Rajasthan ki aadhunik kala (1960 se 2010 tak)

san 1960 se 2010 ke chh: dashak Rajasthan ki aadhunik kala ke liye do kaaranon se mahattvapoorn kahe ja sakte hain. ek to yeh ki is antaraal mein bahutere ullekhaneeya chitrakaaron ka kaam saamane aaya aur doosare yeh ki yahaaain ke kuchh chitrakaaron ne raashtreeya star par apni pehchaan banaane ke liye nihaayat maulik, apni niji chitrabhaasha bhi ijaad ki. inheen varshon ke dauraan vishvavidyaalaya-star par kala ke adhyayan-adhyaapan ki bhi shuruaat hui. kala ke kshetr mein shodh aur anusandhaan bhi isi avadhi mein jyaada saamane aa paae. aaj Rajasthan mein chhote-bade 'aadhunik' shaili ke shaayad teen sau se bhi adhik chitrakaar hain, kintu sarasare taur par aise kalaakaaron ka ullekh kiya ja sakta hai, jinki rachanaaon mein apni chaitrik-nijta hai agar 'kathya' mein naheen, to ankan mein to avashya hi.

anukram

paaradarshi nistabdhata ka shilp

Bhaarat mein aise chitrakaaron ki sankhya bahut adhik naheen, jinhonne apne praay: poore kala-jeevan mein keval jyaamitik roopaakaaron ko lekar hi kaam kiya ho, par nissandeh mohan sharma ki jagah aise hi logon mein thi. chiteron ke kasbe naathadvaara (Udaipur) mein janme mohan sharma (1942-1988) ki krutiyaaain jhilmilaati hui ek aisi 'yootopiyn' nagareeya vyavastha ko darshaati raheen, jo faintesi ki divya roshani se aalokit hai. 1966 se laga kar apni antim kruti tak mohan sharma ne jin jyaamitik roopaakaaron ko srujan ka aadhaar banaaya, ve roopaakaar mahanagar ke paaradarshi sannaaton ko pratidhvanit karne mein kaamayaab hue, jinka neelavarni svapnil maahaul mohan sharma ke achetan mein bahut gahre paith gaya maaloom hota tha.

chitraankan ki buniyaadi sachchaaiyon lambaai, chaudaai, gaharaai, doori, prakaash aur chhaaya ke prati nirntar sachet rahate hue mohan sharma ki krutiyaaain un chitraakarshak jyaamitik aakrutiyon si srushti karti raheen-jinhein dekh kar ham thage se khade rah sakte hain. yadi inke kaam ko koi 'sthool' pehchaan dena chaahein, to ham kah sakte hain ki antat: ye krutiyaaain 'ghanavaad' ka hi naveen roopaantaran hain.

1970 aur iske baad mohan sharma ne 'kausmik-kristals' sheershak se jo shrunkhala pent ki thi, unke bahaane aarambh se hi ham kalpana aur kaareegari ki ek aisi duniya dekhte aae hain, jismein aaj ka mahanagar-bodh prakharata se ubhara hai. ye keval deevaaron, chauraahon aur galiyon ki saamaanya ya chalataaoo abhivyakti naheen hai, apitu aakaaron se thasaathas bhari kisi mahaanagareeya jindagi ke jeevant aks hain. yahaaain raajamaargon, flaaiovars aur pulon ke sanket hain, jahaaain roshani aur andheron ki ajeeb si aindrajaalik jhilmilaahat hai. kaheen khidkiyon ki aaainkhon se jhaankati roshani ka dhundhala sa sira hamaare haath lagta hai aur achaanak doob jaata hai, yeh sab jaise ek maayaalok hissa hai, jahaaain rangon ki rahasyavaadita ke daine, nagar-aakaaron ko apne aagosh mein baaaindh lena chaahate hain. aikrelik rangon ko 'fyooj' karte, unki damak aur 'divyata' ko surakshit rakhate aur ek rangeen prabhaamandal ki shakl mein unako chitr-falak par failaate mohan sharma ek manje hue kraaftamain ki tarah saamane upasthit rahe the. mohan sharma ki chitr duniya itni ekaantik aur stabdh hai ki maanaveeya spandan ka koi sootr kalpanaasheel saundarya se bhari is srushti mein vichaarate hue hamaare haath naheen lagta. ek seema ke baad unke chitron ki nistabdhata, jadta aur sundar ekaant hamein bheetar se kachotata hai kyonki unke saje-dhaje rangamanch par kaheen koi paatr hai hi naheen. is arth mein mohan sharma goonjate akelepan ke vaastushilpi the.

mohan sharma ke chitron mein nagar-bodh jitni prakharata se ubhara tha-utana shaayad Rajasthan ke kisi chitrakaar ki rachanaaon mein naheen. vah apni chhoti, kintu saarthak jindagi mein jyaamiti ki ungali thaam kar hamein mahanagar ki uchaat aatma tak le jaane ki koshish karte rahe. mohan ka maanana tha ki ab gaaainv ki duniya mein, uske pavitra ateet mein lautana jab hamaare nikat sambhav hi naheen hai, to fir kala ke liye vartamaan-jeevan ke bimb aur aadhunik sabhyata ke prateek hi rachana ki prerana kyon naheen bane rah sakte ? jab manushya dvaara nirmit vaastu ki jyaamitik duniya samakaaleen samaajon ke liye ek anivaarya vaastavikta hai, to fir 'kaalpanik' gaaainv ki taraf kala ko jo le jaana kya ek tarah ka maanasik palaayan naheen ?

yeh bhi ek ajeeb baat hi kahi jaaegi ki manushya ki bhautik nirmitiyon ke prati mohan sharma jitne samvedansheel aur aashaanvit the, utani hi berukhi aur aruchi unhein kala mein-manushya ki upasthiti se thi. vah manushya dvaara rache gaye sabhyata ke sansaar ko usaki sarjanaatmak kshamataaon ka ek behatareen udaaharan maanate the, par kainavaason mein unhein manushya ki maujoodagi kabhi upayukt naheen lagi. mohan maanate the ki aadhunik aadmi bheetar se nitaant svaarthi, kroor aur badasoorat hai. usaka sarvottam paksh abhi bhi usaki srujanavrutti hi hai- jiska pratiroop vishaal jal-raashiyon ko thaam kar banaae jaane vaale baandhon, seement-kankreet ke anant failaav aur aakaash ko chhooti hui shahari-pragati ke vividh roopon mein dekha ja sakta hai.

''aisa naheen ki meri dilchaspi 'aadmi' mein naheen, par main apni swayam ki imej, niraasha aur asantosh se itna ukata gaya hooain ki mujhe dar hai ki chitron mein aise aadmi ki upasthiti unhein badasoorat na kar de....'' mohan sharma ne apne ek kaitelaug mein likha bhi tha. inke chitron mein nagar-anubhavon ke alaava 'achal-jeevan' ki aanandadaayak maujoodagi bhi hai - khidkiyon ke sahaare rakhi chai ki mejein, guladaan, pyaale, ketaliyaaain, fal aur doosari cheejein jinki chhavi bhi vah apne kenavaason mein ubhaarate rahe. aisa lagta hai jaise 'thos' yahaaain kuchh hai hi naheen, sab kuchh kaaainch sa paaradarshi aur ghula-mila hai, jiske bheetar prakaash aur chhaaya ki manohar aavruttiyaaain hain. is aashay mein inka amoortan 'niraakaar' naheen hai, kyonki kisi na kisi chaakshush-yathaarth se vah hamein sambaddh karke rakhana chaahate the. sooja ne likha hai, mohan sharma mein -''ghanavaadi sanrachanaaon ki ullekhaneeya samajh hai.'' unke chitr dekh kar pehli baar mein hemant shesh ko liyonal faainainjar (1871-1956) ki krutiyaaain yaad aain, par sooja ka yeh maanana hai ki ''20 veen sadi ke jarman ghanavaad ki bajaae mohan sharma ke kaam ki jadein solahaveen shataabdi ke chaamunda devi ke mandir baasoli ki shilpakrutiyon ke adhik nikat hain.''

mohan sharma ki rachanaaon mein sarvatr jis 'kaareegari' ki taareef ki gayi hai usaka ek sabab hai - rangaton ka sadha hua aalep aur jyaamitik aakaaron ka blade sa teekhaapan. 1976 aur baad ki inki krutiyon mein parivartan ke kuchh ek spasht chinh dekhe ja sakte hain. sabse bada to yeh ki unke roopaakaar utane ghaneebhoot aur thasaathas guainthe naheen rahe, jinte poorvavarti kala-daur mein ve raha karte the. 1976 ke baad ki inki rachanaaon ka shilp apekshaakrut saral hua. usamein isi kaaran gaharaai aur pariprekshya ke kuchh nae anubhav pravisht hue. rangon ke fyoojan ki takaneek yahaaain bhi hai, parantu baad ke daur ki krutiyon mein mohan sharma ek vishisht tarah ke saraleekaran ki or badhte deekh padte the. yeh baat kya antat: unki chitrakarm mein I aur gahari 'paripkvata' ki or hi sanket naheen karti?

doosari pramukh baat yeh hai ki 1976 ke baad unke kathaanak bhi kinchit badle hue hain. keval deevaaron aur bhavanon ki punaraavrutti se hat kar unhonne chunaav kiya -praakrutik duniya ke sairon ya drushyon ka, jinmein sabse pramukh hain-samudra aur registaan. kalaakaar ki aaainkh se dekhein to samudra aur registaan mein koi antar hai hi naheen. kala-prayojanon ke liye ve donon paryaayavaachi hain. donon mein ek anant bhaav hai. ve donon hi dekhe jaane ke sukh se hamein baaaindhate hain. yahaaain registaan ya saagar ka vistaar kshitij tak faila hua hai aur kai baar to aisa lagta hai jaise vah nisseem hai ya drushti-path se aage bhi vah sajeev hai. mohan sharma ke isi daur ki krutiyon mein sairon aur jahaajon ke sanket hain.

prasangavash yahaaain yeh bhi likhna sangat hoga ki chitraavakaash ko lekar bhi ek sajag-bhaav inke man mein tha. yahaaain kainavaas ke apne taiksachar ko bhi prayog mein laane ki koshish ki gayi hai.''main kala ko maanasik shaanti aur santulan ki abhivyakti ka jariya maanata hooain ....'' mohan kaha karte the. sachmuch hamaare paripkvatar kalaakaaron mein inki rachanaaeain vishay aur uske nirvaah ko lekar kuchh sadha hua aur nafees dekhne ka avsar pradaan karti hain. rangaton ka shaaleen istemaal aur sateek brashavark mohan sharma ki niji khoobiyaaain theen- jiske sahaare unhonne apna ek alag muhaavara viksit kiya. shaayad iseeliye sooja ne mohan sharma ko Bhaarat mein 'paig' (prograisiv aartists group) ki kala-chetna ki 'ek agali kadi' ke roop mein hi dekha aur baar-baar saraaha.

yeh samakaaleen chitrakala ke liye durbhaagyapoorn tha ki mohan sharma achaanak hamaare beech se chale gaye. Cancer jaise jaanleva rog se ladte hue apni antim saans tak ve jeevan ke prati aashaanvit the aur usase bhi jyaada is baat ke prati ki vah theek ho kar fir se chitr bana sakeinge. par aisa hona bada na tha. bhale hi mohan sharma aaj naheen hain, par jo kuchh vah apne prashansakon aur parichiton ke liye smruti mein chhod gaye hain- ve kuchh aisi krutiyaaain hain, jinka sammohan aane vaale sambhaavanaasheel nae logon ke behatareen kaam se kam bhale ho jaae, poori tarah khatm to vah ho hi naheen sakta.

sab rangon ki maaain hai - kaala

V S Upadhaya.jpg

vidyaasaagar upaadhyaaya (janm 1948, parataapura-baaainsavaada) ka naam bhaarateeya aadhunik kala ke maidaan mein jaana pahachaana hai. vah apni syaah-safed amoort krutiyon ke kaaran pahachaane jaate hain. shaileegat vishishtita ke kaaran bhi vidyaasaagar un rachanaakaaron mein rahe hain, jinhonne apni kala ke liye raajya se baahar bhi ek kala-sangraahak aur prekshak-varg taiyaar kiya hai. vidyaasaagar ne chitraankan ki shuruaat peinsil rekhaankanon se ki thi aur 1968 se 1976 tak lagaataar saadhanon aur arthaabhaav ke chalte vah keval peinsil mein hi rekhaankan karte rahe the. is kaaryakaal mein unki priya peinsil thi-3-bi, jiska saghan prayog karte hue inhonne apne maadhyam ki komal samvedanasheelata se rishta kaayam kiya. inke yahaaain kaagaj par kaale-safed aakaaron ka failaav peinsil ke lagaataar strokon se upajata hai, jismein laid ki baareekiyaaain aur sthoolataaeain to kaheen-kaheen dekhte hi banti hain.


haalaaainki keval peinsil ki rangaton ka pradarshan hi inka ekamaatr abheesht naheen, parantu chalte-chalaate kai dafa ham aisa ehsaas pa jaate hain jaise vah peinsil ki 'kamaneeyata' aur iske jaldi-jaldi badal jaane vaale mijaaj ko hi apni krutiyon mein girftaar karna chaah rahe hon. kaale ghataaghop vaataavaran ki sarjana karne mein vidyaasaagar ki peinsil hai bhi siddhahast. vah bakhoobi jaanti hai ki lagaataar ghisaai kaagaj par kitna prabhaavashaali kaalaapan rach sakti hai. bahut badi sankhya mein banaae gaye apne peinsil rekhaankanon mein jo bhi roopaakaar vidyaasaagar ne kaagaj par upajaae hain ve amoort hain-kaheen bhi vaastaavik drushya-jagat ke prabhaavon ki tarah naheen, balki andhere ki un thos anubhootiyon ki tarah, jo achetan ki jatil duniya ke pratibimb paida karti hain. andhakaar aur lagaataar bana rahane wala koi rahasya hi in rekhaankanon ka mool bhaav hai. kaale roopaakaaron ke dvaara vidyaasaagar andhere ki srushti karte hain aur prakaaraantar se hamein ek ajeeb tarah ki layaatmakata, rahasyaatmakata aur gahre aindrik samvedan mein le jaane ka prayaas bhi. unke aarambhik kaam mein tantr-chitron ki samvedana mukhar hai. kaheen inki aisi krutiyon mein ham yaun prateekon athva guptaangon se saakshaatkaar kar baithate hain, to kabhi dabi-dhainki prateekaatmakata ke sahaare un tak pahuainchate hain.

prakaash inki rachanaaon mein unmukt bhaav se naheen upaja, lekin jahaaain bhi vah upasthit hai, lagaataar apne astitv ka bhaan karavaata chalta hai. andhakaar ke jaadui rahasya ke beech maddhim se maddhim roshani ki lau bhi jaise apne liye ek aakarshan paida karti hai-isi tarah khaali chhooti safed jagah ka ujalaapan inke rekhaankanon mein ek vishisht samvedana jagaata hai. kabhi apne 'kampojishn' ke saaainche mein sakaaran istemaal karne, kabhi prekshak ko aashcharyamishrit prafullata mein daalne ke liye inhonne taiksachar ko kaagaj ki peeth se ubhaara hai. at: taiksacharon mein unki ruchi ke kai kaaran hain-'vishay' ki aantarik maaaing se le kar keval kaushal aur aatmamugdhata tak ke liye. par ullekhaneeya yeh hai inke chitron ke bheetari anushaasan ko bigaadne mein taiksacharon ne kabhi bhi apni seemaaon ka atikraman naheen kiya. ve jahaaain bhi hain shaaleen aur shisht hain aur apne 'hone' ke baavajood itne 'vaachaal' naheen hai ki chitron ki aantarik taakat ko kshati pahunchaaeain.

peinsil rekhaankanon ki shrrunkhalaaon mein upaadhyaaya ne Udaipur ke bahut se kalaakaaron ki tarah hi, apne liye jyaamitik-sanrachana ki raah pasand ki thi aur inki aarambhik krutiyaaain jyaadaatar 'saintral-kampojishn' mein hi banaai gayi hain. 1976 ke baad vidyaasaagar ne painsil se hat kar nae rang-maadhyam ekrilik ka sahaara liya aur aaj bhi vah isi mein kaam kar rahe hain. unka maadhyam mein badlaav (peinsil se aikrelik ya tailarang) yeh soochana to deta hai ki 'maadhyam' ke roodh ho jaane ka ehsaas unke achetan mein tha, kintu lagbhag vahi kathya, ve hi roopaakaar aur vahi kendreeya-sanyojan hamein inke chitron mein kaagaj ki bajaae kainavaas par aarambh ke kuchh varshon mein utara milta hai. is arth mein 1978 tak vidyaasaagar ka maadhyam parivartan 'rachanaamoolak' parivartan naheen tha. yeh mahaj kala-saamagri ka badlaav hi tha.

1978 aur iske baad vidyaasaagar ek nae rachana-lok ke saath hamaare saamane upasthit hue. apne roodhiyon aur kathaanak se hat kar vah jo nai cheej laae, vah thi-prakruti. chaahe ve parvaton, baadalon, nadiyon aur chattaanon ke bimb hon ya doosare drushya, vah poorv ki vishyavastu-tantr aur jyaamiti ko tyaag kar us pahaadi aur pathareele thethapan ko rekhaankit karte rahe hain-jinke beech lambe arase tak ve rahe hain.

''mere liye yeh aavashyak naheen ki koi anubhav theek usi shakl soorat mein kala mein aae ya prayukt ho. ek anubhav doosare anubhav ya bahut saare anubhavon ke saath judta aur roopaayit hota hai. kaun si cheej rachana-karm mein kab aur kis tarah kaam aati hai-bahut pecheeda baat hai. mainne ek hi cheej ko kai-kai baar kaha hai. jaise 'pebals' ko apni bahut si rachanaaon mein chitrit kiya aur man bhar kah lene ke baad fir kisi doosare anubhav ko utha liya. machhaliyon, jahaajon ke moovament, 'flaaing bards' ya 'flaaing rauks' ke impraishan bhi meri pentingon mein aate rahe hain.'' vidyaasaagar batalaate hain.

in mukt aur nirbandh rachanaaon se, jahaaain unki puraani vishyavastu sambandhi ekarasata bhang hui hai, vaheen ye kaale-safed rekhaankan aur tailachitr hamein le jaate hain - un parvateeya anubhavon mein, jo apne anagadhpan aur svatantr - astitv ki vajah se lubhaate hain. peinsil ke alaava aikrilik rangon ke inke chitron mein ham drushyon ke najadeek jaate hain-is anubhooti ke sahaare ki ye pahaad aur chattaanein amoort, andhakaarapoorn hote hue bhi hamein baandh sakane ka bhaav apne mein sanjoe hain. yahaaain ham prakruti ko, jo inka naveenatam vishay rahi hai- ek samajhdaar space-sanyojan mein ghatit hua bhi dekhte hain. kaagaj ya kainavaas ki safed satah ko apne avakaash ke liye baratne aur chhodne ka kaushal bhi yahaaain hai. kuchh ek baar vah apne layaatmak ya jaivakeeya se deekh padne vaale roopaakaaron ko ek khaas tarah ke jamaav ke dvaara vyakt karne ki ichha mein doobe maaloom dete hain. nadi kinaare ke gol-gol pattharon, aakaash ke dhabbon aur pathaaron ke sudoor bimbon ko pakadti inki krutiyaaain hamein asal-kathya se itar bhi prakruti ki prushthabhoomi ke aalok ya dhundhalakon ka parichay deti hain. at: jo cheejein mool-falak par I hain, unki bhoomika ke taur par vidyaasaagar usaki prushthabhoomi ke ankan mein bhi ruchisheel hain aur asal mein yahi in drushyaankanon ki sampoornata ka rahasya hai.

upaadhyaaya ke chitron ki ek aur visheshata ka ullekh karna yahaaain aprasaangik na hoga. vah visheshata hai- rangaton (tons) ka adhyayan. kaale-safed ki ekarasata ke svaad ko, kainavaas ke ekasepan ko jo cheej bhang karti hai, ve hain-rangatein. rangaton ke bahut se prakaar inmein hain-taral, madhyam, gahre aur ghane. rangaton ki vajah se hi ham chitron mein ek khaas tarah ke anubhav ki vividhta se judte hain. vah drushyaankanon mein rangaton se hi pariprekshya aur cheejon ke beech saapekshik dooriyon ka ehsaas jagaate hain.

vidyaasaagar upaadhyaaya ke rekhaankanon par suparichit kathaakaar aur sameekshak ashok aatreya ki yeh tippani bhi mahatvapoorn hai-''.....unke bachapan ke sanskaaron mein bhi araavali-shrrunkhalaaon ka sthaan kam mahatvapoorn naheen raha. aisa lagta hai ki vidyaasaagar ke nae chitr, pahaadon ke antarang saakshaatkaar ke mohak drushya upasthit karte hain. unamein sammohan jagaane waali kushalata hai. yon ye chitr kisi bhi star par pahaadon ka koi 'rekhaachitreeya' anubhav naheen karaate, balki atyant nijta ke star par unke gopan rahasyon ki paratein kholte prateet hote hain. kaheen-kaheen par lagta hai jaise ve kisi vishaal kaali raatri ke dainon ke samaan aakrutiyaaain kaat kar banaae gaye hain. vah apne maadhyam ka bharpoor upayog karte hain aur kaagaj par tab tak ghiste hain jab tak usase apekshit gahra santosh (gaadhi kamaai) praapt naheen kar lete. vah apni shaili mein ek shramik ki nishtha rakh kar vah sammohan jaga dete hain ki prakruti apni bhaari-bharakam mudra banaane ke baavajood ek sahajata, ek rahasya liye khadi rahati hai.....vidyaasaagar mein jahaaain pahaad sa bhaari man hai, vahaaain vah aakaash sa vishraam bhi apne prekshak ko pradaan karte hain aur yon lagta hai ki vah kisi aisi yaatra mein akele nikal pade hain, jahaaain 'padaav' dhooaindhane ki unki shartein hain. peinsil ke vishaal belanaakaar, gol, tikone, teekhe, ghumaavadaar, seedhe aur oonche-neeche aise kai padaavon ki or vidyaasaagar apne shilp ke maadhyam se sanket karte hain, ki yaatra thakaane ya ubaane waali prateet hoti.....

ek baar poochhane par ki keval syaah-safed mein hi chitr kyon banaate rahe hain, vidyaasaagar upaaghyaaya ne kaha tha- '' mera maanana hai ki keval rangon se hi kalaakaar ka vyaktitv naheen banta. main rangon ko us roop mein prayukt naheen karta, jis tarah kalaakaar aam taur par karte hain, par main kaale-safed ki tons ko hi prakruti ke rangon ke roop mein dekhta aur prayog karta hooain. peinsil ko shuroo mein ek tarah ki rachanaatmak majaboori mein thaama tha, par dheere-dheere kaala safed hi meri abhivyakti ka abhinn ang ban gaya. aaj bhi man isse bhara naheen hai, isliye isi mein kaam karta ja raha hooain ....''

kintu baad mein rangon ke sammohan ne vidyaasaagar jaise chitrakaar ko bhi apni taraf kheench hi liya, jo sirf kaale aur safed ko hi apni pehli abhivyakti maanate rahe the. haalaanki vidyaasaagar rangon ke anushaasan mein ekaaek pravisht naheen hue, par syaah safed se hat kar rangon tak pahunchana unke liye ek bade kraantikaari mahatvapoorn parivartan jaisa raha hai. udaaharan ke liye ham in rangamaya kainavaason mein prakruti ki vibhinn mudraaon ko ek puraane sammohan ki hi tarah, chitr falak par utara hua dekh sakte hain. in chitron mein vidyaasaagar ne pedon, pahaadon, chattaanon, baadalon aur shilaaon ka roopaantaran kiya hai. yahaaain bhoore, peele, kaale aur doosare halke rangon ki rangatein hain. apni taral samvedna ka jaise aashray lete hue ye rang ek prekshak ko prakruti ke viraat aur usaki lagaataar badalne waali sanshlisht aakrutiyon tak le jaate hain.

rangon ke chayan ko vidyaasaagar apni is nai chitr-shrunkhala ke liye kaafi oorjaadaayak maanate hain. unka vichaar yeh bhi hai ki ''in rangon mein main ek aisi taral, paaradarshi aur samvedansheel srushti khoj sakta hooain, jiski abhivyakti doosare kisi maadhyam mein shaayad apekshaakrut kathin hoti.

vah in chitron mein apni puraani kathaavastu ko naye dhang se kehne ke pakshadhar hain. is chitron ki ek khaasiyat yeh bhi hai ki inmein vidyaasaagar upaadhyaaya ki parichit chitr-mudra, vishesh roop se kaale aur safed ko lekar kiye gaye anveshan, yahaaain aa kar samaapt naheen ho jaate. ve apne parichit chaakshush-saundarya ko barkaraar rakhate hue atyant taral aur halke rangon aur unki rangaton ko kholte hain. chitraavakaash aur praakrutik roopon ke prati unke man mein jo ek khaas aagrah usaki vishaalata ko lekar hai, usaki abhivyanjana vah bade aakaar ke kainavaas chun kar karte hain. yahau bahut saara avakaash hai-ek nirvaat jaisa, jismein prakruti ke roopaakaar rangon ke beech ubhar rahe hain. unamein door tak dikhne vaale drushyon aur avaantar bimbon ki aakrutiyaaain hain. prakruti ke vishaal svaroop ko yahaaain saghaneekrut kiya gaya hai. unamein pariprekshya ki gaharaai, kathaanak ki banaavat aur taiksachar ki aardrata dekhi ja sakti hai.

is rangeen krutiyon mein vidyaasaagar paryaapt kaavyaatmak aur sanvedanapoorn bane rah sake hain. in kainavaason ki sanrachana mein lagaata maujood hai- ek jyaamitik laya aur gati, jo aakaaron mein ho rahe uddaam badlaavon ki poorv-soochana jaisi hai. layaatmakata ke prati unki lagan aur prakruti ko lekar chhaaya rahane wala anuraag vidyaasaagar ke man mein kai varshon se hai. apne naveen chitron mein vah isi lagaav ke aur nikat pahuainch rahe prateet hote hain. baareek tantuon aur kaali rekhaaon ki sakriya upasthiti se vah hamaare saamane roopaakaaron ke bheetar upasthit rahane waali chhoti, kintu maheen aur sakriya sanvedanaaon ko bhi kholte hain. ab inke roopaakaar utane aupachaarik naheen rahe, ve bahut door tak prakruti ki nirbaadh gatisheelata aur uske androoni sanvegon ko tatolate dikhlaai padte hain.

is prakaar ke mukt aakaaron mein jahaaain prakruti ki abhivyakti ke liye nae dharaatal upaje hain, vaheen kai baar inke jaroorat se jyaada 'anagadh' ho jaane ke khatre bhi saamane aae hain, kintu ek bante hue chitr-sansaar mein ye sab baatein adhik mahatva ki naheen hain. lagaataar kaam karne vaale chitrakaaron mein vidyaasaagar upaadhyaaya ek pratishthit kalaakaar ke roop mein hamaari abhishansa ke hakdaar hain. aur ham, unki krutiyon mein har nae rachana-padaav ke prati aashaanvit.

niraakaar ka bhi koi aakaar to hai!

suresh sharma ke tailachitr, ek hi rang ki rangaton aur usamein atyant saavadhaani se rachi gayi jyaamiti ka udaaharan hain. vah kainavaas ke vishaal space mein khud apna arth talaashati rangaton ke chitrakaar hain, jinke yahaaain 'niraakaar' ke prati teevr vyaamoh ya poorvaraag baraabar upasthit rahata aaya hai. vishuddh rangon aur rangaton ko spray ke sahaare utpann ki gayi usi ek ya kuchh rangon ki rangaton mein chhipa bahut taral par prakat jyaamitik aagrah suresh sharma ke chitron ko apna ek alag vyaktitv deta hai. yeh shubh hai ki bhale kuchh suprasiddh videshi chitrakaaron se unke chitr-saamya ko chhod dein, unka kaam Rajasthan mein rah rahe aadhunik chitrakaaron mein bhinn bhi hai aur 'saahasik' bhi.

suresh sharma (janm 1937, kota) ne tailachitron ke alaava moortishilp aur graafik chhaape bhi banaae hain aur unki kala-yaatra ke vikaas mein in teenon maadhyamon mein kaam karne ka anubhav kuchh is tarah juda hua hai ki use alag-alag karke dekhna kathin hai. haalaaainki vigat kuchh varshon se vah keval tailachitr hi bana rahe hain. (aur aaj unki chhavi ek moortikaar ya graafik chhaapekaar ke roop mein naheen, balki chitrakaar ke roop mein hi hai) par unhonne aaranbhik varshon mein graafik mein jo kaam kiya hai, vah unki is maadhyam mein kuchh nae anveshan karne ki ruchi aur rujhaan ka parichaayak hai. suresh sharma ki kala Rajasthan mein rah rahe doosare bahut saare samakaaleen kalaakaaron se apne arth aur prabhaav mein bhinn hai. unki yeh srujanaatmak svaayattata hi unki sabse ullekhaneeya poonji hai- haalaaainki in par-'amaulik' hone ka yada-kala jo aarop lagaaya jaata hai- usaki vajah yeh hai ki inki rachanaaeain dekhte hue hamein nai American kala-dhaara ke aid rainahard aur jojf elabars sareekhe kalaakaaron ke kaamon ki smruti achaanak ho aati hai. yeh prabhaav shaayad isliye bhi itna paaradarshi aur spsht hai ki vah kuchh samay ke liye amareeka mein rahe hain. jaahir hai ki vahaaain ki kala-pravruttiyon ki chhaap un par gahari hai. unke chitron ki yaad rakhane laayak baat yeh hai ki unka amoortan aakaaron ya viroopan ka amoortan naheen hai- balki vah 'niraakaar' rach kar bhi avaantar se ek doosare bhaav-bodh ka darvaaja hamaare liye kholte hain.

iske chitron ki do visheshataaeain aur hain. ek to yeh ki apekshaakrut ek vishaal chitr-avakaash inke yahaaain hai (kyonki inke kainavaas aakaar-prakaar mein amooman bade hain) doosari yeh ki vah keval 'rangaton' par hi kaam karte hain. rangaton ko 'prayukt' karne ki shaili bhi in aikrilik chitron mein bhinn hai. inheen visheshataaon ko lekar hi unke kainavaason ke lakshya anyon se kuchh alag hain. inke chitron mein samvedna se bhari rangatein hain, jo rangon ke spray se utpann saare falak par kuchh is tarah chhaai rahati hain, jaise December mein udta hua kohara. ve kisi bhi rang ki ho sakti hain- neele, kaale, baingani ya kisi aur gahre rang ki, par ve saare kainavaas par ekachhatr saamraajya sthaapit kiye rahati hain. inke bheetar ek ghumadn aur manthan ka bhaav maujood hai. aisa lagta hai jaise dekhte hi dekhte baadal apni aakrutiyaaain badal lete hain- shaayad kainavaas ki ye rangatein bhi usi prakriya mein hai. ismein nirntar ek spandan aur kanpan hai. ve kabhi-kabhi to dhuneain ki taral chaadar ki tarah poore falak par 'chha jaana' chaahati hain.

suresh sharma kainavaas par (sailo-tape ke sahaare) kaheen-kaheen bahut halke aur dhyaan se dekhne par hi najar aane vaale jamitik-paitarn daal kar hamein rangaton ki ekarasata se bachaana chaahate hain, par ye jyaamitik-chaukhaane bhi itne virl aur saanketik hain ki chitr ki taral samvedna par 'bojh' naheen bante. inke kaam mein prushthabhoomi aur mukhyabhoomi (foragraaund) jaisi koi avadhaarana hai hi naheen. jo prushthabhoomi hai, vahi falak par hamaare saamane bhi upasthit hai. usamein aisa koi bhed naheen ki kaun aage hai kaun si peechhe. aisa isliye hai kyonki vah kisi 'aakaar' ka amoorteekaran naheen. suresh sharma hamein rangon ke arthapoorn prabhaavon ke sahaare jaise ek daarshanik shoonya se saakshaatkaar karavaana chaahate hain. isliye iske kainavaason ke saamane khade ho kar hamein kai baar yeh apeksha hone lagti hai ki shaayad is par koi 'bold' rang-ghatna ghategi ya hamein rangaton par kuchh 'thos' dekhne ko milega- par aisa kabhi hota naheen. unke saare chitr hamein doosare tarah ke maun mein le jaate hain. yeh rangaton ke gredeshan se bani khaamoshi hai, jis par koi rang-ghatna naheen ubharati, sirf dhundh ki tarah udti hui rangatein kainavaas par ghumadti rahati hain. suresh sharma ki sabse badi upalabdhi ya 'saahasikta' yahi hai ki inhonne keval rangon ko hi roopaakaar ke roop mein kaam mein liya hai.

yeh kehna unke saath shaayad jyaadati hogi ki ekaaek vah apne vartamaan kala-muhaavare par 'kood' pade hain. unke is niraakaar ke peechhe rahi hain kuchh yaatraaeain-graafik aur aikrilik mein, jahaaain shuroo mein doosare kalaakaaron hi ki tarah hamein vah ek 'aakruti pradhaan' amoortan hi mein le jaane ki koshish mein talleen deekh padte the. unke graafik chhaapon mein yeh mudra kadaachit jyaada mukhar thi. kintu kramash: unke kainavaason se aam taur par najar aane waali rang-yojanaaeain, aakaar (faurms) aur unki sanvedanaaeain lupt hone lageen- aur unki jagah le li- sirf rangon aur rangaton ne, rangatein jinko samooche kainavaas par chhitka kar vah unke jariye ek sookshmatar 'bodh' hamaare bheetar jagaane ki baat shaayad sochate hon. ho sakta hai ham mein se bahuton ko suresh sharma ka yeh sansaar bahut seema tak saraleekrut lage, kintu mere apne vichaar mein yeh saraleekaran ek khaas prakaar ka amoorteekaran hai. ek aisa amoortan jo pehli martaba mein itna graahya aur saamaanya naheen ki chalte-chalaate ya 'kejual aiproch' rakhate hue use ham saraah sakein. aisa karne ke liye hamein unke chitr-darshan ke saath hi bahana hoga, kabhi samaanaantar, kabhi usase baahar aur pare. apni saari rachana-prakriya mein astitvavaadi vichaarakon ki tarah hi vah bhi doosare (adar) ki upasthiti ko katai jaroori naheen maanate. isi se yeh baat saaf hoti hai ki kyon inki saari kala nitaant vaiyaktik aur vishyaparak hai? vah adhikaansh chitrakaaron ki tarah kyon kisi aakaaraparak amoortan ke prati aagrahasheel naheen?

jahaaain tak suresh sharma ke kaam mein jyaamitik sanketon ki maujoodagi ka savaal hai, jaisa humne pehle kaha, usaka asal abhipraaya yahi hai ki ek to ye varg, chaukhaane ya samaanaantar rekhaaeain (beems) kainavaas ki rang ekarasata ka khandan karti hain aur doosra yeh bhi ki ve peinting ke prati kalaakaar ke ek sachet sambandh ka soochak hain. kala-rachana yahaaain ek aakasmik ghatna naheen rah jaati, balki vah srujan-vrutti ko saayaas kala-vastu mein gadhne waali koshish ban jaati hai. ye rekhaaen, varg aur jyaamitik sanket itne spasht aur moortamaan naheen ki ekaaek poori rachana par ubhar aaeain, balki inka dhundhalaapan aur saanketikta bahudha ek alag svaad ka sammohan hamamein jagaati hai. jitna ham unki upasthiti se alag hatne ki koshish karte hain, yeh virl, paaradarshi jyaamiti hamaare bheetar utana hi kutoohal upajaati hai, yon is chitr-lok ko seedhe sapaat tareeke se saraah paana kathin isliye hai ki usamein drushyaatmakata, khaas taur par sthool roopaakaaron ke prati aagrah kaheen hai hi naheen aur jaisa ki ham kah chuke hain 'niraakaar' ke prati unka sachet vyaamoh hi unhein apni tarah ke alag muhaavare ka kalaakaar banaata hai.

unka kaam dekh kar hamein yahi lagta hai ki kala mein aadhunik hone ka ek maayana shaayad yeh bhi hai ki chaaloo raitarik se alag ham rangon ki vyaakaranaviheen viraat duniya mein pravesh kar jaaeain aur rangaton va rangon ke niraakaar ko hi apna khud ek arth talaashane dein.

aaindhere mein jalati hui mehataab

shabbeer hasan kaaji (janm 1946, Ajmer) ke kaam ki abhi koi roodhi bani ho- aisa isliye naheen lagta kyonki vah abhi apni chitr-duniya ko pahachaanane ki prakriya mein lage hue hain. lagaataar kaam karne vaale aise chitrakaaron mein unki ginti hai jo apne liye ganbheerataapoorvak koi spasht maarg talaash karne ki rachanaatmak oohaapoh se gujar rahe hain. unki yeh koshish hi is baat ke liye hamane prerit karti hai ki unki kala par charcha ki jaae. vah 1969 se kaam kar rahe hain aur ab tak mool roop se unki dilchaspi ka vishay rahi hai- tantr ya jyaamiti ki kalpanaaeain. gahre rang unhein sab se jyaada bhaate hain. vah ek vakt mein laal, kaale aur hare ko khul kar kainavaas par lagaane vaale chitrakaar the. sattar ke aaspaas ke chitron mein unke yahaaain keval hare ka saghan upayog tha. saare ke saare falak par haraapan mandit hua karta tha, jis par safed kaale aur doosare gahre varnon se kuchh 'saaikaidailik' si milti julati kaali-pattiyon aur laharon vaale svatantr roopaakaar the. shabbeer ke shurooaat ke kaam mein adhiktar aaainkhon ko appeal karne wala 'vyaavasaayik' dhang ka amoortan tha, jo kaheen-kaheen 'design' ban jaane ke khatre ke bahut kareeb hi tha. vah apni krutiyon mein aakaaron ke prati itne saavdhaan the ki jyaamitik aakrutiyon ka kainavaas par aayojan ek hichk bhare istemaal ke saath karte deekh padte the. unki bahut si praarambhik krutiyon mein ek khaas tarah ke rahasya, ulajhan aur jhijhak ka bhaav bana raha tha aur kai baar lagta tha ki unki chinta, chitr ki androoni srushti mein kam aur use aakarshak rang-sanyojan ke saath poora kar apne daayitv se 'mukti' pa lene mein jyaada hai. par type bante chitraankan aur jyaamiti ya tantr jaise puraane vishyon ke dohare khatre se khelte hue shabbeer ne ekdam naya aur maulik na sahi par praanjal aur aakarshak lag sakane wala kaam kar kala mein pravesh kiya tha.

Udaipur-school ke anek naujavaan chitrakaaron ki hi bhaaainti shabbeer ne bhi shuroo shuroo mein jyaamiti ko le kar apni baat kahani chaahi thi. jyaamiti ke aakarshan ne haalaaainki inhein ab bhi apne mein baandh rakha hai- par idhar ke kaam mein jyaamiti ke sandarbh puraane naheen hain- ve kadaachit parivrtit aur paravardhit hain. usaki jadta toot rahi hai aur ab vah chitron ki duniya ka hi hissa najar aati hai.

shabbeer ki 1975 aur aaspaas ke varshon ki rachanaaon mein (tantr-chitrakala ke naam par) kaam aur adhyaatm ke kuchh ati parichit prateek hain- kamal, stri-yoni, chandr, netr, andhakaar vagairah jinko jyaamiti ke anushaasan mein piroya gaya hai. in chitron mein shabbeer ne yaun-prateekon ka upayog chitr ki apni kampojishn ko banaane ya use badalne mein kiya hai. kabhi-kabhi inhein dekh kar gulaam rasool santosh ke chitron ke puraane tantr ki smruti taaja ho aati thi. par ye sab baatein ek bante hue chitrakaar ke saath aam taur par ghatit hoti hi hain. shabbeer hasan kaaji ke taantrik-prateekon ko le kar banaae in chitron mein ek kraaftsamain ka kaushal sarvatr hai. unamein ek niyojan aur sadhaav hai. vah mehnat se rang lagaane ke pakshadhar hain. unke in chitron mein roopaakaar pehle ki apeksha adhik thos aur aayataakaar hain. ve jyaamitik sanrachanaaon mein tej rangon ke beech sthaapit hain. unke beech kaheen-kaheen prakaash aur ujaas ki bhoomika hai. inhein dekh kar aisa lagta hai jaise koi thos cheej dhoosar aur taral ho rahi ho. shabbeer ke is daur ke kaam mein koi spasht laukik-chhaviyaaain dhoondhna jyaadati hi hogi, par kalpana karein to unamein daine failaae hue pakshiyon ya udaan bharate havaai jahaajon ki si aakrutiyaaain pahachaani ja sakti hain. 'hard-aij' ke ye saaf suthare hisse kaheen-kaheen bahut kaavyaatmak hain. unamein ushn rangon ki upasthiti ke baavajood bhi ek maarmik taralata hai. rangon ke fyoojan ya rangatein banaane mein shabbeer hasan, mohan sharma jaise kalaakaaron se peechhe jaroor hain- par vah bhi is baat ki koshish mein talleen najar aate hain ki gahre ya mool rangon se khoob achhi tarah bhare kainavaas ki sthirta ya jadta mein thodi si 'halachal' paida karne ke liye halki, kintu samvedansheel gulaabi ya peeli rangatein 'ugi hui' najar aaen. ye rangatein hamaare liye kisi aakaar lete hue ujaale ki sanketak ho sakti hain, jo kam hote hue bhi apni taraf hamaara dhyaan aakarshit karne mein saksham hai. hare aur laal ke alaava kaale aur baingani mein bhi shabbeer ne bahut sa kaam kiya hai.

inke shuroo ke kaam mein pariprekshya-chetna utani mukhar naheen hai, par baad ke daur mein vah is kala-yathaarth ke baare mein bhi sajag hone ka aabhaas dene lagte hain. shuroo ke lok-alankaran ki si sapaat anvitiyon ya kaale safed chaukhaanon aur pattiyon ke saaikaidailik istemaal ke baad unhonne chitron ne ek alag karvat li aur vah kaale ke maadhyam se koi rahasya, vishaad ya andhakaar khada chaahate hain. 'kaalaapan' to vidyaasaagar jaise chitrakaar mein bhi bahut hai, par shabbeer ke chitron ka andhera bahut raumentik aur rangeen hai. unke chitron ko dekh kar aisa lagta hai jaise andhere kamre mein koi mahataab jala raha ho. unki chitr shrunkhala 'shamaaain' mein aisi hi anubhootiyaaain maujood hain.

kainavaas ke avakaash mein inke yahaaain roopaakaar jis shaili mein rache gaye the vah dekhna bhi rochak hai. pehle ve pattiyon ya farsh ki si chhaviyon ke dvaara kisi rah aapas mein sambaddh the- beech ke kala daur (1974-1980) mein ve ek doosare se svatantr aur nirpeksh rahe, ab fir se ve kaileegraafi ya lipi-sanketon ke saath aapas mein sanyukt ho rahe hain. inki nai rachanaaon mein do vishesh pravruttiyaaain hain- ek to yeh ki yahaaain faarasi ki kaileegraafi pravisht ho rahi hai aur doosari yeh ki ab rangon ka mijaaj bahut kuchh badla hua hai. rang utane bold aur seedhe naheen hai, varan unamein ek ghani udaasi ka sanmishran hai. yeh prakriya kuchh-kuchh aisi hi hai, jaise manch ki tej roshani ko badalne ke liye naatyagruh mein aarkalaimp ke saamane jilaitin kaagaj laga diya jaata hai.

shabbeer mein aae is badlaav ko ham une chitron ke mijaaj ki nirntarata mein dekh sakte hain. parivartan, kalaakaar mein ek khaas muhaavare mein kaam karne aur usaki sambhaavanaaon ko uker lene ke baad aana sahaj aur svaabhaavik hai. yahaaain bhi parivartan haalaaainki dheema aur kramabaddh hai aur iske peechhe chitron ki yaatra hai, par ise sahaj hi samajh jaana bhi aasaan hai. khaas taur par unke liye jo kabhi shabbeer ko chatakh jyaamiti aur 'optikl ilyoojan' paida karne vaale ek kalaakaar ke roop mein dekhte aur jaante aae hain.

''.....faarasi ki yeh kaileegraafi keval kaileegraafi ki tarah chitron mein naheen I, par iske peechhe mere kuchh doosare anubhav bhi sambaddh hain. mainne pichhle saalon mein adhyaatm ki duniya ko pahachaanane ki koshish ki hai. main ek 'bande' ki tarah soofi peeron ke jeevan-darshan aur vyaktitv ko najadeek se dekhne jaanane ko utkanthit raha hooain''.....shabbeer kehte hain. ''pata naheen achaanak jaane kaise mujhe dharm aur adhyaatm mein gahari ruchi paida hui aur isi junoon mein main is arase mein soofiyon ke saannidhya mein raha bhi hooain.....soofeevaad ki saari 'feeling' hi amoort hai''.....shabbeer hasan ka vichaar hai. vah apne kuchh chitron mein isi 'bodh' ke niktatar ja rahe prateet hote hain. hara rang to pehle se hi inki rachanaaon mein islaami dhaarmik samvedana ke roop mein upasthit raha hai, parantu apni ek chitr shrrunkhala mein bhi vah hare aur kaale ko vah apni poori damak aur maulikta mein prayukt karte the, ab rangon ki chamak ko dheere-dheere kam karke vah apne kathaanak ki gaharaai ke najadeek le ja rahe hain. andhera, inke anusaar, chitron mein srushti ya 'ajnyaaan' ka prateek hai, jismein hi divya roshani (divaain laait) chhipi hai. ''meri rachanaaon ka kaala rang negetiv naheen hai, balki usamein bhi jeevan hai.'' shabbeer ka vichaar hai ki shuddh jyaamiti mein kaam karne par bhi unhein vah lutf naheen aaya jo aanand dhaarmik ya 'soofi' samvedana ko le kar banaae gaye nae chitron mein tha. jyaamiti ki seemaaon se parichit hone ke baad ab shabbeer mein use us puraane arth mein prayukt karne ka utsaah naheen hai aur vah kaafi mukt roopaakaaron ko apne kainavaason par la rahe hain.

aise hi chitron ki agali seedhi ke roop mein ab shabbeer ne shaayad ek baar fir se prakruti ke prati apni dilchaspi prakat karte hue vrukshon, foolon aur aise hi doosare aakaaron ko chitrit karna praarambh kiya hai. yadi in chitron ka vishay prakruti hai, to inki abhivyakti ke liye yahaaain vah jyaamitik aur svatantr roopaakaaron ke sanyojan ki koshish karte hain. poorv mein rache gaye apne aadhyaatmik vishyon ki hi tarah yahaaain jyaamiti ke prati unke shuroo ke aagrah haalaaainki kamjor pade hain, par jyaamiti se vah poori tarah mukt naheen hue. prakruti ko lekar taiyaar is kainavaason mein aadhaar-rangon ke saath jyaamitik aakrutiyaaain bhi badastoor dikhlaai padti hain. kainavaas mein ye jyaamitik aakaar, mukhya rangabhoomi ke liye bas ek aadhaar hi hain, jyaamiti ki sundarata ko khojana inka mantavya naheen hai. yahaaain rangon ka gahra aalep hai, kintu ek kaushal ke saath. shabbeer hasan ke in chitron mein ham dekhte hain kaale, hare, laal, neele aur isi tarah ke kuchh garam rang, jinki khoobi, ek sadhi hui prushthabhoomi taiyaar karne aur fir us par apne kathaanak ko upayukt jagah dene ke sandarbh mein mahattvapoorn hai. aisa lagta hai ki vah nirntar mool rangon se hi kaam lena chaahate hain. in chitron mein aakruti ka ankan niyojit aur sadha hua hai. shabbeer ke banaae fool ya vruksh jis rang-lok ka hissa hain, vah sambhavat: pratyaksh mein dikhlaai naheen de sakte. aisa lag sakta hai ham kisi andhere svapn ya adhakhuli neend mein in foolon ko dekh rahe hain.

yeh ek ullekhaneeya parivartan hai aur inke kainavaason mein ab ek nae padaav ki anugoonj sunaai pad rahi hai. maanav aakrutiyon ke khandit bimb unke haal ke kaam mein aaye hain. aakarshak rang-prayog aur takaneek mein siddhi inki ullekhaneeya visheshataaeain hain, jiske sahaare ham shabbeer hasan kaaji jaise chitrakaaron se aur gahari aashaaeain rakh sakte hain.

aakaaron ka amar-bail mein badal jaana

saahitya ki tarah kala ke liye aanchalikta bhi ek badi prerana hai. shaayad isliye ki lok jeevan mein hi apna sudooratam ateet dhoondh sakte hain. hamaare nagar-chetna ke ped ki aadim jadein antat: gaaainvon mein hi hain, isliye bhavaaneeshankar sharma (janm 1945, vanasthali) ke chitron aur rekhaankanon mein hamein ghoom fir kar kisi na kisi roop mein graamya-sansaar ke drushyon se saakshaatkaar karna padta hai to yeh koi asvaabhaavik ghatna naheen.

vah hamaare liye adal-badal kar Rajasthan ke gaaainv ki drushyaavali ke bimb laate hain. ye bimb ho sakte hain: moron ke, jhonpadiyon ke, unke alankrut darvaajon ke, baadon ke aur khaparailon ke, aalon, khidkiyon aur vrukshon ke. pichhle kuchh varshon se bhavaaneeshankar 'gaaainv' ke prati ek rachanaasheel sanveg se jude hue hain- usaka chitraatmak saraleekaran karte hue vah hamein kam se kam rangon mein (adhiktar syaahi mein) aanchalik drushyon ki sarvavyaapakata mein le jaane ka aagrah karte hain.

vah kainavaas par seedhe kaali syaahi se rekhaankan karte hain. apekshaakrut bade aakaar mein pent kiye safed kainavaas ki space ko vah syaahi ke sakriya rekhaankan se bharate hain. yahaaain vanaspati ya ulajhi hui theth belon aur vrukshaavaliyon ki maujoodagi to hai hi, jo drushya ke nirmaan mein bhaageedaar hain, jhonpadiyon aur tapt bhoo-khandon ke prati kalaakarmi ke ishaare bhi hain: graameen drushyon ki ek taral abhivyakti, jo kuchh pehchaan mein aa sakane vaale sujnyaaat prateekon se mil kar bani hai.

graamya-srushti ko hi le kar chitraankan karne vaale doosare parichit varishth kalaakaar Udaipur ke pi.N.choyal se bhavaani shankar ke chitr-abhipraaya bahut kuchh alag hain. pi.N.choyal ki aanchalik duniya mein jhonpadiyon, puraani barasaaton se paseeji hui deevaaron, pedon aur darvaajon ke roopaakaar aapas mein ghul mil kar ek vichitr rangamaya dhundhalake mein thahar gaye se lagte hain. ve kaheen thahare hue bhi, pighlate aur bahate hue deekh padte hain. unamein ek taiksacharapoorn aardrata hai, kintu bhavaaneeshankar utane prateekaatmak aur dhundhamaya naheen. vah bahut kam rekhaaon mein seedhe-seedhe hamein aanchalik-jeevan ka bodh karaana chaahate hain.

bhavaaneeshankar ne graafik chhaape bhi taiyaar kiye hain jinmein adhikaanshat: moron ka adhyayan hai. 1970 aur aaspaas ke saalon mein nirmit in chhaapon mein ham cheejon ko bilkul vaisa naheen dekhte jaisi ve hain, balki unki vyaktigat rachana-drushti ke maadhyam se baahar aate-aate ve hamein kinchit badli si najar aati hain. lekin us seema tak bhi naheen ki ve hamein begaani ya ajnabi lagne lagein. seemit viroopan ke saath in chhaapon mein moron aur murgon ki aakrutiyaaain, unki gati aur vibhinn mudraaeain hain. vanasthali mein, jahaaain vah rahate aur kaam karte rahe the-mor bahut hain. mor, vanasthali vidyaapeeth ki aashram sanskruti ka ang rahe hain. rekhaankanon mein bhaavaani shankar moron ki har ek 'ada' ko pakadne ki koshish karte hain. vah naachate, thirkate, prem karte, ladte aur chalte hue moron ki mudraaen ankit karte hain. moron ka unka adhyayan kuchh arthon mein unke pita-chitrakaar devakeenandan sharma (1919 - 2005) se kinchit bhinn hai. in rachanaaon mein vah gair-paramparaagat andaaj mein apne kala-guru aur pita se bhinn, moron ke chaak-chauband, udaan ke liye tatpar ya kutte ke hamle se aahat svaroop ko yathaasanbhav kam aur arthajanak rekhaaon mein vyakt karte hain. in rachanaaon mein bade unmukt dhang se, aiching, ofasait, lithograaf ya vudakat takaneekon mein mor ki gatimaan aakruti ka amoort chitran kiya gaya hai. rekhaaon mein teji aur takaneek ki saadagi in chhaapon ki visheshataaeain kahi ja sakti hain.

1975 aur uske baad bhavaaneeshankar ki krutiyon mein ek ullekhaneeya badlaav dekha ja sakta hai. vah yeh ki unki dilchaspi mein na keval kuchh aur vishay daakhil hue hain, apitu is daur mein graafik ke alaava bhi vah tailarangon ko bhi apni chitraabhivyakti ka maadhyam banaate hain. haalaaainki unke is kaal ki rachanaaon mein bhi mor ki upasthiti yada-kada barkaraar hai, kintu vah iske alaava Rajasthan ke jan-jeevan, melon-thelon aur aanchalik duniya ke rangon ki chhata aur ujaas bhi laate hain.

unke is daur ke chitron ki ek gaurtalab khaasiyat hai-chitraavakaash ka upayog. bhavaaneeshankar poore falak par ghataatop rachana naheen karte. vah uske ek bhaag ko prekshak ki kalpana ke liye adhoora sa bhi chhodte hain. kainavaas ka yeh khaaleepan koi khaaleepan naheen, par iske bheetar bhi ek adrushya rachana-lok maujood hai, jo saamane dikhlaai dene vaale moort ka hi prasaar ya vistaar hai. ham khaali jagah ke bheetar bhi chhipe hue drushyon ko anubhoot kar sakte hain. jaise Rajasthan ke melon se sambaddh chitron mein unke liye maanavaakrutiyaaain asal mein keval rang-bodh hi rah gayi hain. vahaaain mele mein jama bheed thode se laal neele peele aur kaale rang-dhabbon ke jariye upajaai gayi hai. kisi nadi-tat par jude mele mein sabse peechhe khade ho kar jaise koi chhaayaakaar samooche drushya ko 'wide aingal' se dekhta ho, vaise hi vah 'dooriyon' ka sanket dete Rajasthan ke melon ki sfeet chhaviyaaain rachana chaahate hain. aise kuchh chitron mein kainavaas ka poora hissa upayog mein naheen laaya gaya, kintu 'nirvaat' mein bhi kuchh 'hone' ka bhaav sannihit hai. inke chitraavakaash ki yeh ek rachanaatmak poonji hai.

vigat arase mein bhavaaneeshankar sharma ne ek aur shrunkhala par kaam aarambh kiya tha, jismein vah aaj bhi rachanaaeain kar rahe hain. yahaaain vah do vipreet kahi jaani waali sanvedanaaon ka sanyojan upasthit karte hain. prakruti, jaisa humne pehle kaha, aadhunik chitrakaaron ke nikat ek bahut arthapoorn sarokaar hai. bhavaaneeshankar bhi vanaspati ya prakruti ki apni sanrachanaaon se sfoorti grahan karte hain. jaise jungle ki belon aur mukt tahaniyon ko vishaal aur kathor shilaakhand aage badhne se naheen rok paate, vaise hi 'hard aij' ki thos jadta ko bheetar se tod kar baahar jaati hui gatimaan vanaspati chitron mein apni upasthiti lagaataar darj karti hai.

kaale thos jyaamitik block inke yahaaain 'maitar' ya bhautik vastujagat ka prateek hain, jinke madhya daraaron se adamya jeevan ka prateek vanaspati khud-b-khud koi aakaar le rahi hai. vanaspati is jagah chetna ya 'kaunshasanais' ko hi bimbit karti hai. ek aisi gatimaan chetna, jiski nirntarata aur saamarthya isi mein sannihit hai ki vah apni jijivisha ko barkaraar rakh sake, samast avarodhon ke baavajood! is shrunkhala ke chitr mishrit-maadhyam mein hain jinmein kainavaas par syaahi aur tailarangon ka mila-jula istemaal hai.

kainavaas ke ek bhaag mein, vah jahaaain sadhe kaushal se adhiktar syaahi rekhaankan ke sahaare vanaspati ki bunaavat ka ankan karte hain, vaheen seedhe brash se us par anagadh aur gahre rang aaghaat lagaate hain. isse rachana ka paramparaagat romaintisijm tootata hai vaheen yeh baat rachana ke do bhinn dhruvon ko ek saath saamane rakhane ki koshish bhi hai.

in rachanaaon mein bhavaaneeshankar maanav-aakrutiyon ke prati utane aagrahasheel naheen, kintu prayaas karne par prekshak unke roopaakaaron mein chaaron or se ghire hue aadmi ki chhaviyaaain pakshi jaisi aakrutiyaaain aur vrukshon ke bimb khoj sakta hai. laghuchitr mein ki gayi kaareegari ki hi tarah vah bahudha kainavaas par kaali syaahi se rekhaankan rachate hain. saghan aur ulajhi hui amarabelein jaise ek doosare mein gutheen samooche vruksh ki satta par chha jaana chaahati hain, vaise hi inke chitron mein lataaeain aur vrukshon ki daaliyaaain gatimaan ho kar agrasar hoti si jaan padti hain. vah adhiktar apne roopaakaaron ko pallavit karne mein hi talleen dikhlaai padte hain. isliye unki is series ka sheershak agar 'flaavaring of form' hai to yeh asangat naheen.

''prakruti mein milne vaale roopaakaaron se main apni baat shuroo karta hooain. rachana ki andarooni jaroorat ke anusaar roopaakaar badalate hain. main bhi chitr-samvedana ke anuroop inka saraleekaran ya amoorteekaran karta hooain..... '' bhavaani shankar kehte hain.

gaanv, dhoop, jungle aur mausam

yahaaain samakaaleen kala-pravruttiyon ko rekhaankit karte hue aise chitrakaaron ki charcha bhi shaayad apraasangik na ho, jo prabhaavavaadi sairon aur praakrutik drushyachitron ke sarjak hain. vaash-takaneek mein sv. moni saanyaal, sv. suresh raajoriya, Ram jaisavaal, O. pi. Agrawal, Rajiv garg raghunaath aur pradeep varma aadi prakruti ke alag-alag moods aur usaki sanvedanasheelata ko prabhaavavaadi dhang se pakadte rahe hain jinke yahaaain drushyaatmak bimbon ki upalabdhata hai. 'moni saanyaal ((1912-1989)) bhi varishth peedhi ke aise hi asaadhaaran chitrakaar hue hain, jinki rachanaaon mein dharati, vrukshaavaliyaaain, rituon ke mijaaj aur kaaryarat striyon ka kamaneeya, kintu atyant manohar chitran milta hai.

sv. suresh raajoriya rekhaankanon aur jalarangon mein vrukshon, baadalon, chattaanon, ghaas aur barasaat ke saraleekrut bimb paida karte the. unki krutiyon mein kaheen bhoore pahaad hain, to kaheen hare-bhare khet, kaheen bahate hue jharane, kaheen gahre jungle aur kaheen dhoop ke peele dhabbe! jhopadiyon, kaaryasheel graamyaaon, kasbe ki kam chahal-pahal waali galiyon aur March mein patte jhara kar udaas khade pedon ko raajoriya ne apni graamya-gandh ke sahaare kaagaj par utaarane ki safal koshish ki.

kathaakaar-chitrakaar Ram jaisavaal (1937) ke jalarang-chitron mein (Bengal shaili ke prabhaav ke saath) prakruti ke bhinn-bhinn svaroop aakaar grahan karte hain. lekhan, khaas taur par kahaani ke kshetr mein vah paanch kahaani sangrahon aur ek kavita-sangrah ke lekhak hain. apne aarambhik shikshak daur mein vah pehle Meerut gaye, baad mein Lucknow ke college of Art mein adhyaapan se jud gaye. 1964 mein vah Rajasthan mein snaatkottar star par kala ka adhyaapan shuroo hone ke baad dayaanand college, Ajmer mein praadhyaapak pad par aa gaye aur tab inhonne yahaan aa kar mausamon, vrukshaavaliyon, sthaaneeya pahaadon, gharon, jaanvaron, baajaaron, galiyon aur rojamarra ke drushyon ka vaash-shaili mein chitran kiya. unhonne na keval bhaarateeya devi-devataaon ko hi rangon mein utaara, par jayashankar 'prasaad' ki kuchh kavitaaon par aadhaarit kalpanaasheel chitr bhi banaaye. apne vyaktichitron ko lekar inhein kala-jagat mein khaas jagah aur pehchaan mili. Ajmer mein jaisavaal ne jalarang chitran ki bahut si baareekiyon ka sparsh karte hue kai saire aur portet rache, kintu Ram jaisavaal ki pratibha par paramparaagat Bengal aur Lucknow gharaanon ke ankan ka prabhaav hi jyaada mukhar raha. vah hamesha se ek sundar falak darshak ko upalabdh karaane ke liye sachet rahe hain, bhale hi kathit aadhunikta ke naam par unhonne 'street singars' ya 'neetijnya' jaise kuchh ek chitr bhi banaae hon.

smrutiyaaain, shahar aur bhavan-bhoogol

parampara ka naye sandarbhon evam maayanon mein roopaantaran, yahaaain ki vartamaan kala-pravruttiyon ki ek ullekhaneeya visheshata hai. is khoobi ko shail choyal (1945) ke chitron mein bhi dekha ja sakta hai. roodh vargeekaran karna chaahein to unki krutiyon mein hamein mevaad shaili ka sarjanaatmak roopaantaran dekhne ko mil jaata hai. vah paramparaagat kalam ke bhavan-shilpon, vanaspati evam unki aantarikta ko (aur jaroorat padne par to paatron ko bhi) apne yahaaain utaar lena chaahate rahe hain. inhonne aarambh se hi miniyecharon ki prachalit aur drushyaavali ke prati ek sthaai-anuraag viksit karte hue aaainkhon ko achha lagne sakane wala aisa kaam kiya hai, jise ham parampara ke 'istemaal' ke roop mein aur bhi chitrakaaron (masalan sumahendr, charan sharma, prabha shaah, kiran murdiya, laal chand maarothiya vagairah) mein bhi dekh sakte hain.

inke kaam mein jo aakarshak rang-yojana evam sanyojan-kshamata hai, usaka sabab yeh hai ki shail ne parampara ko ek seedhi ki tarah istemaal kiya hai. shail choyal ke chitron ki visheshata aur kamjori donon yeh hai ki vah bhi miniyechar shaili ke paaramparik chiteron hi ki tarah hamein bas ghoom-fir kar ek 'sthool' chaakshush sukh se hi aabaddh karna chaahate hain. chaahe vah (sumehandr ki tarah) paramparaagat chitraankan mein vyaavasaayik taur par utane nirt kalaakaar na bhi hon, shail choyal laghuchitron ki si kamaneeyata, aindrik aakarshan aur vishyabaddhata ke aadhaar par hamein adhiktar apne nav-vyaavasaayik takaajon tak le jaate hain.

jaisa ki humne pehle kaha, inke chitron ki anivaarya shart hai- drushyaatmakata. ve chaahe naayak-naayika ke abhisaar-kshan hon ya unke shayan-kaksh ki antarangataaeain; shail choyal apne chitron mein aksar ek prashast, par kathaanak bhare ekaant ki sarjana karne vaale kalaakaar ke roop mein saamane aate hain. yeh sv. mohan sharma jaise chitrakaaron ki mahaanagareeya shilp-rachanaaon mein aaya sannaata ya prabha shaah ke madhyakaaleen mahalon ka taral ekaant naheen, balki shail choyal ke yahaaain antarang sannaata, mevaadi khidkiyon aur jharokhon ki kamaneeyata, raajamahalon ki paarabhaasakata aur hari-saghan vanaspati se mil kar bana hai, jo ham laghuchitr parampara mein bhi baraabar dekhte aae hain.

vah apne tailachitron evam graafik chhaapon mein jharokhon, seedhiyon, munderon aur farshon ki darshaneeyata ko surakshit rakhate hue hamein aksar ek rang-birangi 'nav-saamanti' duniya saunp dena chaahate hain. unki rachanaaeain dekh kar bahudha aisa lagta hai, jaise vah pariprekshya ki adala-badli se drushyon ke bheetar chhipe hue drushya hamaare liye khoj kar laana chaahate hon. paribhaasha ke arth mein vah keval sairon ya drushyaankanon ke hi chitrakaar naheen hain, par kainavaas par parvaton, vrukshon aur vanaspatiyon ki kamaneeyata prakat karte hue shail choyal paramparaagat mevaadi bhavanon, rajput chhatariyon aur alankrut dwaar-paaton ka prachurata se ankan karte hain.

lagbhag isi vishyavastu ke aaspaas prabha shaah ke tailachitr prekshak ke liye laate hain- garimaamaya gumbajon, chhatariyon aur nafees raajamahalon ke bimb! jyaamiti ka kalpanaapoorn upayog prabha shaah mein hai. ek ya do rangon ki rangaton ka adhikaadhik prayog karte hue vah rachati hain- Rajasthan, jo apne shilp, thethapan aur sthaapatya ke lihaaj se apratim hai. kaheen na kaheen Udaipur unke gahre achetan mein jaroor chhipa hai. vah keval tailarangon mein, Rajasthan ki paramparaagat chhatariyon, mahalon aur bhavanon ke bimb ubhaarati hain. prabha shaah ke chitron mein rangaton mein khoe praasaad aur bhavan, prashaant aur stabdh hain. idhar kuchh saalon se unka koi kaam pradarshan mein naheen dikha hai.

Udaipur ne ek chitropam shahar ke bataur bahutere chitrakaaron ko chitr-rachana ki prerana di hai. kiran murdiya bhi paramaanand choyal, chhotoolaal, prabha shaah, shail choyal, aabha murdiya, charan sharma, hemant chitrakaar aur kai anyon ki tarah hi apne Patrick-shahar Udaipur ke 'bhavan-bhoogol' se prabhaavit hain, par ullekhaneeya baat yeh hai ki inmein se har chitrakaar ka ankan-najariya ek-doosare se bhinn hai. kehne ko to kiran murdiya ke chitron mein bhi mevaadi parvatamaalaaon, raaston, pedon aur mahalon ki maujoodagi hai, par kiran ki samvedna utani 'saral' naheen. chitron mein kiran murdiya bahut kuchh anaupachaarik, rachaavapoorn evam deshaj hain. parvaton-khandon aur un par base hue dhaval-bhavanon, aapas mein gunthe hue ped-paudhon evam drushyaavali ke chitran mein vah chhotoolaal, shail choyal ya prabha shaah aur anyon se saghan, thasaathas, aadhunik alankruti se yukt va bhinn hain.

isi tarah Udaipur ko lekar shail choyal jitne saafago to naheen, par haaain, puraani peedhi ke bahut kalaatmak aur samvedansheel chitrakaaron mein hain, inke kalaakaar pita pi.N.choyal (1924). shail choyal ke chitron mein mein jitni vyavasaayik-sajaavat hai, uske vipreet inke chitrakaar pita pi.N. choyal ki 1970 aur uske baad ki rachanaaon mein, aakaaron ko rangamaya-taralata ke sahaare dhoomil karne ka upakram.

Rajasthan ke baahar rah kar yahaaain janme jo chitrakaar rachanaarat rahe hain, unamein Narayan aachaarya, prabha shaah, sapana sharma, pi. manasaaraam (Canada), chintan upaadhyaaya, charan sharma (mumbai) aur keval cyber maadhyam mein hi aadhunik shaili ke chitraankan kar rahe parijaat devarshi (Delhi) aadi pramukh hain.

'pi. manasaaraam bhi Rajasthan mein janme aur pale aise pratibhaavaan aur jaane-maane chitrakaaron mein hain, jin par samakaaleen kala-jagat mein kaafi kuchh kaha gaya hai. kolaaj, jyaamiti, moortishilp, chhaayaankan aur rachanaatmak lekhan, kai kshetron mein pi. manasaaraam ne vishisht kaam kar apni jagah nirmit ki hai. manasaaraam ne keval kainavaas par rangon ka aamafaham istemaal kar lene se hi santosh naheen kiya, unhonne apne chitrakaar ko doosare maadhyamon ke bheetar bhi gaharaai se jhaankane ka mauka diya. yeh dekhna dilchasp hai ki unhonne kuchh baras pehle apne janmasthaan-maaunt Abu mein ek sthaai suvidhaasampann kaaryashaala chitrakaar-aavaas ke taur par shuroo ki hai. paanchaal manasaaraam ne rangon, fotograafi, graafik, computer aur fotokaupi machine ke mile-jule upayog se Bhaarat ko lekar behatareen rachanaaen desh-videshon mein pradarshit keen. maaunt Abu ke araavali pahaadon, mumbai ki bheedbhaad, banaaras ki ganga aadi ke alaava Hindustan ki aam chhaviyon ko unhonne behad kaushal aur kalpana se saakaar kiya hai.

manasaaraam ne apni kalaakarmi patni tarunika ke sahayog se araavali ki vishaal chattaanon par vibhinn rangon se chitrakaari karke mount Abu mein bane apne ghar 'meet' ko bahut door se hi ek kalaakruti ki tarah dekhe ja sakane laayak jagah mein tabdeel kar diya hai. har saal vah apne vatan aate hain aur apne aap ko samakaaleen bhaarateeya kala ki naveenatam gatividhiyon se jude rakhane ke liye lambi-lambi yaatraaen karte hain.

Narayan aachaarya ne graafik chhaape aur anyon ne tailachitr banaae hain to pi. manasaaraam ki kala-srushti apekshaakrut vyaapak hai. Narayan aachaarya (Delhi) ka yogadaan graafik maadhyam ko apni abhivyakti ke liye chayanit karne ke liye mahatvapoorn kaha ja sakta hai, kyonki jab unhonne is maadhyam ko grahan kiya tha, tab yeh utana 'lokapriya' naheen tha.

charan sharma ne apni praarambhik krutiyon mein syaahi aur doosare mishrit maadhyamon ka upayog kiya par apne baad ke kala-daur mein vah bahut bade aakaar ke aikrelik rangon mein sanyojit Rajasthan ke shilp ki bahut si rochak-smrutiyaaain le kar upasthit dikhte hain. charan sharma ko ham unke naveenatam kaam mein apne shahar ki bhavan-smrutiyon se nirntar juda hua kuchh us tarah naheen dekhte jis tarah yeh baat prabha shaah aur shail choyal ki rachanaaon mein hai. charan ki ardhaangini nimisha sharma ek bahut saksham aadhunik kalaakarmi hain.

charan sharma ke tamaam praarambhik rekhaakannon aur tailachitron mein bhi saanketik taur par naathadvaara upasthit tha. aaspaas ki duniya chitrakaar ki samvedna ka atoot hissa ho- yeh baat sahaj aur svaabhaavik hai aur isi se ham charan sharma ke praarambhik kaam mein mevaadi-baavadiyon, kundon aur thasaathas base makaanaat dekh sakte hain. theek vaise hi jaise bhavaaneeshankar ke chitron mein raajasthaani mele-thele ya vanasthali ke mor.

charan sharma ke praarambhik kaam mein Rajasthan ki bahut si smrutiyaan hain. charan sharma praarambh mein rekhaankan aur jalarangon mein kaarya karte the, baad mein vah tailarangon aur aikrelik maadhyam mein utare. apne baad ke kaam mein charan ne Gautam buddh ki tapasvi chhaviyon ko ek vilkshan gaharaai se moort kiya hai. Rajasthan mool ki apni chitrakaar patni nimisha sharma ke saath vah kai dashakon se mumbai mein rah kar ab vishaal aakaar ke kainavaas bana rahe hain, jo fotograafi ke unke anubhavon ka rachanaasheel roopaantaran bhi hain aur vishay ke taur par, Rajasthan ki duniya ke sthool yathaarth se aage jaane ki unki pratijnyaa bhi.

mumbai mein rahate raajya ke yuvatar chitrakaaron mein chintan upaadhyaaya ka kaam aur naam bahucharchit hai. vah apne har puraane kaam ko badal kar naya rachana chaahate hain. aupachaarikta aur navonmesh ki disha mein unke chitr aur instaaleshan anyon se alag hain. teintuaa daba do naamak instaaleshan-sireej mein chintan ne baalika-bhroon hatya ki theth hindustaani galit maanasikta par dhyaanaakarshak tippani ki thi.

sandarbh