Punjab (Bhaarat)

Punjab

भारत के मानचित्र पर पंजाब

Bhaarat ke praant
rajdhani Chandigarh
sabse bada shahar ludhiyaana
janasankhya 2,42,89,296
- ghanatv 482 /kimee²
kshetrafal 50,362 kimee²
- jile 20
raajabhaasha(eain) punjabi
pratishtha 1 November 1956
- raajyapaal shivraaj Patil
- mukhyamantri prakaash Singh baadal
- vidhaanasabha ekasadaneeya
aaiesao sankshep IN-PB
punjabgovt.nic.in

Punjab (punjabi: ਪaaੰaaਜaaਾaaਬ) uttar-pashchim Bhaarat ka ek raajya hai jo vruhadtar Punjab kshetr ka ek bhaag hai. iska doosra bhaag Pakistan mein hai. Punjab kshetr ke anya bhaag (Bhaarat ke) Haryana aur Himachal pradesh raajyon mein hain. iske pashchim mein Pakistani Punjab, uttar mein Jammu aur Kashmir, uttar-poorv mein Himachal pradesh, dakshin aur dakshin-poorv mein Haryana, dakshin-poorv mein kendra shaasit pradesh Chandigarh aur dakshin-pashchim mein Rajasthan raajya hain. raajya ki kul janasankhya 2,42,89,296 hai env kul kshetrafal 50,362 varg kilometer hai. kendra shaasit pradesh Chandigarh Punjab ki rajdhani hai joki Haryana raajya ki bhi rajdhani hai. Punjab ke pramukh nagaron mein amrutasar, ludhiyaana, Jalandhar, Patiala aur bathinda hain.

1947 Bhaarat ka vibhaajan ke baad bartaanavi Bhaarat ke Punjab soobe ko Bhaarat aur Pakistan daramiyaan vibhaajan diya gaya tha. 1966 mein bhaarateeya Punjab ka vibhaajan fir se go gayi aur nateeje ke taur par Haryana aur Himachal pradesh hond mein aae aur Punjab ka maujooda raaj bana. yeh Bhaarat ka akela sooba hai jahaaain sikh bahumat mein hain.

yunaani log Punjab ko paintaapotaamya naam ke saath jaante the jo ki paaainch ikaththa hote dariyaaon ka androoni delta hai. paarasiyon ke pavitra granth avaista mein Punjab kshetr ko puraatan hapata heindoo ya sapt-sindhu (saat dariyaaon ki dharati) ke saath joda jaata hai. bartaanavi log is ko "hamaara prashiya kah kar bulaate the. aitihaasik taur par Punjab yunaaniyon, madhya eshiyaaion, afgaaniyon aur iraaniyon ke liye bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ka pravesh-dwaar raha hai.

krushi Punjab ka sab se bada udyog hai; yeh Bhaarat ka sab se bada gehooain utpaadak hai. aur pramukh udyog hain: vaigyaanik saajon, krushi, khel aur bijli sambandhit maal, silaai masheenein, machine yantron, staarch, saaikilon, khaadein aadi ka nirmaan, vitteeya rojgaar, sair-sapaata aur devadaar ke tel aur khand ka utpaadan. Punjab mein Bhaarat mein se sab se adhik ispaat ke ludhka hua meelon ke kaarakhaane hain jo ki ftahagadh saahab susat ki ispaat nagari mandi gobindagadh mein hain.

anukram

naamotpatti

'Punjab' shabd, faarasi ke shabdon 'panj' (پaaنaaج) paanch aur 'aab' (آaaب) paani ke mel se bana hai jiska shaabdik arth 'paanch nadiyon ka kshetr' hai. ye paanch nadiyaan hain: sataluj, vyaas, raavi, chinaab aur Jhelum. dhaarmik aadhaar par san 1947 mein hue Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke dauraan chinaab aur Jhelum nadiyaan Pakistan ke Punjab praant mein chali gayeen.

itihaas

Punjab map hi.svg

praacheen Punjab kisi jamaane mein vistrut Bhaarat-Irani kshetr ka hissa raha hai. baad ke varshon mein yahaan maurya, baiktriyn, yoonaani, shak, kushaan, gupt jaisi anek shaktiyon ka utthaan aur patan hua. madhyakaal mein Punjab musalmaanon ke adheen raha. sabse pehle gajnavi, Gauri, gulaam vansh, khilji vansh, tuglak, lodhi aur mugal vansho ka Punjab par adhikaar raha. pandrahaveen aur solahaveen shataabdi mein Punjab ke itihaas ne naya mod liya. guru naanak Dave ki shikshaaon se yahaan bhakti aandolan ne jor pakada. sikh panth ne ek dhaarmik aur saamaajik aandolan ko janm diya, jiska mukhya uddeshya dharm aur samaaj mein faili kureetiyon ko door karna tha. dasvein guru gobind Singh ne sikhon ko khaalasa panth ke roop mein sangathit kiya tatha ekajut kiya. unhonne deshbhakti, dharmanirpekshata aur maanaveeya moolyon par aadhaarit punjabi raaj ki sthaapana ki. ek faarasi lekh ke shabdon mein mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ne Punjab ko sikh saamraajya mein badal diya. kintu unke dehaant ke baad androoni saajishon aur angrejon ki chaalon ke kaaran poora saamraajya chhinn-bhinn ho gaya. angrejon aur sikhon ke beech do nishfal yuddhon ke baad 1849 mein Punjab british shaasan ke adheen ho gaya.

svatantrata aandolan mein Gandhiji ke aagaman se bahut pehle hi Punjab mein british shaasan ke khilaaf sangharsh aarambh ho chuka tha. angrejon ke khilaaf yeh sangharsh sudhaaravaadi aandolanon ke roop mein prakat ho raha tha. sabse pehle aatm anushaasan aur svashaasan mein vishvaas karne vaale naamadhaari sanpradaaya ne sangharsh ka bigul bajaaya. baad mein laala laajapataraaya ne svatantrata sangraam mein agrani bhoomika nibhaai. chaahe desh mein ho ya videsh mein, Punjab svatantrata sangraam mein har morche par aage raha. desh ki aajaadi ke baad Punjab ko vibhaajan ki vibheeshika ka saamana karna pada jismein bade paimaane par raktapaat tatha visthaapan hua. visthaapit logon ke punarvaas ke saath-saath raajya ko nae sire se sangathit karne ki bhi chunauti thi.

poorvi Punjab ki aath riyaasaton ko milaakar nae raajya 'pepsoo' tatha poorvi Punjab raajya sagh-Patiala ka nirmaan kiya gaya. Patiala ko iski rajdhani banaaya gaya. san 1956 mein pepsoo ko Punjab mein mila diya gaya. baad mein punjabi sooba aandolan ke kaaran 1966 mein Punjab se kuchh hisse nikaalkar Haryana banaaya gaya.

Punjab desh ke uttar-pashchimi bhaag mein sthit hai. iske pashchim mein Pakistan, uttar mein Jammu aur Kashmir, uttar-poorv mein Himachal pradesh aur dakshin mein Haryana tatha Rajasthan hai.

janasaankhyiki

dharm

dharm dharmaanusaar logon ki sankhya kul %
kul janasankhya 2,43,58,999[1] 100%
sikh 1,45,92,387 59.91%
hindu 89,97,942 36.94%
muslim 3,82,045 1.57 %
isaai 2,92,800 1.20 %
bauddh 41,487 0.17 %
jain 39,276 0.16 %
anya 8,594 0.04 %

sikh dharm Punjab ka mukhya dharm hai. raajya ke lagbhag 60 pratishat naagrik sikh dharm ke anuyaayi hain. Punjab Bhaarat ke un chh: raajyon mein se hai jahaan hinduon ka bahumat naheen hai. sikhon ka pramukh dhaarmik sthal, harimndir saahib, Punjab ke amrutasar nagar mein hai, joki sikkhon ka pavitratam nagar hai. amrutasar jain dharm ke anuyaayiyon ke liye bhi vishesh mahatva rakhata hai.

bhaasha

antararaashtreeya seema ke donon or ke panjaabon ki bhaasha punjabi hai, parantu lipi bhinn hai. bhaarateeya Punjab mein jahaan gurumukhi ka prayog hota hai vaheen Pakistani Punjab mein shaahamukhi lipi ka prayog hota hai. bhaarateeya Punjab ki lagbhag 25 % janta hindi bolti hai, vishesh taur par Haryana aur Rajasthan se sate ilaakon mein. hindi ko lagbhag poori janasankhya dvaara samjha jaata hai jabki shaharon mein rahane vaale dhaaraapravaah hindi bol bhi sakte hain.

jile

Punjab raajya 20 jilon mein banta hua hai. ye jile hai:

  • amrutasar jila
  • bhatinda jila
  • firojapur jila
  • fareedakot jila
  • fatehagadh saahib jila
  • guradaasapur jila
  • Hoshiarpur jila
  • Jalandhar jila
  • kapoorathala jila
  • ludhiyaana jila
  • maanasa jila
  • moga jila
  • muktasar jila
  • shaheed bhagatasinhanagar jila
  • Patiala jila
  • roopanagar jila
  • sangaroor jila
  • taran taaran saahib jila
  • baranaala jila
  • Mohali jila

arthavyavastha

Punjab ka san 2004 ka anumaanit kul sakal ghareloo utpaad 27 arab dollar hai. yeh ek viksit raajya hai.

krushi

Punjab ek krushi pradhaan raajya hai. yahaan geinhoo ki sabse adhik bijaai ki jaati hai. anya mukhya fasalon mein chaaval, kapaas, ganna, baajara, makka, chana aur fal shaamil hain. pramukh udyogon mein kapda aur aata shaamil hai. sadak, rel aur jal yaataayaat maargon ka poore kshetr mein jaal bichha hua hai.

Punjab (paanch nadiyon ka kshetr) pruthvi ka sarvaadhik upajaaoo kshetr raha hai. yeh gehoon utpaadan ke liye aadarsh kshetr hai. chaaval, ganna, sabjiyon env falon bhi yahaan achha utpaadan hota hai. bhaarateeya Punjab ko Bhaarat ka "ann-bhandaar" kaha jaata hai. yahaan Bhaarat ke kul gehoon utpaadan ka 60% aur chaaval ka 40% utpaadan hota hai. vishv ke paridrushya mein in fasalon ka vishv ke kul utpaadan ka 1/30 vaan athva 3% ka yogadaan karta hai.

bhaarateeya Punjab ka aadhaarbhoot dhaancha poore Bhaarat mein sarvaadhik behtar mein se hai. yahaan ke nivaasi ausat ke aadhaar par Bhaarat ke sarvaadhik dhani log hain.

teeka

baahari kadiyaaain