainsi evam thaakur roshan Singh ko pehli do dafaaon mein 5+5 = kul 10 varsh ki kadi kaid tatha agali do dafaaon ke anusaar faaainsi ka hukm hua. shacheendr naath saanyaal, jab jail mein the tabhi likhit roop se apne kiye par pashchaataap prakat karte hue bhavishya mein kisi bhi kraantikaari kaarravaai mein hissa na lene ka vachan de chuke the. iske aadhaar par unki umr-kaid barkaraar rahi. shacheendr ke chhote bhaai bhoopendr naath saanyaal va banavaari laal ne apna-apna jurm kabool karte hue court ki koi bhi saja bhugatne ki andarateking pehle hi de rakhi thi isaliye unhonne appeal naheen ki aur donon ko 5-5 varsh ki saja ke aadesh yathaavat rahe. cheef court mein appeal karne ke baavajood yogeshachandr chatarji, mukundi laal va govindacharan car ki sajaayein 10-10 varsh se badhaakar umr-kaid mein badal di gayeen. sureshachandr Bhattacharya va vishnusharan dublish ki sajaayein bhi yathaavat (7 - 7 varsh) kaayam raheen. khoobsoorat haindaraaiting mein likhkar appeal dene ke kaaran keval pranavesh chatarji ki saja ko 5 varsh se ghataakar 4 varsh kar diya gaya. is kaand mein sabse kam saja (3 varsh) raamanaath paandeya ko hui. manmathanaath gupt, jinki goli se musaafir maara gaya, ki saja 10 se badhaakar 14 varsh kar di gayi. kaakori kaand mein prayukt maaujar pistaul ke kaaratoos chooainki premakrushn khanna ke shastr-laaisens par khareede gaye the jiske paryaapt saakshya mil jaane ke kaaran premakrushn khanna ko 5 varsh ke kathor kaaraavaas ki saja bhugatani padi.[23]

cheef court ka faisala aate hi samooche desh mein sanasani fail gayi. thaakur manajeet Singh Rathore ne sentral lejisletiv kaunsil mein kaakori kaand ke sabhi faaainsi (mrutyu-dand) praapt kaidiyon ki sajaayein kam karke aajeevan kaaraavaas (umr-kaid) mein badalne ka prastaav pesh karne ki soochana di. kaunsil ke kai sadasyon ne sar William moris ko, jo us samay sanyukt praant ke Governor the, is aashay ka ek praarthana-patra bhi diya kintu unhonne use asveekaar kar diya.

sentral kaunsil ke 78 sadasyon ne tatkaaleen vaayasaraaya va Governor general Edward fredarik lindale vud ko Shimla mein hastaakshar yukt memoriyl bheja jis par pramukh roop se pan॰ madan mohan maalaveeya, mohammad Ali jinna, ena॰ see॰ Kelkar, laala laajapat rai, govind vallabh pant, aadi ne hastaakshar kiye the kintu vaayasaraaya par usaka bhi koi asar na hua. ant mein madan mohan maalaveeya ke netrutv mein paaainch vyaktiyon ka ek pratinidhi mandal Shimla jaakar vaayasaraaya se mila aur unase yeh praarthana ki ki chooainki in chaaro abhiyukton ne likhit roop mein sarkaar ko yeh vachan diya hai ki ve bhavishya mein is prakaar ki kisi bhi gatividhi mein hissa na leinge aur unhonne apne kiye par pashchaataap bhi prakat kiya hai at: jajament par punarvichaar kiya ja sakta hai. cheef court ne apne faisale mein bhi yeh baat likhi thi. iske baavajood vaayasaraaya ne unhein saaf mana kar diya.

antat: bairistar mohan laal Saxena ne privi kaunsil mein kshamaadaan ki yaachika ke dastaavej taiyaar karke inglaind ke vikhyaat vakeel esa॰ ela॰ polak ke paas bhijvaaye. parantu landan ke nyaayaadheeshon va samraat ke vaidhaanik salaahakaaron ne us par badi sakht daleel di ki is shadyantr ka sootradhaar Ram prasaad bismil bada hi khatarnaak aur peshevar aparaadhi hai. yadi use kshamaadaan diya gaya to vah bhavishya mein isse bhi bada aur bhayankar kaand kar sakta hai. us sthiti mein sarkaar ko Hindustan mein shaasan karna asambhav ho jaayega. is sabka parinaam yeh hua ki privi kaunsil mein bheji gayi kshamaadaan ki appeal bhi khaarij ho gayi.

Gorakhpur jail mein faaainsi

16 December 1927 ko bismil ne apni aatmakatha ka aakhiri adhyaaya (antim samay ki baatein) poorn karke jail se baahar bhijva diya. 18 December 1927 ko maata-pita se antim mulaakaat ki aur somvaar 19 December 1927 (paush Krishna ekaadashi vikrami samvat 1984) ko praat:kaal 6 bajkar 30 minute par Gorakhpur ki jila jail mein unhein faaainsi de di gayi. bismil ke balidaan ka samaachaar sunakar bahut badi sankhya mein janta jail ke faatak par ekatr ho gayi. jail ka mukhya dwaar band hi rakkha gaya aur faaainseeghar ke saamane waali deevaar ko todkar bismil ka shav unke parijanon ko saunp diya gaya. shav ko dedh lakh logon ne juloos nikaal kar poore shahar mein ghumaate hue raapti nadi ke kinaare raajaghaat par usaka antim sanskaar kar diya.[24]

is ghatna se aahat hokar bhagatasinh ne January 1928 ke kirti (punjabi maasik) mein 'vidrohi' chhadmanaam naam se likha: "faaainsi par le jaate samay aapne bade jor se kaha - 'vande maataram! bhaaratamaata ki jaya!' aur shaanti se chalte hue kaha - 'maalik teri raja rahe aur too hi too rahe, baaki na main rahooain na meri aarajoo rahe; jab tak ki tan mein jaan ragon mein lahoo rahe, tera hi jikr aur teri justajoo rahe!' faaainsi ke takhte par khade hokar aapne kaha - 'I wish the downfall of British Empire! arthaat main british saamraajya ka patan chaahata hooain!' uske pashchaat yeh sher kaha - 'ab na ahle-valvale hain aur na armaanon ki bheed, ek mit jaane ki hasarat ab dile-bismil mein hai!' fir ishvar ke aage praarthana ki aur ek mantr padhna shuroo kiya. rassi kheenchi gayi. raamaprasaad ji faaainsi par latak gaye."

apne lekh ke ant mein bhagatasinh likhte hain - "aaj vah veer is sansaar mein naheen hai. use angreji sarkaar ne apna sabse bada khaufnaak dushman samjha. aam khyaal yahi tha ki vah gulaam desh mein janm lekar bhi sarkaar ke liye bada bhaari khatra ban gaya tha aur ladaai ki vidya se khoob parichit tha. aapko mainapuri shadyantr ke neta shri geindaalaal Dixit jaise shooraveer ne vishesh taur par shiksha dekar taiyaar kiya tha. mainapuri ke mukadame ke samay aap bhaagakar Nepal chale gaye the. ab vahi shiksha aapki mrutyu ka kaaran bani. 7 baje aapki laash mili aur bada bhaari juloos nikla. 'svadesh' mein prakaashit ek samaachaar ke anusaar aapki maata ne kaha tha - 'main apne putr ki is mrutyu par prasann hooain, du:khi naheen. main shri raamachandr jaisa hi putr chaahati thi. vaisa hi mera 'Ram' tha. bolo shri raamachandr ki jaya!'

itr fulel aur foolon ki varsha ke beech unki laash ka juloos ja raha tha. dukaanadaaron ne unke shav ke oopar veshumaar paise feinke. dopahar 11 baje aapki laash shamashaan-bhoomi pahuainchi aur antim-kriya samaapt hui. aapke patra ka aakhiri hissa aapki seva mein prastut hai - 'main khoob sukhi hooain. 19 taareekh ko praat: jo hona hai uske liye taiyaar hooain. paramaatma mujhe kaafi shakti deinge. mera vishvaas hai ki main logon ki seva ke liye fir jald hi is desh mein janm looainga. sabhi se mera namaskaar kahein. daya kar itna kaam aur karna ki meri or se pandit jagatanaaraayan (sarkaari vakeel, jinhonne inhein faaainsi lagavaane ke liye bahut jor lagaaya tha) ko antim namaskaar kah dena. unhein hamaare khoon se lathapath rupayon ke bistar par chain ki neend aaye. budhaape mein ishvar unhein sadbuddhi de."

raamaprasaad ji ki saari hasaratein dil-hi-dil mein rah gayeen. aapne ek lamba-chauda ailaan kiya hai jise sankshep mein ham doosari jagah de rahe hain. faaainsi se do din pehle si.I.di. ke deputy S.pi. aur session judge mi. haimiltan aapse minnatein karte rahe ki aap maukhik roop se sab baatein bata do. aapko pandrah hajaar rupaya nakad diya jaayega aur sarkaari kharche par vilaayat bhejkar bairistar ki padhaai karavaai jaayegi. lekin aap kab in sab baaton ki paravaah karte the. aap to hukoomaton ko thukaraane vaale va kabhi-kabhaar janm lene vaalon mein se the. mukadame ke dinon aapse judge ne poochha tha - 'aapke paas kaun si degree hai?' to aapne hainsakar javaab diya tha - 'samraat banaane vaalon ko degree ki koi jaroorat naheen hoti, klaaiv ke paas bhi to koi degree naheen thi.' aaj vah veer hamaare beech naheen hai, aah!"[25]

asthi-kalash ki sthaapana

bismil ki antyeshti ke baad Baba raaghav das ne Gorakhpur ke paas sthit devariya jile ke barahaj naamak sthaan par taamrapaatr mein unki asthiyon ko sanchit kar ek chabootara jaisa smruti-sthal banava diya. [26]

faaainsi ke baad kraantikaari aandolan mein teji

1927 mein bismil ke saath 3 anya kraantikaariyon ke balidaan ne poore Hindustan ke hrudaya ko hilaakar rakh diya. 9 August 1925 ke kaakori kaand ke faisale se utpann paristhitiyaaain ne bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ki dasha aur disha donon hi badal di. samooche desh mein sthaan-sthaan par chingaariyon ke roop mein nai-nai samitiyaaain gathit ho gayeen. betiya (Bihar) mein faneendranaath ka hindustaani seva dal, Punjab mein sardaar bhagat Singh ki naujavaan sabha tatha Lahore (ab Pakistan) mein sukhadev ki gupt samiti ke naam se kai kraantikaari sansthaaeain janm le chuki theen. Hindustan ke kone-kone mein kraanti ki aag daavaanal ki tarah fail chuki thi. Kanpur se ganeshashankar vidyaarthi ka prataap va Gorakhpur se dasharath prasaad Dwivedi ka svadesh jaise akhbaar is aag ko hava de rahe the.

kaakori kaand ke ek pramukh kraantikaari chandrashekhar aajaad, jinhein Ram prasaad bismil unke paare (mercury) jaise chanchal svabhaav ke kaaran kvik silver kaha karte the, poore Hindustan mein bhes badal kar ghoomate rahe. unhonne bhinn-bhinn samitiyon ke pramukh sangathanakartaaon se sampark karke saari kraantikaari gatividhiyon ko ek sootr mein pirone ka kaarya kiya. 8 va 9 sitmbar 1928 mein Ferozshah Kotla Delhi mein echa॰ aara॰ e॰, naujavaan sabha, hindustaani seva dal va gupt samiti ka vilay karke echa॰ esa॰ aara॰ e॰ naam se ek nayi kraantikaari party ka gathan hua. is party ko bismil ke bataaye raaste par chalakar hi desh ko aajaad karaana tha kintu british saamraajya ke daman chakr ne vaisa bhi naheen hone diya.

Noida-greater Noida express ve ke sameep sthit nalagadha gaaainv mein rakha aitihaasik patthar jiska prayog bhagatasinh ne bam banaane ke liye kiya

30 October 1928 ko Simon commission ka virodh karte hue laala laajapat rai deputy suparintendent je॰ pee॰ saandars ke barbar laatheechaarj se buri tarah ghaayal hue aur 17 November 1928 ko unki mrutyu ho gayi. is ghatna se aahat echa॰ esa॰ aara॰ e॰ ke chaar yuvakon ne 17 December 1928 ko Lahore jaakar din dahaade saandars ka vadh kar diya aur faraar ho gaye. saandars hatyaakaand ke pramukh abhiyukt sardaar bhagat Singh ko police Punjab mein talaash rahi thi jabki vah yooropiyn ke bhes mein Calcutta jaakar Bengal ke kraantikaariyon se bam banaane ki takaneek aur saamagri jutaane mein lage hue the. Delhi se 20 meal door greater Noida express ve ke nikat sthit nalagadha gaaainv mein rahakar bhagat Singh ne do bam taiyaar kiye aur batukeshvar datt ke saath jaakar 8 April 1929 ko Delhi ki sentral assembly mein us samay visfot kar diya jab sarkaar jan virodhi kaanoon paarit karne ja rahi thi. is visfot ne bahari sarkaar par bhale hi asar na kiya ho parantu samooche desh mein adbhut jan-jaagaran ka kaam avashya kiya.

Lahore se prakaashit 25 March 1931 ke tribyoon ka mukhaprushth (bhagatasinh ko faaainsi)

bam visfot ke baad donon ne "inkalaab! jindaabaad!!" va "saamraajyavaad! murdaabaad!!" ke jordaar naare lagaaye aur echa॰ esa॰ aara॰ e॰ ke paimfalet hava mein uchhaal diye. assembly mein maujood surakshaakarmiyon - saarjent teri va inspektar Johnson ne unhein vaheen giraftaar karke jail bhej diya. yeh sanasaneekhej khabar agale hi din samooche desh mein fail gayi. 4 May 1929 ke abhyudaya mein Allahabad se yeh samaachaar chhapa - aisembali ka bam case: kaakori case se iska sambandh hai. aai॰ pee॰ see॰ ki dafa 307 va eksaplosiv act ki dhaara 3 ke antargat in donon ko umr-kaid ka dand dekar alag-alag jailon mein rakkha gaya. jail mein raajaneetik bandiyon jaisi suvidhaaon ki maaaing karte hue jab donon ne bhookh hadtaal shuroo ki to un donon ka sambandh saandars-vadh se jodte hue ek aur case kaayam kiya gaya jise Lahore kaanspiresi case ke naam se jaana jaata hai. is case mein kul 24 log naamajad hue, inmein se 5 faraar ho gaye, 1 ko pehle hi saja ho chuki thi, shesh 18 par case chala. inmein se ek - yateendranaath das ki borstal jail Lahore mein lagaataar bhookh hadtaal karne se mrutyu ho gayi, shesh bache 17 mein se 3 ko faaainsi, 7 ko umr-kaid, ek ko 7 varsh va ek ko 5 varsh ki saja ka hukm hua. teen ko tribunal ne riha kar diya. baaki bache teen abhiyukton ko adaalat ne saakshya na milne ke kaaran chhod diya.


faaainsi ki saja paaye teenon abhiyukton - bhagat Singh, raajaguru va sukhadev ne appeal karne se saaf mana kar diya. anya sajaayaafta abhiyukton mein se sirf 3 ne hi privi kaunsil mein appeal ki. 11 fravari 1931 ko landan ki privi kaunsil mein appeal ki sunavaai hui. abhiyukton ki or se edavoket print ne bahas ki anumati maaaingi thi kintu unhein anumati naheen mili aur bahas sune bina hi appeal khaarij kar di gayi. chandrashekhar aajaad ne inki saja kam karaane ka kaafi prayaas kiya. ve haradoi jail mein jaakar ganeshashankar vidyaarthi se mile. vidyaarthi se paraamarsh kar ve Allahabad gaye aur javaaharalaal Nehru se unke nivaas-sthaan aanand bhavan mein bheint ki aur unase yeh aagrah kiya ki ve gaandhi ji par Lord iravin se in teenon ki faaainsi ko umr - kaid mein badalavaane ke liye jor daalein. Nehru ji ne jab aajaad ki baat naheen maani to aajaad ne unase kaafi der tak bahas ki. is par Nehru ne krodhit hokar aajaad ko tatkaal vahaaain se chale jaane ko kaha. aajaad apne takiyaakalaam "ssaala" ke saath bhunabhunaate hue Nehru ke draaiaing room se baahar nikle aur apni cycle par baithakar alfred park ki or chale gaye. alfred park mein apne ek mitr sukhadevaraaj se mantrana kar hi rahe the tabhi see॰ aai॰ dee॰ ka esa॰ esa॰ pee॰ not baabar jeep se vahaaain aa pahuaincha. uske peechhe-peechhe bhaari sankhya mein karnalaganj thaane se police bhi aa gayi. donon or se hui bhayankar goleebaari mein aajaad ko veeragati praapt hui. yeh 27 fravari 1931 ki ghatna hai. 23 March 1931 ko nirdhaarit samay se 13 ghante poorv bhagat Singh, sukhadev aur raajaguru ko Lahore ki sentral jail mein shaam ko 7 baje faaainsi de di gayi. yeh jail mainual ke niyamon ka khula ullanghan tha, par kaun sunane wala tha? in teenon ki faaainsi ka samaachaar milte hi poore desh mein maarakaat mach gayi. Kanpur mein hindu-muslim danga bhadak utha jise shaant karavaane ki koshish mein kraantikaariyon ke shubhachintak ganeshashankar vidyaarthi bhi shaheed ho gaye. is prakaar December 1927 se March 1931 tak ek-ek kar desh ke 11 narasinh aajaadi ki bheint chadh gaye.

uttar Bhaarat ki kraantikaari gatividhiyon ke alaava Bengal ki ghatnaaon ka lekha-jokha bhi itihaas mein darj hai. Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan mein Bengal ke bhi kai kraantikaari shaamil the jinmein se ek raajendranaath laahidi ko nirdhaarit tithi se 2 din poorv 17 December 1927 ko faaainsi diye jaane ka kaaran keval yeh tha ki Bengal ke kraantikaariyon ne faaainsi ki nishchit tithi se ek din poorv arthaat 18 December 1927 ko hi unhein gonda jail se chhuda lene ki yojana bana li thi. iski soochana see॰ aai॰ dee॰ ne british sarkaar ko de di thi. 13 January 1928 ko maneendranaath Bannerjee ne chandrashekhar aajaad ke ukasaane par apne sage chaacha ko, jinhein kaakori kaand mein aham bhoomika nibhaane ke puraskaarasvaroop dee॰ esa॰ pee॰ ke pad par pronnat kiya gaya tha, unheen ki service rivaulvar se maut ke ghaat utaar diya. December 1929 mein machhuaa baajaar gali sthit niranjan senagupta ke ghar chhaapa pada, jismein 27 kraantikaariyon ko giraftaar kar case kaayam hua aur 5 ko kaalepaani ki saja di gayi. 18 April 1930 ko master soorya sen ke netrutv mein chatagaaainv shastraagaar lootane ka prayaas hua jismein soorya sen va taarakeshvar dasteegaar ko faaainsi evam 12 anya ko umr-kaid ki saja hui. 8 August 1930 ko ke॰ ke॰ shukla ne jhaaainsi ke commissioner smith par goli chala di, use mrutyu-dand mila. 27 October 1930 ko yugaantar party ke sadasyon ne sureshachandr das ke netrutv mein Calcutta mein talla tahaseel ki trejari lootane ka prayaas kiya, sabhi pakade gaye aur kaalepaani ki saja hui. April 1931 mein memanasinh dakaiti daali gayi jismein gopaal aachaarya, sateeshachandr homi va hemendr chakravarti ko umr-kaid ki saja mili.[27]

"maro naheen, maaro!" ka naara 1942 mein laalabahaadur shaastri ne diya jisne kraanti ki daavaanal ko prachand kiya.

in sab ghatnaaon ka Congress party par bhi vyaapak asar pada. subhaashachandr Bose jaise navayuvak gaandhi ji ki neetiyon ka mukhar virodh karne lage the. jo gaandhi san 1922 se 1927 tak raajaneeti ke patal se ekdam adrushya ho chuke the ab vahi gaandhi ji Ram prasaad bismil va unke saathiyon ke balidaan ke baad fir se tevar badalate hue Congress mein apni manamarji ka adhyaksh chunavaane aur manachaahi neetiyaaain laagoo karavaane lage the. unase tang aakar subhaashachandr Bose ne lagaataar do baar - san 1938 ke tripuri va san 1939 ke haripura chunaav mein Congress adhyaksh ka pad jeet kar gaandhi ji ko aaina dikhaane ka dussaahas kiya tha. kintu gaandhi ji ne Congress varking committee mein laubeeing karke subhaash ko tang karna shuroo kar diya jisse dukhi hokar unhonne Congress chhod di aur forward block ke naam se apni alag party bana li. uske baad jab unhein laga ki gaandhi ji sarkaar se milkar unke kaam mein roda atakaate hi raheinge to unhonne ek din Hindustan chhod diya aur Japan pahuainchakar aai॰ ena॰ e॰ arthaat aajaad hind fauj ki kamaan samhaal li.

doosare vishv yuddh mein inglaind ko buri tarah ulajhata dekh jaise hi netaaji ne aajaad hind fauj ko "Delhi chalo" ka naara diya, gaandhi ji ne mauke ki najaakat ko bhaaainpate hue 8 August 1942 ki raat mein hi Mumbai se aaingrejon ko "Bhaarat chhodo" va bhaarateeyon ko "karo ya maro" ka aadesh jaari kiya aur sarkaari suraksha mein yaravada (Pune) sthit aaga Khan pailes mein chale gaye. 9 August 1942 ke din is aandolan ko laalabahaadur shaastri sareekhe ek chhote se vyakti ne prachand roop de diya. 19 August,1942 ko shaastri ji giraftaar ho gaye. 9 August 1925 ko british sarkaar ka takhta palatane ke uddeshya se 'bismil' ke netrutv mein Hindustan prajaatantr sangh ke das jujhaaroo kaaryakartaaon ne kaakori kaand kiya tha jiski yaadagaar taaja rakhane ke liye poore desh mein prativrsh 9 August ko "kaakori kaand smruti - diwas" manaane ki parampara bhagat Singh ne praarambh kar di thi aur is din bahut badi sankhya mein naujavaan ekatr hote the. gaandhi ji ne ek sochi-samajhi rananeeti ke tahat 9 August 1942 ka din chuna tha.

9 August 1942 ko din nikalne se pehle hi kaaaingres varking committee ke sabhi sadasya giraftaar ho chuke the aur kaaaingres ko gairkaanooni sanstha ghoshit kar diya gaya. gaandhi ji ke saath Bhaarat kokila sarojini Naidu ko yaravada (Pune) ke aaga Khan pailes mein saari suvidhaaon ke saath, dau॰ Rajendra prasaad ko Patna jail mein va anya sabhi sadasyon ko ahamadanagar ke kile mein najaraband rakhane ka naatak british saamraajya ne kiya tha taaki janaandolan ko dabaane mein bal-prayog se inmein se kisi ko koi haani na ho. sarkaari aaainkadon ke anusaar is janaandolan mein 940 log maare gaye 1630 ghaayal hue,18000 dee0 aai0 aara0 mein najaraband hue tatha 60229 giraftaar hue. aandolan ko kuchalane ke ye aaainkade Delhi ki sentral assembly mein onarebul hom membar ne pesh kiye the.

san 1943 se 1945 tak netaaji subhaashachandr Bose ne aajaad hind fauj ka netrutv kiya. unke sainik "sarafaroshi ki tamanna, ab hamaare dil mein hai; dekhna hai jor kitna baaju-A-kaatil mein hai?" jaisa sambodhi - geet aur "kadam-kadam badhaaye ja, khushi ke geet gaaye ja; ye jindagi hai kaum ki, too kaum pe lutaaye ja!" sareekhe kaumi-taraane fauji baind ki dhun ke saath gaate hue Singapore ke raaste kohima(naagaalaind) tak aa pahuainche. tabhi Japan par Amreeki parmaanu hamle ke kaaran netaaji ko apni rananeeti badalani padi. ve vimaan se roos jaane ki taiyaari mein jaise hi faaramosa ke taaihokoo eyarabes se ude ki 18 August 1945 ko unke 97-2 model heavy baumbar plane mein aag lag gayi. unhein ghaayal avastha mein taaihokoo army hauspitl le jaaya gaya jahaaain raat 9 baje unki mrutyu ho gayi.[28]

netaaji ki maut aur aajaad hind fauj ke adhikaariyon par mukadame ki khabar ne poore Hindustan mein toofaan macha diya. iske falasvaroop doosare vishvayuddh ke baad Mumbai bandaragaah par utare nausainikon ne bagaavat kar di. 18 fravari 1946 ko Mumbai se shuroo hua yeh nausainik vidroh desh ke sabhi bandaragaahon va mahaanagaron mein fail gaya. 21 fravari 1946 ko british army ne Mumbai pahuainch kar hamaare nausainikon par goliyaaain chalaayeen jiske parinaamasvaroop keval 22 fravari 1946 ko hi 228 log maare gaye tatha 1046 ghaayal hue. yeh us samay ka sabse bhayankar daman tha jo kroor british sarkaar ne Hindustan mein kiya.[29]

bismil ka kraanti-darshan

bismil ki pustakon ke lokaarpan ka chitr. baayein se kramash: lekhak, prakaashak, vijay Kumar malahotra evam poorv pradhaanamantri atal bihaari Vajpayee (sabse daayeen or)

bhaaratavarsh ko british saamraajya se mukt karaane mein yooain to asankhya veeron ne apna amoolya balidaan diya parantu Ram prasaad bismil ek aise adbhut kraantikaari the jinhonne atyant nirdhan parivaar mein janm lekar saadhaaran shiksha ke baavajood asaadhaaran pratibha aur akhand purushaarth ke bal par Hindustan prajaatantr sangh ke naam se deshavyaapi sangathan khada kiya jismein ek - se - badhkar ek tejasvi va manasvi navayuvak shaamil the jo unke ek ishaare par is desh ki vyavastha mein aamool parivartan kar sakte the kintu ahinsa ki duhaai dekar unhein ek-ek karke mitaane ka krooratam shadyantr jinhonne kiya unheen ka chitr bhaarateeya patra mudra (Paper Currency) par diya jaata hai. jabki amareeka mein ek va do Amreeki dollar par aaj bhi George Washington ka hi chitr chhapata hai jisne amareeka ko aaingrejon se mukt karaane mein pratyaksh roop se aamne-saamane yuddh lada tha.

bismil ki pehli pustak san 1916 mein chhapi thi jiska naam tha-America ki svatantrata ka itihaas. bismil ke janm shataabdi varsh: 1996-1997 mein yeh pustak svatantr Bhaarat mein fir se prakaashit hui jiska vimochan Bhaarat ke poorv pradhaanamantri atal bihaari Vajpayee ne kiya."[30] us kaaryakram mein raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh ke tatkaaleen sarasanghachaalak pro॰ Rajendra Singh (rajjoo bhaiya) bhi upasthit the.[31] is sampoorn granthaavali mein bismil ki lagbhag do sau pratibndhit kavitaaon ke atirikt paaainch pustakein bhi shaamil ki gayi theen. parantu aaj tak kisi bhi sarkaar ne bismil ke kraanti-darshan ko samajhne va us par shodh karavaane ka prayaas hi naheen kiya. jabki gaandhi ji dvaara 1909 mein vilaayat se Hindustan lautate samay paani ke jahaaj par likhi gayi pustak hind Swaraj par anekoain sangoshthiyaaain huin. bismil sareekhe asankhya shaheedon ke sapanon ka Bhaarat banaane ki aavashyakta hai.

saahitya rachana

bismil ek lekhak the aur unhonne kai kavitaaeain, gjlein evam pustakein likhi theen. kuchh pramukh kavitaaon va gjlon ke baare mein neeche diya ja raha hai.

kavitaaeain evam gjlein

  • sarafaroshi ki tamanna: bismil ki yeh gajl kraantikaari jail se police ki laari mein adaalat mein jaate hue, adaalat mein magistrate ko chidhaate hue va adaalat se lautakar vaapas jail aate hue koras ke roop mein gaaya karte the. bismil ke balidaan ke baad to yeh rachana sabhi kraantikaariyon ka mantr ban gayi[32].
  • jajvaye-shaheed (bismil ka mashahoor urdoo mukhammas): bismil ka yeh yeh urdoo mukhammas bhi un dinon sarvaadhik lokapriya hua karta tha yeh unki adbhut rachana hai yeh itni adhik bhaavapoorn hai ki Lahore kaanspiresi case ke samay jab premadatt naam ke ek kaidi ne adaalat mein gaakar sunaayi thi to shrota ro pade the[33]. judge apna faisala tatkaal badalne ko majaboor ho gaya aur usane premadatt ki saja usi samay kam kar di thi. adaalat mein ghatit is ghatna ka udaaharan bhi itihaas mein darj ho gaya.
  • jindagi ka raaj (bismil ki ek anya urdoo gajal): bismil ki is gajal mein jeevan ka vaastavik darshan nihit hai shaayad iseeliye unhonne iska naam raaje mujmir ya jindagi ka raaj mujamir[34] (kaheen-kaheen yeh bhi milta hai) diya tha. vaastav mein apne liye jeene vaale marne ke baad vismrut ho jaate hain par doosaron ke liye jeene vaale hamesha ke liye amar ho jaate hain.
  • bismil ki tadp (bismil ki antim rachana[35]): Gorakhpur jail se chori chhupe baahar bhijvaayi gayi is gajal mein prateekon ke maadhyam se apne saathiyon ko yeh sandesha bheja tha ki agar kuchh kar sakte ho to jald kar lo varana pachhataave ke alaava kuchh bhi haath na aayega. bismil ki aatmakatha ke anusaar is baat ka unhein malaal hi rah gaya ki unki party ka koi ek bhi navayuvak unke paas unka rivaalvar tak na pahuaincha saka. unke apne vatan shaahajahaaainpur ke log bhi ismein bhaagadaud ke alaava kuchh na kar paaye. baad mein itihaasakaaron ne na jaane kya-kya man gadhant likh diya.

varsh 1985 mein vigyaan bhavan, nai Delhi mein aayojit Bhaarat aur vishv saahitya par antarraashtreeya sangoshthi mein ek bhaarateeya pratinidhi[36] ne apne lekh ke saath pandit raamaprasaad bismil ki kuchh lokapriya kavitaaon ka dvibhaashik kaavya roopaantar (hindi-angreji mein) prastut kiya tha jise unki pustak[37] se saabhaar uddhrut karke angreji vikeesrot par de diya gaya[38] hai taaki hindi ke paathak bhi un rachanaaon ka aanand le sakein.

pustakein

raamaprasaad 'bismil' ki jin pustakon ka vivran milta hai, unke naam is prakaar hain:[39]

  1. mainapuri shadyantr,
  2. svadeshi rang,
  3. cheeni-shadyantr (cheen ki raajakraanti),
  4. taponishth aravind ghosh ki kaaraavaas kahaani[40]
  5. ashafaak ki yaad mein,
  6. sonaakhaan ke amar shaheed-'veeranaaraayan Singh',
  7. general George Washington
  8. amareeka kaise svaadheen hua?

aatmakatha

bismil ki aatmakatha ko hindi mein kaakori shadyantr naamak ek pustak ke andar nij jeevan ki ek chhata ke naam se bhajanalaal bukaselar ne Art press sindh (ab Pakistan) se aur kaakori ke shaheed sheershak se ganesh shankar vidyaarthi ne prataap press, Kanpur se chhaapa tha. suparinteindeint gavarnameint press Allahabad se kinheen bheeshm ke chhadmanaam naam se anoodit hokar yahi pustak san 1929 mein angreji mein bhi chhapi thi. british raaj ke dauraan sanyukt praant Agra va avadh ke khufiya vibhaag ne yeh pustak pratyek jile ke police adhikaariyon ko bhijvaayi thi.[41]

hindi-angreji ke alaava:

kul aath bhaashaaon mein iska anuvaad prakaashit ho chuka hai.[48] kraantikaariyon ke jeevan ke oopar sarvaadhik granth likhne vaale hindi saahityakaar shreekrushn saral ne apne granth kraantikaari kosh mein bismil ki aatmakatha ko navayuvakon ke liye ek aadarsh maarganirdeshika batalaaya hai. ismein unke ekaadash varsheeya kraantikaari jeevan ka nichod diya gaya hai. ise aadyopaant padhne ke baad kaisa bhi navayuvak ho, vyavastha-parivartan athva kraanti ke liye hinsa ka maarg apna hi naheen sakta.[15]

bismil ke saahitya ka anusandhaan va prakaashan

gyaarah varsh ke kraantikaari jeevan mein unhonne kai pustakein bhi likheen. jinmein se gyaarah pustakein hi unke jeevan kaal mein prakaashit ho sakeen. british raaj mein un sabhi pustakon ko jbt kar liya gaya. svatantr Bhaarat mein kaafi khojabeen ke pashchaat unki likhi hui jo bhi praamaanik pustakein is samay pustakaalayon mein upalabdh hain, unka vivran yahaaain diya ja raha hai:

  • sarafroshi ki tamanna (bhaag ek): kraantikaari bismil ke sampoorn vyaktitv aur krutitv ka 25 adhyaayon mein sandarbh sahit samagr moolyaankan.[49]
  • sarafroshi ki tamanna (bhaag do): amar shaheed Ram prasaad 'bismil' ki 200 se adhik jabtashuda aagneya kavitaayein sandarbh sootr va chhand sanket sahit.[50]
  • sarafroshi ki tamanna (bhaag teen): amar shaheed Ram prasaad 'bismil' ki mool aatmakatha-nij jeevan ki ek chhata, 1916 mein jabt America ki svatantrata ka itihaas, bismil dvaara baaaingla se hindi mein anoodit yaugik saadhan (mool rachanaakaar: aravind ghosh), tatha bismil dvaara mool aaingreji se hindi mein likhit sankshipt jeevani kaitheraain ya svaadheenata ki devi.[49]
  • sarafroshi ki tamanna (bhaag chaar): kraantikaari jeevan (bismil ke swayam ke lekh tatha unke vyaktitv par anya kraantikaariyon ke lekh).[49]
  • kraantikaari bismil aur unki shaayari sankalan/anuvaad: 'kraant'(bhoomika: dau॰ Ram sharan gaud sachiv, hindi academy Delhi) bismil ki urdoo kavitaayein (devanaagari lipi mein) unke hindi kaavyaanuvaad sahit.[51]
  • bolshevikon ki kartoot[52]: svatantr Bhaarat mein pratham baar san 2006 mein prakaashit raamaprasaad 'bismil' ka kraantikaari upanyaas.
  • man ki lahar[52]: svatantr Bhaarat mein pratham baar san 2006 mein prakaashit raamaprasaad 'bismil' ki kavitaaon ka sankalan.
  • kraanti geetaanjali[53]: svatantr Bhaarat mein pratham baar san 2006 mein prakaashit raamaprasaad 'bismil' ki kavitaaon ka sankalan.

bismil par anya vyaktiyon ke vichaar

bhagatasinh

January 1928 ke kirti mein bhagat Singh ne kaakori ke shaheedon ke baare mein ek lekh likha tha. kaakori ke shaheedon ki faaainsi ke haalaat sheershak lekh mein bhagatasinh bismil ke baare mein likhte hain:

"shri raamaprasaad 'bismil' bade honahaar naujavaan the. gajb ke shaayar the. dekhne mein bhi bahut sundar the. yogya bahut the. jaanane vaale kehte hain ki yadi kisi aur jagah ya kisi aur desh ya kisi aur samay paida hue hote to senaadhyaksh bante. aapko poore shadyantr ka neta maana gaya. chaahe bahut jyaada padhe hue naheen the lekin fir bhi pandit jagatanaaraayan jaise sarkaari vakeel ki sudh-budh bhula dete the. cheef court mein apni appeal khud hi likhi thi, jisse ki judgeon ko kehna pada ki ise likhne mein jaroor hi kisi buddhimaan va yogya vyakti ka haath hai."[54]

rajjoo bhaiya

raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh ke chaturth sarasanghachaalak rajjoo bhaiya ne ek pustak[55] mein bismil ke baare mein likha hai:

"mere pitaaji san 1921-22 ke lagbhag shaahajahaaainpur mein engineer the. unke sameep hi injeeniyron ki us kaaloni mein kaakori kaand ke ek pramukh sahayogi shri premakrushn khanna ke pita shri raayabahaadur raamakrushn khanna bhi rahate the. shri Ram prasaad 'bismil' premakrushn khanna ke saath bahudha is kaaloni ke logon se milne aate the. mere pitaaji mujhe bataaya karte the ki 'bismil' ji ke prati sabhi ke man mein apaar shraddha thi. unka jeevan bada shuddh aur saral, pratidin niyamit yog aur vyaayaam ke kaaran shareer bada pusht aur balashaali tatha mukhamandal oj aur tej se vyaapt tha. unke tej aur purushaarth ki chhaap un par jeevan bhar bani rahi. mujhe bhi ek saamaajik kaaryakarta maankar ve praaya: 'bismil' ji ke baare mein bahut-si baatein bataaya karte the." - pro॰ Rajendra Singh sarasanghachaalak raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh

raamavilaas sharma

hindi ke prakhar vichaarak raamavilaas sharma ne apni pustak svaadheenata sangraam: badalate pariprekshya mein bismil ke baare mein badi bevaak tippani ki hai:

"aisa kam hota hai ki ek kraantikaari doosare kraantikaari ki chhavi ka varnan kare aur donon hi shaheed ho jaayein. raamaprasaad bismil 19 December 1927 ko shaheed hue, usase pehle May 1927 mein bhagatasinh ne kirti mein 'kaakori ke veeron se parichay' lekh likha. unhonne bismil ke baare mein likha - 'aise naujavaan kahaaain se mil sakte hain? aap yuddh vidya mein bade kushal hain aur aaj unhein faaainsi ka dand milne ka kaaran bhi bahut had tak yahi hai. is veer ko faaainsi ka dand mila aur aap hains diye. aisa nirbheek veer, aisa sundar javaan, aisa yogya va uchchakoti ka lekhak aur nirbhaya yoddha milna kathin hai.' san 1922 se 1927 tak raamaprasaad bismil ne ek lambi vaichaarik yaatra poori ki. unke aage ki kadi the bhagatasinh."[56]

teeka

  1. a aa i E u oo A ai O raamaprasaad, bismil (2007). dau॰aakrushnaveer Singh, chauhaan. ed. svaadheenata ki devi kaitharin (1 san॰). Jaipur: saahitya chandrika prakaashan. pp. 103. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7932-061-8. http://pustak.org/bs/home.php?bookid=5776. abhigman tithi: 19 March 2014.
  2. "aakhir kaun banega muraina ka sarataaj?". http://www.atalsandesh.in/news.php?post=45521&title=. abhigman tithi: 29 April 2014. "kam hi log jaante honge ki aajaadi ki ladaai mein shaheed hone vaale kraantikaari Ram prasaad bismil ka sambandh muraina jile ke barabai se tha. unke poorvaj chanbal ilaake ke barabai se UP ke shaahajahaanpur mein jaakar bas gaye the, jahaan 1897 mein bismil ka janm hua. shahar mein bhind road se pravesh karte hi unki smruti mein banaaya gaya sangrahaalaya dhyaan kheenchata hai. unhonne 1918 mainapuri shadyantr mein hissa liya aur kaakori kaand mein shaamil rahe. tab muraina sanyukt praant ka hissa tha. 19 December 1927 ko unhein Gorakhpur jail mein faansi de di gayi thi."
  3. "madhya pradesh ke ek jile mein shaheed Ram prasaad bismil ka mandir". muraina: vebaduniya. 9 December 2009. http://news.webindia123.com/news/articles/India/20091209/1401248.html. abhigman tithi: 4 March 2014.
  4. sarafaroshi ki tamanna bhaag-1 prushth 17
  5. kraant, madanalaal varma (2006) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 2 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 524 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-120-8 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218. abhigman tithi: 4 April 2014 "mujhe yeh pustak kaakori-kaand ki file se raajakeeya abhilekhaagaar Lucknow se praapt hui"
  6. kraant, madanalaal varma (2006) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 2 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 524 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-120-8 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218. abhigman tithi: 4 April 2014 "mainne apni shodh granthaavali sarafaroshi ki tamanna ke teesare khand mein maatr itihaas ki saamagri ko diya hai, bhoomika hata di hai."
  7. "vatan ki khvaahishon pe jindagaani kurbaan". dainik jaagaran (jaagaran city-greater Noida nai Delhi: p. 24. 12 August 2012.
  8. kraant, madanalaal varma (2006) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 2 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 519 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-120-8 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218. abhigman tithi: 10 May 2014
  9. kraant, madanalaal varma (2006) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 2 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 519-520 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-120-8 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218. abhigman tithi: 10 May 2014
  10. jitendr naath saanyaal. amar shaheed sardaar bhagatasinh.
  11. cheef court of avadh jajameint 1927 navalakishor press Lucknow prushth 62 (Kept with political file 53/27 of Home department in the National Archives of India)
  12. madanalaal varma, 'kraant' (1998) sarafroshi ki tamanna (raamaprasaad bismil: vyaktitv aur krutitv) (2 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 170 se 174 OCLC 222570896 http://www.worldcat.org/title/sarapharosi-ki-tamanna/oclc/222570896&referer=brief_results. abhigman tithi: 10 May 2014
  13. svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (lekhak:madanalaal varma 'kraant') pustak ke bhaag-teen mein prushth 644 se 648 tak
  14. kraantikaari (ghoshana patra)
  15. a aa i *shreekrushn, saral (1998) kraantikaari kosh: chaturth khand (1 san॰) nai Delhi : prabhaat prakaashan pp. 350 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7315-235-7 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=wC_O2AUuTVEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. abhigman tithi: 24 May 2014
  16. manmathanaath gupt bhaarateeya kraantikaari aandolan ka itihaas prushth-210 (1000 gaj tak)
  17. cheef court of avadh jajament file 1927, naval kishor press, Lucknow prushth san0 1
  18. a aa manmathanaath gupt bhaarateeya kraantikaari aandolan ka itihaas, aatmaaraam end sans nai Delhi, prushth-212
  19. jagadeesh, jagesh (1989) kalam aaj unki jaya bol (1 san॰) Varanasi: prachaarak granthaavali pariyojana hindi prachaarak sansthaan pa॰ 157
  20. ek bairak mein itihaas (History in a barrack) - 12 July 2009 Indian express ka ek samaachaar, abhigman tithi: 4 May 2014
  21. http://sites.google.com/site/lucknowtravelguide/gpo-lucknow
  22. jagadeesh, jagesh (1989) kalam aaj unki jaya bol (1 san॰) Varanasi: prachaarak granthaavali pariyojana hindi prachaarak sansthaan pa॰ 158 "san 1916 ki Lucknow kaaaingres ke svaagataadhyaksh jagatanaaraayan mulla ko pandit Motilal Nehru abhiyukton ki taraf se ladaana chaahate the parantu moti rakam paakar jagatanaaraayan aur unke kapoot aanandanaaraayan mulla ne aisi jabardast sarkaari pairavi ki ki pandit raamaprasaad bismil, roshanasinh aur ashafaak ulla khaaain 19 December 1927 ko kramash: Gorakhpur, Allahabad aur faijaabaad mein tatha 17 December 1927 ko Rajendra laahidi gonda jail mein faaainsi chadhe."
  23. Sharma, Vidyarnav (2004) Yug Ke Devta: Bismil Aur Ashfaq (2 san॰) New Delhi: Praveen Prakashan pa॰ 118-119 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-078-3 OCLC 166276255 http://www.worldcat.org/title/yuga-ke-devata-bismila-aura-asfaka/oclc/166276255&referer=brief_results. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2014
  24. Verma, 'Krant' Madan Lal (1998) Krantikari Bismil Aur Unki Shayri (1 san॰) Delhi: Prakhar Prakashan pa॰ 13-14 OCLC 466558602 http://www.worldcat.org/title/krantikari-bismila-aura-unaki-sayari/oclc/466558602. abhigman tithi: 5 March 2014 "maatrubhoomi ka yeh ananya bhakt apni bheint chadhaakar marate-marate bhi yahi kehkar gaya tha - marate bismil roshan lahadi ashafaak atyaachaar se, honge paida saikadon unke rudhir ki dhaar se!"
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  28. kraant, madanalaal varma (2006) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 3 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 846 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-121-6 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2014
  29. kraant (2006) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 1 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 66 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-119-4 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218. abhigman tithi: 10 May 2014
  30. Hindustan (samaachaar patra) (hindi dainik) nai Delhi, 20 December 1996, "kraantikaariyon ke saath humne nyaaya naheen kiya": Vajpayee, abhigman tithi: 2 April 2014
  31. dainik jaagaran (hindi dainik) nai Delhi, 20 December 1996 "deshavaasi mahaan kraantikaariyon ko bhool rahe hain": Vajpayee, abhigman tithi: 2 April 2014
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  33. khaleek anjum mujtaba husain jabtashuda najmein prushth-18 nooranabi abbaasi jabtashuda najmein prushth-29
  34. khaleek anjum mujtaba husain jabtashuda najmein prushth-14 nooranabi abbaasi jabtashuda najmein prushth-25
  35. manmathanaath gupt bhaarateeya kraantikaari aandolan ka itihaas prushth 215
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  38. kalam aur pistaul ka sipaahi: raamaprasaad bismil
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  47. koga, kaatsuro (Japani mein). [http://www.worldcat.org/title/ramupurasado-bisumiru-jiden/oclc/675857698&referer=brief_results ラaaーaaムaaプaaラaaサaaーaaドaa・aaビaaスaaミaaルaa自aa伝 / Ramupurasado bisumiru jiden]. koga kaatsuro, 古aa賀aa勝aa郎. pp. 94. http://www.worldcat.org/title/ramupurasado-bisumiru-jiden/oclc/675857698&referer=brief_results. abhigman tithi: 7 March 2014.
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  49. a aa i aashaaraani, vhora (2004) svaadheenata senaani lekhak patrakaar (1 san॰) nai Delhi: pratibha pratishthaan pa॰ 181 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788188266234 OCLC 57285032 http://www.worldcat.org/title/swadhinata-senani-lekhaka-ptrakara/oclc/57285032&referer=brief_results. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2014
  50. [[aashaaraani vhora |aashaaraani, vhora]] (2004) svaadheenata senaani lekhak patrakaar (1 san॰) nai Delhi: pratibha pratishthaan pa॰ 181 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788188266234 OCLC 57285032 http://www.worldcat.org/title/swadhinata-senani-lekhaka-ptrakara/oclc/57285032&referer=brief_results. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2014
  51. varma, 'kraant' madan laal (1998) Krantikari Bismil Aur Unki Shayri (1 san॰) Delhi: prakhar prakaashan pa॰ 5-6 OCLC 466558602 http://www.worldcat.org/title/krantikari-bismila-aura-unaki-sayari/oclc/466558602. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2014 "is pustak mein jahaaain 'bismil'ji ki hindi kavitaaeain sankalit ki gayeen hain vahaaain unheen ki likhi hui kuchh urdoo-rachanaaeain bhi di gayeen hain jinka hindi-kaavyaanuvaad to itna aashcharyajanak hai ki lagta hai 'kraant'ji ke roop mein saakshaat 'bismil'ji ne hi svat: avatarit hokar yeh kaarya kiya hai."
  52. a aa aashaaraani, vhora (2004) svaadheenata senaani lekhak patrakaar (1 san॰) nai Delhi: pratibha pratishthaan pa॰ 183 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788188266234 OCLC 57285032 http://www.worldcat.org/title/swadhinata-senani-lekhaka-ptrakara/oclc/57285032&referer=brief_results. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2014
  53. bismil, Ram prasaad; varma, 'kraant' madan laal (2006) kraanti geetaanjali (kavita) p. Ram prasaad 'bismil' (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pp. 96 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-128-3 OCLC 71330461 http://www.worldcat.org/title/kranti-gitanjali/oclc/71330461&referer=brief_results. abhigman tithi: 14 May 2014
  54. bhagatasinh aur unke saathiyon ke dastaavej, jagamohan Singh aur chamanalaal, Google book prushth 86
  55. madanalaal varma, 'kraant' (1998) sarafroshi ki tamanna (raamaprasaad bismil: vyaktitv aur krutitv) (2 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 7 aasheervachan OCLC 222570896 http://www.worldcat.org/title/sarapharosi-ki-tamanna/oclc/222570896&referer=brief_results
  56. raamavilaas, sharma (1992) svaadheenata sangraam: badalate pariprekshya (1 san॰) Delhi: hindi maadhyam kaaryaanvayan nideshaalaya Delhi vishvavidyaalaya pa॰ 99-107

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