Poland

jechpospolita polska Poland ganaraajya
Flag of Poland Poland: Coat of Arms
(vistaarapoorvak) (vistaarapoorvak)
sootravaakya: koi naheen¹
LocationPoland.png
raajabhaasha polish²
rajdhani vaarasa
sabse bada shahar vaarasa
raashtrapati bronislaav komorovski
pradhaanamantri donald tusk
kshetrafal
- kul
- % jal
68 vaaain sthaan
312,685 varg ki.mi.
2.6%
janasainkhya
- kul (2004)
- ghanatv
31 vaaain sthaan
38,626,349
123.5/varg ki.mi.
sakal ghareloo utpaad
- kul (2003)
- /vyakti
25 vaaain sthaan
$426.7 billion
$11,100
naamaakaran
- tithi
meisjako I
966 isavi
aajaadi
-

11 November, 1918
mudra jloti (PLN)
samay kshetr
-
grinvich maanak samay+1)
raashtrageet majurek daabrovaskeeego
Internet domen .pl
kaaling code 48
1
2

Poland aadhikaarik roop se Poland ganaraajya ek madhya yooropiya raashtra hai. Poland pashchim mein Germany, dakshin mein check ganaraajya aur Slovakia, poorv mein Ukraine, Belarus aur lithuaaniya evam uttar mein baaltik saagar va roos ke kaaliningraad oblaast ke dvaara ghira hua hai. Poland ka kul kshetrafl 3 lagbhag lakh varg ki.mi. (1.20 lakh varg meal) hai, jisse ye duniya ka 69vaan va yurop ka 9vaan vishaalatam raashtra ban jaata hai. lagbhag 4 karod ki janasankhya ke saath yeh duniya ka 33vaan sabse jyaada janasankhya wala desh ban jaata hai.

ek raashtra ke roop mein Poland ki sthaapana ko iske shaasak misjako pratham dvaara 966 isavi mein isaai dharm ko raashtradharm banaane ke saath jod kar dekha jaata hai. tatkaaleen samay mein Poland ka aakaar vartamaan Poland ke jaisa hi tha. 1025 mein Poland raajaaon ke adheen aaya aur 1569 mein Poland ne lithuaaniya ke grand dachi ke saath milkar polish-lithuaaniyn kaamanavelth ki sthaapana karte hue ek lambe rishte ki neenv daali. ye kaamanavelth 1795 mein tod diya gaya aur Poland ko aastriya, roos aur prusiya ke beech baant liya gaya. Poland ne pratham vishv yuddh ke baad 1918 mein apni svaadheenata pun: hasil ki magar dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samay fir se paraadheen hokar naaji Germany aur soviyt sangh ke adheen chala gaya. dviteeya vishvayuddh mein Poland ne apne saath lakh naagrikon ko kho diya. kai saal baad Poland roos se prabhaavit ek saamyavaadi ganaraajya ke roop mein istarn block mein ubhara. 1989 mein saamyavaadi shaasan ka patan hua aur Poland ek naye raashtra ke roop mein ubhara jise saanvidhaanik taur pe "truteeya polish ganatantr" kaha jaata hai.

Poland ek svayanshaasit svatantr raashtra hai jo ki solah alag-alag voivodeship ya raajyon (polish : voyevudjtvo) ko milaakar gathit hua hai. Poland Europeeya sangh, naato evam O.E.si.di ka sadasya raashtra hai.

anukram

itihaas

praagaitihaasik kaal mein yahaaain slaav log rahate the. yeh abhi bhi charcha ka vishay hai ki slaav log yahaaain kab se rahate the. praacheen pol svetovit dharm aur sanskruti ka hissa the.


Poland ke raajanaitik itihaas ki shuruaat san 966 mein miyeshko ke isaaiyat sveekaar karne ke saath shuru hoti hai. piaast raajavansh ke log kai saalon se apne saamraajya ko bada kar rahe the. miyeshko ke isaaiyat mein parint hone ke baad Catholic dharm ko raajadharm banaaya gaya. aane vaale dashakon mein logon ne isaai dharm sveekaar kar liya. san 1109 mein boleslaav truteeya ne handsapaild ne Germany ke raaja henari pancham ko hara diya. 1138 mein piast shaasan tukadon mein vibhaajit ho gaya. san 1230 ke dashak mein mangol aakraman se Poland haar gaya.

san 1380-1569 tak jagaaloni vansh ne shaasan kiya. is samay ek pol-lithuaan sanskruti aur sainik bandhan ka aarambh hua. pandrahavi aur solaveen sadi mein usmaani turk dakshin se aakraant rahe. kreemiya ke taartaaron se bhi aakraman jaari rahe. is dauraan kai polon ko gulaami aur das vyaapaar ka shikaar banana pada. san 1569 mein lublin ke sammelan mein pol-lithuaaniyaai raashtrakul ka janm hua. san 1648 ke kossaak vidroh ke baad poorvi aur dakshini bhaag par roosi jaaron ka shaasan sthaapit ho gaya. kaara mustafa ki islaamik sena ke aakraman se bachaane mein polon ne bahut mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. athaarahaveen sadi mein is raashtrakul ka vibhaajan do baar hua. kai baar is vibhaajan ke khilaaf vidroh bhi hue.

san 1830 aur 1863 mein roosi jaarashaahi ke khilaaf bagaavat hui. pratham vishvayuddh ke baad Poland roosi shaasan se baahar aa gaya. 1919-21 ke dauraan pol sena ne roosi laal sena ko vaarasau mein haraaya. is ghatna ko kai vijnya saamyavaad ke prasaar ka thaharaav maanate hain. iske baad lenin ke saamyavaadi neetiyon mein parivartan nazar aaya tha. dviteeya vishvayuddh mein naaji jarman sena ne paulaind par adhikaar kar yahaaain kai antakaran shivir khole the jahaaain yahoodiyon, roma, samalaingikon tatha raajanaitik virodhiyon ko maara jaata tha. aashvitj bhi Poland mein hi tha.

vishvayuddh ke baad Poland roosi saamyavaadi sarkaar ke saath raha. 1989 mein soviyt sangh ke vidhtan ke baad nai sarkaar ka gathan hua. aaj paulaind naato ka hissa hai aur 2003 ke Iraq ki naito chadhaai mein iski ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika rahi hai.

bhoogol

Poland ka bhoobhaag vibhinn bhaugolik kshetron mein banta hua hai. iske uttar-pashchimi bhaag mein baaltik tat avasthit hai jo ki pomereniya ki khaadi se lekar gdaansk ke khaadi tak vistrut hai.

nadiyaan

Poland ki badi nadiyon mein vistula (polish: is?a), 1,047 ki.mi (678 mil); oder (polish: ऒdr) - jo ki Poland ki pashchimi seema rekha ka ek hissa hai - 854 ki॰amee॰ (531 meal); iski upanadi, vaarta, 808 ki॰amee॰ (502 meal) aur bag - vistula ki ek upanadi-772 ki॰amee॰ (480 meal) aadi pradhaan hain. pomeraaniya doosari chhoti nadiyon ki bhaanti vistula aur oder bhi baaltik samudra mein padate hain. haalaanki Poland ki jyaadaatar nadiyaan baaltik saagar me girti hain par kuchhek nadiyaan jaise ki dainyoob aadi kaala saagar mein samaahit hoti hain.

Poland ki nadiyon ko pura kaal se parivhan kaarya mein istemaal kiya jaata raha hai. udaaharan svaroop vaaiking log unke mashahoor laangashipon mein vistula aur oder tak ka safar tay karte the. madhya yug aur aadhunik yug ke praarambhik kaalon mein, jis samay Poland-lithuaaniya yurop ka pramukh khaadya utpaadak hua karta tha, khaadyashasya aur anyaanya krushijaat drvyon ko vistula se gdaansk aur aage poorvi yurop ko bheja jaata tha jo ki yurop ki khaadya kadi ka ek mahatvapoorn ang tha.

bhoovyavastha

Poland ka takareeban 28% bhoobhaag jangalon se dhanka hai. desh ki takaribn aadhi jameen krushi ke liye istemaal ki jaati hai. Poland ke kul 23 jaateeya udyaan 3,145 varg ki॰mee॰ (1,214 varg meal) ki sanrakshit jamin ko gherate hain jo Poland ke kul bhoobhaag ka 1% se bhi jyaada hai. is drushti se Poland samagr yurop mein agrani hai. filhaal maasuriya, kaaraako-chestochova maalabhoomi evam poorvi beskid mein tin aur naye udyaan banaane ka plaan hai.

Poland CIA map PL.png
EU location POL.png

Poland Tourism

16./17.

najaare