Rahul saankrutyaayan

upanaam: kedaaranaath paandeya
janm: 9 April, 1893
gram pandaha, aajamagadh, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 14 April, 1963
Darjiling, pashchim Bengal, Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: bahubhaashaavid, agrani vichaarak, saamyavaadi chintak, yaatraakaar, itihaasavid, tatvaanveshi, yugaparivrtanakaar saahityakaar
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: yaatra vrutaant, kahaaniyaaain, aatmakatha, jeevaniyaaain
vishay: yaatra vrutaant
pramukh kruti(yaaain): volga se ganga, meri jeevan yaatra
inse prabhaavit: naagaarjun, gunaakar mule (shishya), maadhav Kumar Nepal, vidyaanivaas mishr, hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi
hindi yaatraasahitya ke pitaamah

Rahul saankrutyaayan jinhein mahaapandit ki upaadhi di jaati hai hindi ke ek pramukh saahityakaar the. ve ek pratishthit bahubhaashaavid the aur beesaveen sadi ke poorvaardh mein unhonne yaatra vrutaant/yaatra saahitya tatha vishv-darshan ke kshetr mein saahityik yogadaan kiye. vah hindi yaatraasahitya ke pitaamah kahe jaate hain. bauddh dharm par unka shodh hindi saahitya mein yugaantarakaari maana jaata hai, jiske liye unhonne Tibet se lekar Sri Lanka tak bhraman kiya tha. iske alaava unhonne madhya-Asia tatha kaukeshas bhraman par bhi yaatra vrutaant likhe jo saahityik drushti se bahut mahatvapoorn hain.

21veen sadi ke is daur mein jab sanchaar-kraanti ke saadhanon ne samagr vishv ko ek 'global vilej' mein parivrtit kar diya ho evam intaranet dvaara gyaan ka samoocha sansaar kshan bhar mein ek klik par saamane upalabdh ho, aise mein yeh anumaan lagaana ki koi vyakti durlabh granthon ki khoj mein hajaaron meal door pahaadon va nadiyon ke beech bhatakne ke baad, un granthon ko khachcharon par laadakar apne desh mein laae, romaanchak lagta hai. par aise hi the bhaarateeya maneesha ke agrani vichaarak, saamyavaadi chintak, saamaajik kraanti ke agradoot, saarvadeshik drushti evam ghumakkadi pravrutti ke mahaan puroosh Rahul saankrutyaayan.

Rahul saankrutyaayan ke jeevan ka moolamantr hi ghumakkadi yaani gatisheelata rahi hai. ghumakkadi unke liye vrutti naheen varan dharm tha. aadhunik hindi saahitya mein Rahul saankrutyaayan ek yaatraakaar, itihaasavid, tatvaanveshi, yugaparivrtanakaar saahityakaar ke roop mein jaane jaate hai.

anukram

aaranbhik jeevan

chitr:Rahul S.jpg
Rahul saankrutyaayan

Rahul saankrutyaayan ka janm uttar pradesh ke aajamagadh jile ke knaila gaaainv mein 9 April 1893 ko hua tha. unke baalyakaal ka naam kedaaranaath paandeya tha. unke pita govardhan paandeya ek dhaarmik vichaaron vaale kisaan the. unki maata kulavanti apne maata-pita ki akeli putri theen. deep chand paathak kulavanti ke chhote bhaai the. vah apne maata-pita ke saath rahati theen. bachapan mein hi inki maata ka dehaant ho jaane ke kaaran inka paalan-poshan inke naana shri Ram sharan paathak aur naani ne kiya tha. 1898 mein inhe praathamik shiksha ke liye gaaainv ke hi ek madarase mein bheja gaya. Rahul ji ka vivaah bachapan mein kar diya gaya. yeh vivaah Rahul ji ke jeevan ki ek sankraantik ghatna thi. jiski pratikriya mein Rahul ji ne kishoraavastha mein hi ghar chhod diya. ghar se bhaag kar ye ek math mein saadhu ho gaye. lekin apni yaayaavari svabhaav ke kaaran ye vaha bhi tik nahi paaye. chaudah varsh ki avastha mein ye Calcutta bhaag aae. inke man mein gyaan praapt karne ke liye gahra asantosh tha. iseeliye yahaaain se vaha tak saare Bhaarat ka bhraman karte rahe.

Rahul ji ka samagr jeevan hi rachanaadharmita ki yaatra thi. jahaaain bhi ve gaye vahaaain ki bhaasha va boliyon ko seekha aur is tarah vahaaain ke logon mein ghulamil kar vahaaain ki sanskruti, samaaj va saahitya ka goodh adhyayan kiya. Rahul saankrutyaayan us daur ki upaj the jab british shaasan ke antargat bhaarateeya samaaj, sanskruti, arthavyavastha aur raajaneeti sabhi sankramanakaaleen daur se gujar rahe the. vah daur samaaj sudhaarakon ka tha evam kaagres abhi shaishavaavastha mein thi. in sab se Rahul aprabhaavit na rah sake evam apni jijnyaaasu va ghumakkad pravrutti ke chalte ghar-baar tyaag kar saadhu veshadhaari sanyaasi se lekar vedaanti, aaryasamaaji va kisaan neta evam bauddh bhikshu se lekar saamyavaadi chintak tak ka lamba safar tay kiya. san 1930 mein Sri Lanka jaakar ve bauddh dharm mein Dixit ho gaye evam tabhi se ve 'raamodar saadhu' se 'Rahul' ho gaye aur saankrutya gotr ke kaaran saankrutyaayan kahalaaye. unki adbhut tarkashakti aur anupam gyaan bhandaar ko dekhkar kaashi ke panditon ne unhein mahaapandit ki upaadhi di evam is prakaar ve kedaaranaath paande se mahaapandit Rahul saankrutyaayan ho gaye. san 1937 mein roos ke leningraad mein ek school mein unhonne sanskrut adhyaapak ki naukri kar li aur usi dauraan ailena naamak mahila se doosari shaadi kar li, jisse unhein igor raahulovich naamak putr-ratn praapt hua. chhattees bhaashaaon ke jnyaaata Rahul ne upanyaas, nibandh, kahaani, aatmakatha, sansmaran va jeevani aadi vidhaaon mein saahitya srujan kiya parantu adhikaansh saahitya hindi mein hi racha. Rahul tathyaanveshi va jijnyaaasu pravrutti ke the so unhonne har dharm ke granthon ka gahan adhyayan kiya. apni dakshin Bhaarat yaatra ke dauraan sanskrut-granthon, Tibet pravaas ke dauraan paali-granthon to Lahore yaatra ke dauraan arabi bhaasha seekhakar islaami dharm-granthon ka adhyayan kiya. nishchitt: Rahul saankrutyaayan ki medha ko saahitya, adhyaatm, jyotish, vigyaan, itihaas, samaaj shaastr, raajaneeti, bhaasha, sanskruti, dharm evam darshan ke tukadon mein baaaintakar naheen dekha ja sakta varan samagrat: hi dekhna uchit hai.

bauddh -dharm ki or jhukaav

chitr:Rahul Sankrityayan (1893-1963).JPG
mahaapandit Rahul saankrutyaayan

1916 tak aate-aate inka jhukaav bauddh -dharm ki or hota gaya. bauddh dharm mein deeksha lekar, ve Rahul saankrutyaayan bane. bauddh dharm mein lagaav ke kaaran hi ye paali, praakrut, apabhransh, aadi bhaashaao ke seekhane ki or jhuke. 1917 ki rusi kraanti ne Rahul ji ke man ko gahre mein prabhaavit kiya. ve akhil bhaarateeya kisaan sabha ke mahaasachiv bhi rahe. unhonne Tibet ki chaar baar yaatra ki aur vaha se vipul saahitya le kar aae. 1932 ko Rahul ji Europe ki yaatra par gaye. 1935 mein Japan, Korea, manchooriya ki yaatra ki. 1937 mein Moscow mein yaatra ke samay bhaarateeya-Tibet vibhaag ki sachiv lola yelena se inka prem ho gaya. aur ve vahi vivaah kar ke roos mein hi rahane lage. lekin kisi kaaran se ve 1948 mein Bhaarat laut aae.

Rahul ji ko hindi aur himaalaya se bada prem tha. ve 1950 mein naineetaal mein apna aavaas bana kar rahane lage. yahaaain par unka vivaah kamala saankrutyaayan se hua. iske kuchh barsho baad ve Darjiling (pashchim Bengal) mein jaakar rahane lage, lekin baad mein unhein madhumeh se peedit hone ke kaaran roos mein ilaaj karaane ke liye bheja gaya. 1963 mein soviyt roos mein lagbhag saat maheeno ke ilaaj ke baad bhi unka svaasthya theek nahi hua. 14 April 1963 ko unka Darjiling (pashchim Bengal) mein dehaant ho gaya.

saahityik rujhaan

Rahul ji vaastav ke gyaan ke liye gahre asantosh mein the, isi asantosh ko poora karne ke liye ve hamesha tatpar rahe. unhonne hindi saahitya ko vipul bhandaar diya. unhonne maatr hindi saahitya ke liye hi nahi balki ve Bhaarat ke kai anya kshetron ke liye bhi unhonne shodh kaarya kiya. ve vaastav mein mahaapandit the. Rahul ji ki pratibha bahumukhi thi aur ve sampann vichaarak the. dharm, darshan, lokasaahitya, yaatraasahitya, itihaas, raajaneeti, jeevani, kosh, praacheen grantho ka sanpaadan kar unhonne vividh kshetron mein mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya. unki rachanaao mein praacheen ke prati aastha, itihaas ke prati gaurav aur vartamaan ke prati sadhi hui drushti ka samanvaya dekhne ko milta hai. yeh keval Rahul ji the, jinhonne praacheen aur vartamaan bhaarateeya saahitya chintan ko poorn roop se aatmasaat kar maulik drushti dene ka prayaas kiya. unke upanyaas aur kahaaniyaaain bilkul nae drushtikon ko hamaare saamane rakhate hain. Tibet aur cheen ke yaatra kaal mein unhonne hajaaron granthon ka uddhaar kiya aur unke sampaadan aur prakaashan ka maarg prashast kiya, ye granth Patna sangrahaalaya mein hai. yaatra saahitya mein mahatvapoorn lekhak Rahul ji rahe hai. unke yaatra vrutaant mein yaatra mein aane waali kathinaaiyon ke saath us jagah ki praakrutik sampada, usaka aarthik aur saanskrutik jeevan aur itihaas anveshan ka tatv samaahit hota hai. "kinnar desh ki or", "kumaaoo", "Darjiling parichay" tatha "yaatra ke panne" unke aise hi granth hai.

chitr:Rahul S2.jpg
photo mein baaeain aachaarya hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi, daayein mahaapandit Rahul saankrutyaayan.

Rahul saankrutyaayan ka maanana tha ki ghumakkadi maanav-man ki mukti ka saadhan hone ke saath-saath apne kshitij vistaar ka bhi saadhan hai. unhonne kaha bhi tha ki- "kamar baaaindh lo bhaavi ghumakkadon, sansaar tumhaare svaagat ke liye bekaraar hai." Rahul ne apni yaatra ke anubhavon ko aatmasaat karte hue 'ghumakkad shaastr' bhi racha. ve ek aise ghumakkad the jo sachche gyaan ki talaash mein tha aur jab bhi sach ko dabaane ki koshish ki gayi to vah baagi ho gaya. unka sampoorn jeevan antarvirodhon se bhara pada hai. vedaant ke adhyayan ke pashchaat jab unhonne mandiron mein bali chadhaane ki parampara ke virooddh vyaakhyaan diya to ayodhya ke sanaatani purohit un par laathi lekar toot pade. baad mein jab ve maarksavaad ki or unmukh hue to unhonne tatkaaleen soviyt sangh ki communist party mein ghuse sattaalolup suvidhaaparaston ki teekhi aalochna ki aur unhein aandolan ke nasht hone ka kaaran bataaya. san 1947 mein akhil bhaarateeya saahitya sammelan ke adhyaksh roop mein unhonne pehle se chhape bhaashan ko bolne se mana kar diya evam jo bhaashan diya, vah alpasankhyak sanskruti evam bhaashaai savaal par communist party ki neetiyon ke vipreet tha. nateejan party ki sadasyata se unhein vanchit hona pada, par unke tevar fir bhi naheen badle. is kaalaavadhi mein ve kisi bandish se pare pragatisheel lekhan ke sarokaaron aur tatkaaleen prashnon se lagaataar jude rahe. is beech maarksavaadi vichaaradhaara ko unhonne bhaarateeya samaaj ki thos paristhitiyon ka aakalan karke hi laagoo karne par jor diya. apni pustak 'vaigyaanik bhautikvaad' evam 'darshan-digdarshan' mein is sambandh mein unhonne samyak prakaash daala. antat: san 1953-54 ke dauraan pun: ek baar ve communist party ke sadasya banaaye gaye.

ek karmayogi yoddha ki tarah Rahul saankrutyaayan ne Bihar ke kisaan-aandolan mein bhi pramukh bhoomika nibhaai. san 1940 ke dauraan kisaan-aandolan ke silsile mein unhein ek varsh ki jail hui to devali camp ke is jail-pravaas ke dauraan unhonne 'darshan-digdarshan' granth ki rachana kar daali. 1942 ke Bhaarat chhodo aandolan ke pashchaat jail se nikalne par kisaan aandolan ke us samay ke sheersh neta svaami sahajaanand sarasvati dvaara prakaashit saaptaahik patra 'hunkaar' ka unhein sampaadak banaaya gaya. british sarkaar ne foot daalo aur raaj karo ki neeti apnaate hue gair Congressi patra-patrikaaon mein chaar ankon hetu 'gundon se ladiye' sheershak se ek vigyaapan jaari kiya. ismein ek vyakti gaaaindhi topi va Jawahar bandi pahane aag lagaata hua dikhaaya gaya tha. Rahul saankrutyaayan ne is vigyaapan ko chhaapane se inkaar kar diya par vigyaapan ki moti dhanaraashi dekhkar svaami sahajaanand ne ise chhaapane par jor diya. antat: Rahul ne apne ko patrika ke sampaadan se hi alag kar liya. isi prakaar san 1940 mein 'Bihar praanteeya kisaan sabha' ke adhyaksh roop mein jameendaaron ke aatank ki paravaah kiye bina ve kisaan satyaagrahiyon ke saath kheton mein utar hainsiya lekar ganna kaatne lage. pratirodh svaroop jameendaar ke lathaiton ne unke sir par vaar kar lahuluhaan kar diya par ve himmat naheen haare. isi tarah na jaane kitni baar unhonne janasangharshon ka sakriya netrutv kiya aur apni aavaaj ko mukhar abhivyakti di.

ghumakkadi svabhaav

chitr:Pahar 07 cover image.jpg
mahaapandit Rahul saankrutyaayan

gyaarah varsh ki umr mein hue apne vivaah ko nakaarakar ve bata chuke the ki unke ant:karan mein kaheen na kaheen vidroh ke beejon ka vapan hua hai. yaayaavari aur vidroh ye donon hi pravruttiyaaain kaalaantar mein viksit ho gain, jiske kaaran kanaila gaaainv, aajamagadh mein janma yeh kedaaranaath paandeya naamak baalak deshbhar mein mahaapandit Rahul saankrutyaayan ke naam se prakhyaat ho gaya.

Rahul saankrutyaayan sadaiv ghumakkad hi rahe. san‌ 1923 se unki videsh yaatraaon ka silsila shuroo hua to fir iska ant unke jeevan ke saath hi hua. jnyaaanaarjan ke uddeshya se prerit unki in yaatraaon mein Sri Lanka, Tibet, Japan aur roos ki yaatraaeain vishesh ullekhaneeya hain. ve chaar baar Tibet pahuainche. vahaaain lambe samay tak rahe aur Bhaarat ki us viraasat ka uddhaar kiya, jo hamaare liye agyaat, alabhya aur vismrut ho chuki thi.

adhyayan-anusandhaan ki vibha ke saath ve vahaaain se prabhoot saamagri lekar laute, jiske kaaran hindi bhaasha evam saahitya ki itihaas sambandhi kai poorv nirdhaarit maanyataaon evam nishkarshon mein parivartan hona anivaarya ho gaya. saath hi shodh evam adhyayan ke nae kshitij khule.

Bhaarat ke sandarbh mein unka yeh kaam kisi hvenasaang se kam naheen aaainka ja sakta. baahya yaatraaon ki tarah in nibandhon mein unki ek vaichaarik yaatra ki or bhi sanket kiya gaya hai, jo paarivaarik star par sveekrut vaishnav mat se shuroo ho, aarya samaaj evam bauddh matavaad se gujarati hui maarksavaad par jaakar khatm hoti hai. anaatmavaad, buddh ka jantantra mein vishvaas tatha vyaktigat sampatti ka virodh jaisi kuchhek aisi samaan baatein hain, jinke kaaran ve bauddh darshan evam maarksavaad donon ko saath lekar chale the.

raashtra ke liye ek raashtra bhaasha ke ve prabal himaayati the. bina bhaasha ke raashtra gooainga hai, aisa unka maanana tha. ve raashtrabhaasha tatha janapadeeya bhaashaaon ke vikaas va unnati mein kisi prakaar ka virodh naheen dekhte the.

samay ka prataap kahein ya 'maarksavaadi ke roop mein unke marne ki ichha' kahein, unhonne is aayaatit vichaar ko sarvavyaapak evam sarvashaktimaan 'paramabrahm' maan liya aur is jhonk mein ve bhaarateeya darshan, dharm, sanskruti, itihaas aadi ke baare mein kuchh aisi baatein kah baithe ya nishkarsh nikaal baithe, jo unki aalochna ka kaaran bane.

unki Bhaarat ki jaateeya-sanskruti sambandhi maanyata, urdoo ko hindi (khadi boli hindi) se alag maanane ka vichaar tatha aaryon se 'volga se ganga' ki or karaai gayi yaatra ke peechhe rahane waali unki dhaarana ka Doctor raamavilaas sharma ne tarkasammat khandan kiya hai. mat-mataantar to chalte rahate hain, isse Rahulji ka pradeya aur mahatva kam naheen ho jaata.

bauddh dharm aur maarksavaad donon ka milaajula chintan unke paas tha, jiske aadhaar par unhonne nae Bhaarat ke nirmaan ka 'madhur svapn' sainjoya tha, jiski jhalak hamein unki pustak 'baaisaveen sadi' mein bhi mil jaati hai. shri Rahul ne apne kartrutv se hamein apni viraasat ka darshan karaaya tatha uske prati ham sabamein gaurav ka bhaav jagaaya.

unke shabdon mein- ''samadarshita ghumakkad ka ekamaatr drushtikon hai aur aatmeeyata uske harek bartaav ka saar.'' yahi kaaran tha ki saare sansaar ko apna ghar samajhne vaale Rahul san 1910 mein ghar chhodne ke pashchaat pun: san 1943 mein hi apne nanihaal pandaha pahuainche. vastut: bachapan mein apne ghumakkadi svabhaav ke kaaran pitaaji se mili daaaint ke pashchaat unhonne pran liya tha ki ve apni umr ke pachaasavein varsh mein hi ghar mein kadam rakheinge. chooainki unka paalan-poshan aur shiksha-deeksha nanihaal mein hi hua tha so nanihaal ke prati jyaada sneh svaabhaavik tha. baharahaal jab ve pandaha pahuainche to koi unhein pehchaan na saka par antat: lohaar naamak ek vruddh vyakti ne unhein pahachaana aur snehaasakti roodhe kanth se 'kulavanti ke poot kedaar' kehkar Rahul ko apni baaainhon mein bhar liya. apni janmabhoomi par ek bujurg ki parichit aavaaj ne Rahul ko bhaavavibhor kar diya. unhonne apni daayari mein iska ullekh bhi kiya hai- ''Lahore naana ne jab yeh kaha ki 'are E jab bhaagat jaaya t bhagaiya girt jaaya' tab mere saamane apna bachapan naachane laga. un dinon gaaainv ke bachche chhoti patali dhoti bhagai pahana karte the. gaaainvavaasi bade bujurgon ka yeh bhaav dekhkar mujhe mahasoos hone laga ki tulasi Baba ne yeh jhooth kaha hai ki- "tulasi tahaaain na jaaiye, jahaaain janm ko thaaainv, bhaav bhagati ko maram na jaane dhare paachhilo naaainv..''

ghumakkadi svabhaav vaale Rahul saankrutyaayan saarvadeshik drushti ki aisi pratibha the, jinki saahitya, itihaas, darshan sanskruti sabhi par samaan pakad thi. vilkshan vyaktitv ke adbhut maneeshi, chintak, daarshanik, saahityakaar, lekhak, karmayogi aur saamaajik kraanti ke agradoot roop mein Rahul ne jindagi ke sabhi pakshon ko jiya. yahi kaaran hai ki unki rachanaadharmita shuddh kalaavaadi saahitya naheen hai, varan vah samaaj, sabhyata, sanskruti, itihaas, vigyaan, dharm, darshan ityaadi se anupraanit hai jo roodh dhaaranaaon par kuthaaraaghaat karti hai tatha jeevan-saapeksh bankar samaaj ki pragatisheel shaktiyon ko sangathit kar sangharsh evam gatisheelata ki raah dikhaati hai. aise maneeshi ko apne jeevan ke antim dinon mein 'smruti lop' jaisi avastha se gujarana pada evam ilaaj hetu unhein Moscow bhi le jaaya gaya. par ghumakkadi ko kaun baaaindh paaya hai, so April 1963 mein ve pun: Moscow se Delhi aa gaye aur 14 April 1963 ko sattar varsh ki aayu mein Darjiling mein sanyaas se saamyavaad tak ka unka safar poora ho gaya par unka jeevan darshan aur ghumakkadi svabhaav aaj bhi hamaare beech jeevit hai.

Rahul Baba

Rahul ji ghumakkadi ke baare me kehte hain:

meri samajh mein duniya ki sarvashreshth vastu hai ghumakkadi. ghumakkad se badhkar vyakti aur samaaj ka koi hitkaari naheen ho sakta. duniya dukh mein ho chaahe sukh mein, sabhi samay yadi sahaara paati hai to ghumakkadon ki hi or se. praakrutik aadim manushya param ghumakkad tha. aadhunik kaal mein ghumakkadon ke kaam ki baat kehne ki aavashyakta hai, kyonki logon ne ghumakkadon ki krutiyon ko chura ke unhein gala faad–faadkar apne naam se prakaashit kiya. jisse duniya jaanane lagi ki vastut: teli ke kolhoo ke bail hi duniya mein sab kuchh karte hain. aadhunik vigyaan mein Charles daaravin ka sthaan bahut ooaincha hai. usane praaniyon ki utpatti aur maanav–vansh ke vikaas par hi adviteeya khoj naheen ki, balki kehna chaahiye ki sabhi vijnyaaanon ko daaravin ke prakaash mein disha badalani padi. lekin, kya daaravin apne mahaan aavishkaaron ko kar sakta tha, yadi usane ghumakkadi ka vrat na liya hota. aadmi ki ghumakkadi ne bahut baar khoon ki nadiyaaain bahaayi hai, ismein sandeh naheen aur ghumakkadon se ham hargij naheen chaaheinge ki ve khoon ke raaste ko pakadein. kintu ghumakkadon ke kaafale na aate jaate, to sust maanav jaatiyaaain so jaati aur pashu se oopar naheen uth paati. America adhiktar nirjan sa pada tha. Asia ke koopamandook ko ghumakkad dharm ki mahima bhool gayi, isliye unhonne America par apni jhandi naheen gaadi. do shataabdiyon pehle tak Australia khaali pada tha. cheen, Bhaarat ko sabhyata ka bada garv hai, lekin inko itni akl naheen aayi ki jaakar vahaaain apna jhanda gaad aate.


vyaktitv ke aayaam

Rahul saankrutyaayan un vishisht saahitya sarjakon mein hain jinhonne jeevan aur saahitya donon ko ek tarah se jiya. unke jeevan ke jitne mod aaye, ve unki tark buddhi ke kaaran aaye. bachapan ki paristhiti va anya seemaaon ko chhodakar unhonne apne jeevan mein jitni raahon ka anukaran kiya ve sab unke antarman ki chhatapataahat ke dvaara talaashi gayi thi. jis raah ko Rahulji ne apnaaya use nirbhaya hokar apnaaya. vahaaain na dvividha thi na hi anishchaya ka kuhaasa. gyaan aur man ki bheetari parton ke spandan se prerit hokar unhonne jeevan ko ek vishaal paridhi di. unke vyaktitv ke anek aayaam hain. unki rachanaatmak pratibha ka vistaar bhi Rahulji ke gatisheel jeevan ka hi pramaan hai. unke naam ke saath jude hue anek visheshan hain. shaayad hi unka naam kabhi bina visheshan ke liya gaya ho. unke naam ke saath jude hue kuchh shabd hain mahaapandit, shabd-shaastri, tripitkaachaarya, anveshak, yaayaavar, kathaakaar, nibandh-lekhak, aalochak, koshakaar, athak yaatri..... aur bhi jaane kya-kya. jo yaatra unhonne apne jeevan mein ki, vahi yaatra unki rachanaadhaarmita ki bhi yaatra thi. Rahulji ko krutiyon ki soochi bahut lambi hai. unke saahitya ko kai vargon mein baaainta ja sakta hai. katha saahitya, jeevani, paryatan, itihaas darshan, bhaasha-gyaan, bhaashaavijnyaaan, vyaakaran, kosh-nirmaan, lokasaahitya, puraatatv aadi. bahirjagat ki yaatraaeain aur antarman ke aandolanon ka samanvit roop hai Rahulji ka rachana-sansaar. ghumakkadi unke baal-jeevan se hi praarambh ho gayi aur jin kaavya-panktiyon se unhonne prerana li, ve hai ''sair kar duniya ki gaafil, jindagaani fir kahaaain, jandagaani gar rahi to, naujavaani fir kahaaain ?''

Rahulji jeevan-paryant duniyaaain ki sair karte rahe. is sair mein suvidha-asuvidha ka koi prashn hi naheen tha. jahaaain jo saadhan upalabdh hue unhein sveekaar kiya. ve apne anubhav aur adhyayan ka daayara badhaate rahe. gyaan ke agaadh bhandaar the Rahulji. Rahulji ka kehna tha ki 'unhonne gyaan ko safar mein naav ki tarah liya hai. bojh ki tarah naheen.' unhein vishv paryatak ka visheshan bhi diya gaya. unki ghumakkadi pravrutti ne kaha ''ghumakkadon sansaar tumhaare svaagat ke liye bekaraar hai.'' anek granthon ki rachana mein unke yaatra-anubhav prerana ke bindu rahe hain. na keval desh mein varan videshon mein bhi unhonne yaatraaeain ki, durgam path paar kiye. is varg ki krutiyon mein kuchhek ke naam hain- Laddakh yaatra, lanka yaatra, Tibet mein sava varsh, Asia ke durgam bhookhandon mein, meri Europe-yaatra, Darjiling parichay, Nepal, kumaaooain jaunasaar, deharaadoon aadi. jahaaain bhi ve gaye vahaaain ki bhaasha aur vahaaain ki sanskruti aur saahitya ka gaharaai se adhyayan kiya. adhyayan se ghulamil kar vahaaain ki sanskruti aur saahitya ka gaharaai se adhyayan kiya. adhyayan ki vistruti, anek bhaashaaon ka gyaan, ghoomane ki adbhut lalak, puraane saahitya ki khoj, shodh-parak paini drushti, samaajashaastr ki apni avadhaaranaaeain, praakrut-itihaas ki parakh aadi ve bindu hain jo Rahulji ki soch mein yaayaavari mein, vichaarana mein aur lekhan mein gatisheelata dete rahe. unki yaatraaeain keval bhoogol ki yaatra naheen hai. yaatra man ki hai, avachetan ki bhi hai chetna ke sthaanaantaran ki hai. vyaktigat jeevan mein bhi kitne naam roop badle is rachanaadharmi ne. bachapan mein naam mila kedaaranaath paande, fir vahi bane Damodar svaami, kaheen Rahul saankrutyaayan, kaheen tripitkaachaarya..... aadi naamon ke beech se gujarana unke chintak ka pramaan tha. Rahul baahya yaatra aur antaryaatra ke virle prateek hain.

Rahul saankrutyaayan ka chitr aarekhan.

gyaan ki khoj mein ghoomate rahana Rahulji ki jeevanacharya thi. unki drushti sadaiv vikaas ko khojati thi. bhaasha aur saahitya ke sambandh mein Rahulji kehte hain- ''bhaasha aur saahitya, dhaara ke roop mein chalta hai fark itna hi hai ki nadi ko ham desh ki prushthabhoomi mein dekhte hain jabki bhaasha desh aur bhoomi donon ki prushthabhoomi ko liye aage badhati hai...... kaalakram ke anusaar dekhne par hi hamein usaka vikaas adhik suspasht roop se drushtigochar hota hai. rigved se lekar 19veen sadi ke ant tak ki gadya dhaara aur kaavya dhaara ke sangrahon ki aavashyakta hai.''

Rahulji ka poora jeevan saahitya ko samarpit tha. saahitya-rachana ke maarg ko unhonne bahut pehle se chun liya tha. satyavrat sinha ke shabdon mein - ''vaastavik baat to yeh hai ki Rahulji ne kishoraavastha paar karne ke baad hi likhna shuroo kar diya tha. jis prakaar unke paaainv naheen ruke usi prakaar unke haath ki lekhani bhi naheen ruki. unki lekhani ki ajasradhaara se vibhinn vishyon ke praay: ek sau pachaas se adhik granth praneet hue.''

Rahulji ke vyaktitv ka ek mahatvapoorn paksh hai-svatantrata aandolan mein unki bhaageedaari. Bhaarat ko aajaadi mile yeh unka sapana tha aur is sapane ko saakaar karne ke liye ve asahayog aandolan mein nirbhaya kood pade. shaheedon ka balidaan unhein bheetar tak jhakajhorata tha. unhonne apne ek bhaashan mein kaha tha- ''chauri-chaura kaand mein shaheed hone vaalon ka khoon desh-maata ka chandan hoga.''

Rahulji ke vyaktitv mein parahej jaisi koi sankeernata naheen thi. vigat ko jaanana or usamein paithana, vartamaan ki chunauti ko samajhna aur samasyaaon se sangharsh karna, bhavishya ka svapn sainvaarana-yeh Rahulji ki jeevan paddhati thi. ateet ka arth unke liye mahaj itihaas ko jaanana naheen tha, varan prakrut itihaas ko bhi samajhna aur jaanana tha. itihaas ka unhonne naye arth mein upayog kiya. unke shabdon mein, -''jaldi hi mujhe maaloom ho gaya ki aitihaasik upanyaason ka likhna mujhe haath mein lena chaahiye..... kaaran yeh ki ateet ke pragatisheel prayatnon ko saamane laakar paathakon ke hrudaya mein aadarshon ke prati prerana paida ki ja sakti hai.'' unki anek krutiyaaain jaise, satami ke bachche, jonk, bolga se ganga, jayayaudheya, Singh senaapati aadi is baat ke parichaayak hain ki Rahulji itihaas, puraatatv, parampara, vyateet aur ateet ko apni niji vivechana de rahe the. Rahulji ki itihaas-drushti vilkshan thi. ve usamein vartamaan aur bhavishya ki kadayaaain jodate the. itihaas unke liye keval 'ghatit' ka vivran naheen tha. usamein se ve daarshanik chintan ka aadhaar dhooaindhate the.

poore vishv saahitya ke prati Rahulji ke man mein apaar shraddha thi. vah saahitya chaahe itihaas se sambandhit ho, ya sanskruti se, adhyaatm se sambandhit ho ya yathaarth se-sabko ve shodhaarthi ki tarah parakhate the. unki pragatisheelata mein antarraashtreeya aur raashtreeya pariprekshya ko dekhne ka aagrah tha odhi hui videshi sabhyata unki drushti mein heya thi. ve apni bhaasha, apne saahitya ke pujaari the. vah saahitya chaahe sanskrut ka ho, chaahe hindi ka, chaahe urdoo ka, chaahe Bhojpuri ka. raashtreeya chetna ke sandarbh mein ve kehte the ki ''yadi koi ''ganga maiya'' ki jaya bolne ke sthaan par 'bolga' ki jaya bolne ke liye kahe, to main ise paagal ka pralaap hi kahooainga.''

boliyon aur janapadeeya bhaasha ka sammaan karna Rahulji ki svabhaavagat visheshata thi. Bhojpuri unhein priya thi. kyonki vah unki maati ki bhaasha thi. lok-naatya parampara ko ve sanskruti ka vaahak maanate the. lokanaatak aur lokamanch kisi bhi janaaandolan mein apni sashakt bhoomika nibhaate hain, yeh drushti Rahulji ki thi. iseeliye unhonne Bhojpuri naatakon ki rachana ki. ismein unhonne apna naam ''Rahul Baba'' diya. saamaajik vishmata ke virodh mein in naatakon mein aur geeton mein anek sthalon par maarmik uktiyaaain kahi gayi hain. beta aur beti ke bhedabhaav par kahi gayi ye panktiyaaain drushtavya hain- ''AK maai baapata se ek hi udava mein doonon mein janamavaaain bhail re purakhava, poot ke janamavaaain mein naach aur sohar hola baiti janam dhare sog re purakhava.'' Bhojpuri ke in naatakon ko ve vaichaarik dharaatal par laae aur jan-bhaasha mein saamaajik badlaav ke svar ko mukharit kiya. gyaan ki itni teevr pipaasa aur jan-chetna ke prati nishtha ne Rahulji ke vyaktitv ko itna prabha-mandal diya ki use maapana kisi aalochak ki saamarthya ke pare hai. iske alaava jo sabse badi visheshata thi-ki vah yeh thi ki yash aur prashansa ke ooainche shikhar par pahuainchakar bhi ve sahrudaya maanav the Rahulji bhaashaatmak ekta ke poshak the. vah saampradaayik sadbhaav ke samarthak the. anek bhaashaaon ke jnyaaata the. ve har bhaasha aur uske saahitya ko mahatva hi naheen dete the, varan use apnaane ki baat kehte the. hindi ke ananya premi hone ke baavajood ve urdoo aur faarasi ke saahityakaaron ki kadr karte the, ve kehte hain, ''sauda aur aatish hamaare hain. gaalib aur daag hamaare hain. nishchaya hi yadi ham unhein asveekrut kar dete hain to sansaar mein kaheen aur unhein apna kehne wala naheen milega.''

Rahulji adbhut vakta the. unka bhaashan pravaahapoorn aur sthaayi prabhaav daalne wala hota tha. ek baar aachaarya hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi ne Rahulji ki bhaashan shakti ki prashansa karte hue kaha tha, ''main goshthiyon, samaarohon, sammelanon, mein vaise to bedhadak bolata hooain lekin jis sabha, sammelan ya goshthi mein mahaapandat Rahul saankrutyaayan hote hain, vahaaain bolne mein sahamata hooain. unke vyaktitv evam agaadh vidvatta ke samaksh apne ko bauna mahasoos karta hooain.'' dvivedeeji ka yeh prashastibhaav isliye aur bhi mahatvapoorn hain kyonki dvivedeeji swayam hindi ke asaadhaaran vakta aur asaadhaaran vidvaan the. Rahulji ki krutajnya bhaavana unki pustak 'jinka main krutajnya' mein dekhne ko milti hai. iske praakkathan mein unhonne likha hai, ''jinka main krutajnya'' likhkar us rin se urin hona chaahata hooain, jo in bujurgon aur mitron ka mere oopar hai. unamein se kitne hi is sansaar mein naheen hain. ve in panktiyon ko naheen dekh sakte. inmein sirf vahi naheen hain jinse mainne maargadarshan paaya tha. balki aise bhi purush hain jinka sanf maanasik sanbal ke roop mein jeevan yaatra ke roop mein hua. kitno se bina unki jaankaari, unke vyavahaar aur bartaav se mainne bahut kuchh seekha. manushya ko krutajnya hona chaahiye.''

Rahulji ka vyaktitv itna bahuaayaami tha ki usako shabdon ki paridhi mein baaaindhana du:saadhya hai. unka adhyayan aur lekhan itna vishaal hai ki kai-kai shodhaarthi bhi milkar kaarya karein to bhi shram aur samay ki koi ek seema nirdhaarit naheen ki ja sakti. pravaahapoorn lekhani aur paini drushti se ve aise rachanaadharmi the, jisne apne jeevanakaal mein hi yash ke ooainche shikhar chhoo liye the. Rahulji shabd-saamarthya aur saarthak-abhivyakti ke moortimaan roop the.

hindi prem

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Rahul saankrutyaayan dvaara hindi ki baat unki apni kalam se.

hindi ko Rahulji ne bahut pyaar diya. unheen ke apne shabd hai, ''mainne naam badla, veshabhoosha badli, Khan-paan badla, sanpradaaya badla lekin hindi ke sambandh mein mainne vichaaron mein koi parivartan naheen kiya.'' Rahulji ke vichaar aaj behad praasangik hain. unki uktiyaaain sootr-roop mein hamaara maargadarshan karti hain. hindi ko khadi boli ka naam bhi Rahul ji ne hi diya tha.

hindi ke prasang mein vah kehte hain:

hindi, angreji ke baad duniya ke adhik sankhyaavaale logon ki bhaasha hai. iska saahitya 750 isavi se shuroo hota hai aur sarahapa, kanhaapa, gorakhanaath, chandr, kabeer, jaayasi, soor, tulasi, bihaari, harishchandr, jaise kavi aur lalloolaal, premachand jaise pralekhak diye hain iska bhavishya atyant ujjaval, bhoot se bhi adhik prashast hai. hindi bhaashi log bhoot se hi naheen aaj bhi sab se adhik pravaas nirt jaati hain. gaayana (dakshin America), fiji, marshes, dakshin Africa, tak laakhon ki sankhya mein aaj bhi hindi bhaasha bhaashi faile hue hain.


puraskaar va sammaan

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Rahul saankrutyaayan par jaari daak ticket.

Rahul saankrutyaayan ki smruti mein bhaarateeya daakataar vibhaag ki or se 1993 mein unki janmashati ke avsar par 100 paise moolya ka ek daak ticket jaari kiya gaya. Patna mein Rahul saankrutyaayan saahitya sansthaan ki sthaapana ki gayi hai. yahaaain unase sambandhit vastuon ka ek sangrahaalaya bhi hai. uttar pradesh ke aajamagadh jile ke pandaha gaaainv mein Rahul saankrutyaayan saahitya sangrahaalaya ki sthaapana ki gayi hai, jahaaain unka janm hua tha. vahaaain unki ek vakshapratima bhi hai. saahityakaar prabhaakar maavache ne Rahulji ki jeevani likhi hai aur unke vyaktitv ke us hisse ko ujaagar kiya hai, jisse log anbhigya the. yeh pustak 1978 mein pehli baar prakaashit hui thi. iska anuvaad angreji, roosi aadi anek videshi bhaashaaon mein bhi prakaashit hua. Rahulji ki kai pustakon ke angreji roopaantar to hue hi hain, cheeni, roosi aadi anek videshi bhaashaaon mein bhi unki krutiyaan lokapriya hui hain. unhein 1958 mein saahitya academy puraskaar, tatha 1963 mein Bhaarat sarkaar ke padmabhooshan alankaran se vibhooshit kiya gaya.

Rahul ka sangharsh (pustak)

mahaapandit Rahul saankrutyaayan ko lekar samay-samay par kaafi likha jaata raha hai. falasvaroop padhne ki drushti se un par paryaapt saamagri upalabdh hai, kintu shreenivaas sharma ki pustak 'Rahul ka sangharsh' ek pruthak kon par keindrit hai. yeh kon hai Rahulji ke jeevan evam kaaryon mein avichhinn sangharsh ki dhaara ka pravaahamaan rahana.

pustak mein lekhak ke athaarah (upasanhaar sahit) nibandh sankalit hain. inmein pratham chaar ka sambandh Rahulji ki kul parampara, unke maata-pita, unke pratham vivaah evam unke kishor man mein maujood asveekaar evam vidroh ki mudra se hai. aage aane vaale nibandhon mein unke ghumakkad svabhaav, bhaasha, saahitya tatha gyaan ke anya kshetron mein unki khojon evam upalabdhiyon, bauddh dharm tatha darshan ke prati unke jhukaav tatha deeksha, maarksavaad, kisaan aandolan aadi ko lekar vyaapak charcha hui hai.

nibandh kramaank chaudah-pandrah mein raashtrabhaasha evam janapadeeya bhaashaaon ke baare mein unke vichaar hain. ant ke nibandhon mein unki itihaas drushti tatha rachanaaon ki sankshipt rooparekha ko vishyavastu banaaya gaya hai. pustak rochak ban padi hai. nibandhon mein Rahulji se sambandhit anek anachhue pahaloo bhi saamane aae hain.

saahityik krutiyaan

kahaaniyaaain

  • satami ke bachche
  • volga se ganga
  • bahurangi madhupuri
  • kanaila ki katha

upanyaas

  • baaisaveen sadi
  • jeene ke liye
  • Singh senaapati
  • jaya yaudheya
  • bhaago naheen, duniya ko badalo
  • madhur svapn
  • raajasthaani ranivaas
  • vismrut yaatri
  • divodaas

aatmakatha

  • meri jeevan yaatra

jeevaniyaaain

  • sardaar pruthveesinh
  • nae Bhaarat ke nae neta
  • bachapan ki smrutiyaaain
  • ateet se vartamaan
  • staalin
  • lenin
  • kaarl maarks
  • maao-tse-tung
  • ghumakkad svaami
  • mere asahayog ke saathi
  • jinka main krutajnya
  • veer chandrasinh gadhvaali
  • sinhal ghumakkad jayavardhan
  • kaptaan laal
  • sinhal ke veer purush
  • mahaamaanav buddh

yaatra saahitya

  • lanka
  • Japan
  • iraan
  • kinnar desh ki or
  • cheen mein kya dekha
  • meri Laddakh yaatra
  • meri Tibet yaatra
  • Tibet mein sava barsh
  • roos mein pachchees maas

anya mahattvapoorn saahityik kaarya

* majjhim nikaaya - hindi anuvaad 
* digh nikaaya - hindi anuvaad 
* sanyutt nikaaya - hindi anuvaad 
* rigvaidik aarya 
* darshan digdarshan 
* tumhaari kshaya - bhaarateeya jaati vyavastha, chal chalan par vyang
* madhya esiya ka itihaas
* dakkhini hindi ka vyaakaran

baahari kadiyaan

yeh bhi dekhein