Pune

Pune
nagar
Pune Montage.JPG
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya Maharashtra
jila Pune jila
mahaapaur
saansad anil shirole
janasankhya
ghanatv
4,485,000 (2005 tak )
• 6,407
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
700.0 km² (270 sq mi)
• 560 meter (1,837 fee॰)

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 18°a32′aN 73°a51′aE / 18.53°aN 73.85°aE / 18.53; 73.85

Pune Bhaarat ke Maharashtra raajya ka ek mahattvapoorn shahar hai. yeh shahar Maharashtra ke pashchim bhaag, mula va mootha in do nadiyon ke kinaare basa hai aur Pune jila ka prashaasakeeya mukhyaalaya hai. Pune Bhaarat ka chhathavaan sabse bada shahar va Maharashtra ka doosra sabse bada shahar hai. saarvajanik sukhasuvidha va vikaas ke hisaab se Pune Maharashtra me Mumbai ke baad agrasar hai. anek naamaankit shikshanasansthaayein hone ke kaaran is shahar ko 'poorab ka Oxford' bhi kaha jaata hai. Pune mein anek praudyogiki aur otomobaail upakram hain, isliye Pune Bhaarat ka ”detraaita” jaisa lagta hai. kaafi praacheen gyaat itihaas se Pune shahar Maharashtra ki 'saanskrutik rajdhani' maana jaata hai. maraathi bhaasha is shahar ki mukhya bhaasha hai.

Pune shahar me lagbhag sabhi vishyon ke uchch shikshan ki suvidha upalabdh hai. Pune vidyaapeeth, raashtreeya raasaayanik prayogashaala, aayuka, aagarakar sanshodhan sanstha, si-daik jaisi aantararaashtreeya star ke shikshan sansthaan yahaaain hai. Pune film instityut bhi kaafi prasiddh hai.

Pune Maharashtra va Bhaarat ka ek mahattvapoorn audyogik kendra hai. tata motors, Bajaj auto, Bhaarat forj jaise utpaadanakshetr ke anek bade udyog yahaaain hai. 1990 ke dashak me infosis, tata kansaltansi sarvise, Wipro, simaintek, aai.bi.M jaise prasiddh sauftavear companiyon ne Pune me apne keinndr khole aur yeh shahar Bhaarat ka ek pramukh soochana praudyogiki udyogakeindr ke roop me viksit hua.

anukram

naam

Pune yeh naam 'punyanagari' naam se aaya samjha jaata hai. yeh shahar E.s. 8 ke shatak me 'punnak' (ya 'punyak') naam se jaana jaata tha, aisa sandarbh milta hai. E.s. 11 ke shatak me 'kasabe Pune' ya 'punavadi' naam se jaana jaane laga. maraatha saamraajya ke kaal khand me shahar ka naam 'Pune' me roop me upayog me laaya jaane laga. british ne use 'poona' kah kar sambodhit karne ki suruaat ki. ab yeh Pune, is aadhikaarik naam se jaana jaata hai.

itihaas

aathavi shataabdi me Pune ko punnak naam se jaana jaata tha. shahar ka sabse puraana varnani.s. 758 ka hai, jab us kaal ke raashtrakoot raaj me iska ullekh milta hai. madhyayug kaal ka ek pramaan jangali mahaaraaj maarg par pai jaane waali paataaleshvar gufa hai, jo aathvi sadi ki maani jaati hai.

17 vi shataabdi me yeh shahar nijaamashaahi, aadilshaahi, mugal aise vibhinn raajavansho ka ang raha. satarahavi shataabdi mein shahaajeeraaje bhosale ko nijaamashaaha ne Pune ki jameendaari di thi. is jameendaari me unki patni jijaabaai ne E.s. 1627 mein shivneri kile par shivaajeeraaje bhosale ko janm diya. shivaaji mahaaraaj ne apne saathiyon ke saath Pune parisar mein maraatha saamraajya ki sthaapana ki. is kaal me Pune mein shivaaji mahaaraaj ka varchasv tha. aage peshava ke kaal me E.s. 1749 saataara ko chhatrapati ki gaddi aur rajdhani bana kar Pune ko maraatha saamraajya ki 'prashaasakeeya rajdhani' bana di gayi. peshava ke kaal me Pune ki kaafi tarakki hui. i.s. 1818 tak Pune me maraathon ka raajya tha.

maraatha saamraajya

Pune shivaaji mahaaraaj ke jeevan va maraatha saamraajya ke itihaas ka ek mahatvapoorn ang hai. E.s. 1635-36 ke daramayaan jab jijaabaai va shivaaji mahaaraaj Pune aavaas ke liye aae, tabase Pune ke itihaasa mein ek nae parv ka janm hua. shivaaji mahaaraaj va jijaamaata Pune mein laal mahaal me rahate the. Pune ke graamadevata- kasaba ganapati ki sthaapana jijaabaain ne ki thi.

17vi shatabdi ke praarambh mein, chhatrapati shaahoo ke pradhaanamantri, baajeeraav peshave (thorale) ko Pune ko apna sthaai aavaas banaana tha. chhatrapati shaah mahaaraaj ne iski anumati di va peshava ne mutha nadi ke kinaare shanivaaravaada banaaya.

kharada is aitihaasik kile par maraathon evam nijaam ke beech i.s. 1795 ke beech yudhd hua. i.s. 1817 ko Pune ke paas khadaki british va maraathon mein yudhd hua. maraatho ko is yuddh mein paraajaya ka saamana karna pada va british ne Pune ko apne kabaje me kar liya. british ne Pune ke mahatva ko samajhte hue shahar ke poorv me khadaki kaintonmeint (lashkar chhaavani) ki sthaapana ki. i.s. 1858 me Pune mahaanagarapaalika ki sthaapana hui. 19vi shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein Pune me anek naamaankit shikshan sansthaao ki sthaapana hui.

svaatantra sangraam

bhaarateeya svaatantra sangraam me Pune ke netaaon aur samaaj sudhaarakon ne mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya. lokamaanya tilk aur saavarakar jaise netaaon ke kaaran Pune raashtra ke nakshe par apne mahatva ko darshaata raha. mahaadev govind raanade, ra.g. bhaandaarakar, viththal raamaji shinde, gopaal Krishna gokhale, mahaatma fule jaise samaajasudhaarak va raashtreeya khyaati ke neta Pune se the.

bhoogol

Pune ka sthaan 18°a31'22.45" uttar akshaansh, 73° 52' 32.69 poorv rekhaansh hai.

Pune ka madhyabindu (Zero milestone) Pune ji.pi.O post office ke baahar hai. ji.pi.O. Pune sahyaadri parvat ke poorv aur samudratal se 560 mi (1,837 foot) ki oochaaaini par hai. bheema nadeeki upanadiyaaain mula va mutha ke sangam par yeh shahar basa hai. pavana va indraayani ye nadiyaaain Pune shahar ke uttar-pashchim disha me bahti hai. shahar ka sarvochch bindu vetaal tekadi (samudratal se 800 mi) hai aur shahar ke paas ka sinhagad kile ki oochaaaini 1300 mi. hai.

Pune shahar koyana bhookamp kshetr me aata hai jo Pune shahar se 100 ki॰mee॰ dakshin disha me hai. Pune mein madhyam va chhote bhookamp aae hai. kaatraj, mein 17 May, 2004 ko 3.2 ri. skel ka bhookamp aaya tha.

peth

Pune shahar ke poorv mein nadi kinaare peth ke anusaar badhata gaya, jo nae upanagar hai aur judate hue shahar ka vistaar karte chale gaye hai. peth ke naam saptaah ke dino ke naam aur aitihaasik vyaktiyon ke naam par rakhe gaye. Pune ke peth ke naam is prakaar hain:
kasaba peth, ravivaar peth, somvaar peth, mangalvaar peth, Budhvaar peth, guruvaar peth, shukravaar peth, shanivaar peth, ganj peth (mahaatma fule peth), sadaashiv peth, navi (sadaashiv) peth, Narayan peth, bhavaani peth, naana peth, raasta peth, ganesh peth.

vaataavaran

Pune shahar me garmi, (maunasoon) varsha va sheet ritu hoti hai. March se May (taapamaan 25°- 29° se.) sabse garm mahine hain. May mahine mein baarish shuru hoti hai. June maheene me arab saagar se maunasoon ki havaaeain shuroo hoti hai. Pune mein vaarshik 722 mi.mi. baarish hoti hai. July mahine mein sabse jyaada baarish hoti hai. baarish me taapamaan 20°- 28° se. hota hai.

maunasoon ke baad October mahine me din me taapamaan badhta hai magar raat ko thandh hoti hai. shardi November se February mahino me rahti hai. is samay Pune bhet karne ke liye sarvottam samay hai. is samay din ka taapamaan 29°aase to raatri ka taapamaan 10°aase neeche hota hai. December va January maheenon mein taapamaan 5-6°aase tak neeche jaata hai. Pune ka adhiktam taapamaan 43.3°aase, 20 April, 1987/7 May, 1889 ko aur (1781-1940 ke beech ke varsho me) nyoonatam taapamaan 1.7°aase 17 January 1935 ko darj kiya gaya. January 1991 me Pune ka taapamaan 2.8°aase tha.

jaivavividhta

Pune shahar ke daak kaaryaalaya se 25 ki.mi.door trijya ke parisar me saadhaaranat: 1,000 pushp-vanaspati ki prajaatiyaaain, 104 fulapaakhar ki prajaatiyaaain, 350 pakshiyo ki prajaatiyaaain aur 64 stanadhaari praaniyon ki prajaatiyaaain pai gayi hai.

arthavyavastha

Pune ek mahatvapurn audyogik kendra hai. Maharashtra raajya me Mumbai mahanagar ke baad Pune hi sarvaadhik audyogik shahar hai. vishv me sarvaadhik dupahiye banaane waali company Bajaj auto Pune me hai. Bhaarat me sarvaadhik pravaasi vaahan aur audyogik vaahan banaane waali company tata motors, kaayanetik, daaimalar-kraayaslar (marsidis-beinj), fors motors (Bajaj teinpo) jaise udyog Pune me sthit hai.

Pune ke abhiyaantriki udyog - Bhaarat forj (vishv ki dusari sabse badi forjing company), kamins injins, alfa lavhaal, saindavik Asia, thaayasan group (bakaaoo voolf), keesabi panp, finoleks, greevhaj India, Forbes maarshal, tharmeks ityaadi.

vidyut va gruhapayogi vastoo nirmaata vharlapool aur L.ji. ke utpaadan kaarkhaane, frito-lej, koka-kola ke ann prakriya udyog Pune me sthit hai. anek madhyam va chhote udyog Pune me hai. antararaashtreeya havaaimaarg se Pune ko jodane ke baad se jile me anek udyog niryaat karne lage hai.

Pune me soochana praudyogiki ke pratishthaan bhi kaafi hai. hinjavadi sthit Rajiv Gandhi aay.ti park, magarapatta saayabarasiti, talavade M.aay.di.si. sauftaver park, mairisauft aay.ti. park (kalyaaneenagar), aay.si.si. ityaadi aay.ti paarks me aay.ti udyog bharpoor chaaloo hai.

mahatvapoorn bhaarateeya sauftaver kanpaniyaaain - infosis, tata, flyuent, ksaansa, ti.si.S., tech mahindra, Wipro, patani, satyam, saayabej, ke.pi.aay.ti. kamins, disha, parsistant sistams, jiyometrik software, neelasauft va kainabe Pune me hai.

mahatvapoorn bahuraashtreeya sauftaver kanpaniyaaain - bi.M.si. software, enavhidiya graafiks, H.S.bi.si. global teknolaujis, aay.bi.M., red hॆt, simens, E.di.S., yujeees, aayafleks, kaugneejhant, simaantek, sanagaard, varsant, jhensaar teknaalaujees, ti-system aur esaees, aayapeedram.

Dr praveen Bhagwat ne seva aadharit pratishthaanon se hatkar san 2002 E. mein apne sauftavear utpaad aadhaarit pratishthaan earataait netavarks ke liye Pune ka chayan kiya. aaj yeh company apne paaainch utpaadon ke saath sampoorn vishv ke betaar sanganak sanjaalon (wireless computer networks) ki vaai-faai aakramanon se suraksha ke liye pratibaddh hai.

Pune call center ya bi.pi.O. udyog me bhi agrasar hai. angreji bolne vaale karmachaari varg Pune me upalabdh hone ke kaaran kanvharajis, dablyu.N.S., infosis, Wipro, ieksael, emafesis jaisi mahatvapoorn aaootasorsing kanpaniyaaain Pune me hai.

Pune me mahatvapoorn kanpaniyo ke mukhyaalaya -

  • Bajaj auto
  • baink of Maharashtra
  • parsistant sistams
  • neelasauft
  • inafaainaait eksatainsan

prashaasan

naagrik prashaasan

Pune shahar ki vyavastha Pune mahaanagarapaalika karti hai. mahaanagarapaalika ka kaarya naagrik prashaasan va moolabhoot seva-suvidha pradaan karna hai. prashaasakeeya pramukh ke kaaryakaari adhikaar Maharashtra sarkaar dvaara naanmaankit aay. A. es‌. adhikaari darja ke mahaapaalika aayukt ke paas hota hai. mahaanagarapaalika matadaan dvaara chuni gaye nagarasevak banaate hai. nagarasevakon ka netrutv mahaapaur ke paas hota hai. mahaapaur keval ek naamamaatr ka pad hai, is pad ka adhikaar kam hi rahata hai. Pune mein 48 mahaapaalika prabhaag ke vibhaag hai, pratyek vibhaag ke kaamkaaj sahaayak aayukt dekhte hai. raajya ke sabhi chhote-bade raajakeeya paksh apne ummeedavaaro ko nirvaachit pad ke liye naamaankit karte hai.

jila prashaasan

Pune shahar Pune jile ka mukhyaalaya bhi hai. jile ka pramukh jilaadhikaari hota hai va usaka kaam saatabaara, jameen jaayadaad ke naamakaran ka rakharakhaav, raajya sarkaar ke liye saaraavasooli, karavasuli va chunaavo ki vyavastha karna hota hai.

mahanagar police tantr

Pune police ka pramukh polis aayukt hota hai; jo raajya ke gruh mantraalaya dvaara niyukt kiya gaya ek aay. pi. es‌. adhikaari hota hai. Pune police vyavastha Maharashtra raajya ke gruhamantraalaya ke antargat aati hai.

yaataayaat vyavastha

Pune ka ek maarg

Pune shahar Bhaarat ke anya mahatvapoorn shaharo se sadk, relve va havaaimaarg se juda hua hai. Pune ka vimaanatal se pehle keval desh ke anya shaharo ke liye udaane thi, magar singaapoor va dubai ke liye udaane aane ke baad ise antararaashtreeya darja praapt hua hai.

naya greenafild Pune antararaashtreeya vimaanatal prakalp Maharashtra sarkaar dvaara shuroo karne par yeh chaakan va raajagurunagar gaaainvo ke beech chaandoos va shiroli ke paas (Pune se 40 ki.mi.) hone ki sambhaavana hai. is pariyojana ki jimmedaari Maharashtra audyogik vikaas mahaamandal ko saupi gayi hai.

Pune shahar ka mumbai se nikat hona iske pragati ka ek mahatvapurn kaaran raha hai. mumbai Pune expressway mumbai ko Pune se jodta hai, tatha car evam bas ke dvaara mumbai se Pune tak pahucha ja sakta hai. yadi aapke paas svanm ki vaahan na ho to aap vaahan kiraae par bhi le sakte hai. traival kamanpaniyaan jaise taxi guroo, Ali kul cab tatha jast car Mumbai se Pune ke liye vaahan kiraae par uplabdh karavaati hain.

chitr:Punelocal.jpg
Pune ki upanagareeya rel

shahar me Pune va shivaajeenagar yeh do mahatvapoorn relve sthaanak hai. Pune va lonaavala ke beech upanagari rel hai jisse pinpari, khadaki va chinchavad yeh upanagar shahar se judte hai. Pune ki upanagari rel lonaavala tak aur Mumbai kikarjat tak chalti hai. relve prashaasan lonaavala va karjat/khopoli shahar ko jodane ki yojana bana raha hai. jisse Pune-Mumbai ke daramyaan aane vaale sabhi sthaano ko eksaath joda jaaega. karjat-panavel railway banane ke baad Pune-Mumbai shaharo ke beech ka antar 29 ki॰mee॰ se kam ho jaaega.

Pune va Mumbai ke beech Mumbai-Pune drutagati mahaamaarg banaaya gaya hai. jisse dono shaharo ke daramayaan keval teen ghante ka antar rah gaya hai. shaasakeeya va niji basaseva Pune ko Mumbai, Hyderabad, Nagpur va bangalooroo shaharo se jodti hai. Maharashtra raajya parivhan mandal (S.ti) ki basaseva Pune ko Maharashtra ke graameen bhaago se jodati hai.

Pune shahar 2010 tak mahatvapoorn I.ti kendra banane ke maarg par hai. Pune ki chakramaati badhat ke saath yahaaain vaahano ki sankhya me bhi kaafi badhat hui hai. 2005 me Pune me 146 varg ki.mi kshetrafal me 2,00,000 car (motaaragaadiya) va 10,00,000 dupahiye vaahan the, aisa ek abhyaas se pata kiya gaya. Pune ke upanagar kalyaaneenagar, vimaananagar, magarapatta, pinpari, chinvavad, baaner, vaakad, aundh, hinjevaadi, bibvevaadi, vaanavadi, nigdi-praadheekaran kaafi teji se badh rahe hai par androoni raaste utane teji se nahi badh rahe hai.

saarvajanik yaataayaat vyavastha ke liye Pune va pinpari-chinchavad mahaapaalika dvaara niyantrit pi.M.ti. va pi.si.M.ti. upakaran hai. riksha shahar me yaataayaat ka pramukh saadhan hai.

janajeevan

Pune shahar Bhaarat ka sabse tej viksit hone wala shahar hai. Pune ki janasankhya badi teji se badh rahi hai. san 1991 ki janaganana ke anusaar Pune ki janasankhya 11 lakh thi. san 2001 ke anusaar 25 lakh hui. ab 2011 ke anusaar janasankhya 50 lakh ke upar jaane ki sambhaavana hai. Pune shahar me software va vaahananirmiti ke vyavasaayo ke nirantar vikaas se nokari ki talaash me Bhaarat ke anya praant ke logo yahaaain basate aae hai. 2003 se yahaaain nirmaan-kshetr ke kaafi teji I hai.

Pune Bhaarat ka chhathavaan sabse bada shahar hai. Bhaarat mein Pune se badhe shahar Mumbai, kolakatta, Delhi, chenai, beingalor hai. Pune ke baad Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, soorat yeh shahar aate hai.

Pune me rahane vaalo ko punekar kehkar bhi sambodhit kiya jaata hai. shahar ki mukhya bhaasha maraathi hai aur angreji va hindi bhaasha bolte hue aksar log milte hai.

Pune ke bhagini shahar

yeh shahar Pune ke bhagini shahar hai -

paryatan

yahaan kai paryatak aakarshan hain. jinmein se kuchh hain:-

  1. shanivaar vaada
  2. aagaakhaan mahal
  3. paarvati hil mandir
  4. kataraaj sarp udyaan
  5. konaark
  6. osho ashram

sanskruti

Pune ko Maharashtra ki saanskrutik rajdhani kehkar bhi sambodhit kiya jaata hai. Pune ki maraathi ko maraathi bhaasha ka maanak-rup (standard) maana jaata hai. Pune me varsh bhar saanskrutik kaaryakram ke relachel hote rahate hai. Pune me sangeet, kala, saahitya ki bharamaar hai.

ganeshotsav

1894 me lokamaanya tilk ne saarvajanik ganeshotsav shuru kiya. bhaadrapad (August nahi to September) maheene me aane vaale in das dino ki avadhi me Pune shahar chaitanyamaya hota hai. desh-paradesh se log is utsav me bhaag lene Pune aate hai. jagah-jagah chhote-bade ganesh mandal ke mandapo ko sajaaya jaata hai. is utsav ke daramayaan Maharashtra paryatan vikaas mahaamandal Pune utsav naamak saanskrutik kaaryakram aayojit karaata hai, jisme sangeet, nrutya, maifili, naatak aur khel samaavisht hote hai. das diwas chalne wala yeh utsav ganesh visrjan ke saath samaapt hota hai. anant chaturdashi ke subah shuru hone wala visrjan agale din tak chalta rahata hai. pramukh paaainch mandal hai -


  1. kasaba ganapati (yeh Pune ke gram debata hai)
  2. taanbadi jogeshvari
  3. gurooji taaleem
  4. tulasheebaag
  5. kesari vaada (yeh mandal tilk panchaang ke anusaar ganeshotsav ko sajaata hai)

Pune me ganeshotsav mandal praanapratishtha ki gayi moorti visrjeet kar ke utsav marti vaapas le jaate hai. visrjan ke daramayaan dhol, lejheem jaise anek pathake hote hai. anek vidyaalaya apne pathake sikhaate hai.

savaai gandharv sangeet mahotsav

December mahine me abhijaat sangeet maifali ka kaaryakram Pune me hota hai jise savaai gandharv sangeet mahotsav kah kar sambodhit kiya jaata hai. teen raato tak chalne wala is utsav me suprasidhd hindustaani va Karnataka sangeetajnya bhaag lete hai. shaastreeya sangeet premiyo ke liye utsav ek parv ke samaan hota hai.

rangabhoomi

maraathi rangabhoomi maraathi sanskruti ka avibhaajya bhaag hai. maraathi naatak praayogik va vyaavasaayik dono hote hai. Pune me maraathi naatak kaafi lokapriya hai. tilk smaarak mandir, baalagandharv rangamandir, bharat naatya mandir, yashavantaraav chavhaan naatyagruh, sudarshan rangamanch va pinpari chinchavad naatyagruh Pune va aaspaas ke mahatvapoorn naatyagruh hai.

film

Pune me anek maltipleks hai jisme maraathi, hindi va hauleevood filme dikhaai jaati hai. Pune railway sthaanak ke paas aayanauks, vidyaapeeth raaste par E-skvear, saataara rasta va kotharood ke paas seeteepraaid, kalyaaneenagar ke paas gold ऍdalaibs aur aakurdi ke paas fame ganesh vijn hai. maraathi filme mukhyat: prabhaat aur seeteepraaid chitrapatagruh me pradarshit hoti hai.

dharm-adhyaatm

chatu:shrrungi mandeer shahar ke uttar-pashchim dongar-utaar par hai. mandeer 90 foot ooaincha 125 foot lamba hai va iska vyavasthaapan chatu:shrrungi devasthaan karta hai. navaraatri ke daramayaan mandeer me vishesh bheed hoti hai. shahar me parvati devasthaan bhi kaafi prasidhd hai. Pune ke paas aalandi va dehoo devasthaan kaafi prasidhd hai. aalandi me sant jnyaaaneshvar ki samaadhi aur dehoo par sant tukaaraam ka vaastavya hai. har varsh vaarakari sanpradaaya ke log in santo ki paalakhi lekar pandharapur jaate hai. aashaadhi ekaadashi ke muhoort par pandharapoor pahuainchate hai. Pune me bhaarateeya jyu logo ki badi basati hai. ohel David istraael ke baahar Asia ka sabse bada sinegaug (jyu ka praarthanaasthal) hai. Pune meherabaaba ka janmasthaan aur rajaneesh ke rahane ka sthaan tha. rajaneesh ke aashram me desh-paradesh ke paryatak aate hai. aashram me osho jhen baag va bada dhyaanagruh hai. Pune me paashaan naamak gaav hai. jaha someshavar ka praacheen mandeer hai jiska nirmaan jijaamaata ne kiya tha.

baahari kadiyaaain