Patna ka itihaas

lokakathaaon ke anusaar, raaja patrak ko Patna ka janak kaha jaata hai, jisne apni raani paatali ke liye jaadoo se is nagar ka nirmaan kiya. isi kaaran nagar ka naam paataligraam pada. paataliputr naam bhi isi ke kaaran pada. sanskrut mein putr ka arth putr ya beta tatha gram ka arth gaanv hota hai.

puraataatvik anusandhaano ke anusaar Patna ka itihaas 490 isa poorv se hota hai jab haryak vansh ke shaasak ajaatashatru ne apni rajdhani raajagruh se badalkar yahaan sthaapit ki, kyonki vaishaali ke lichhaviyon se sangharsh mein upayukt hone ke kaaran paataliputr raajagruh ki apeksha saamarik drushti se adhik rananeetik sthaan par tha. usane ganga ke kinaare yeh sthaan chuna aur apama durg sthaapit kar liya. us samay se hi is nagar ka lagaataar itihaas raha hai - aisa gaurav duniya ke bahut kam nagaron ko haasil hai. bauddh dharm ke pravartak Gautam buddh apne antim dinon mein yahaan se gujre the. unhone ye bhavishyavaani ki thi ki nagar ka bhavishya ujjaval hoga, par kabhi baadh, aag ya aapasi sangharsh ke kaaran yeh barbaad ho jaaega.

maurya saamraajya ke utkarsh ke baad paataliputr satta ka kendra ban gaya. chandragupt maurya ka saamraajya Bengal ki khaadi se afgaanistaan tak fail gaya tha. shurooaati paataliputr lakadiyon se bana tha, par samraat ashok ne nagar ko shilaaon ki sanrachana me tabdeel kiya. cheen ke faahiyaan ne, jo ki san 399-414 tak Bhaarat yaatra par tha, apne yaatra-vrutaant mein yahaan ke shail sanrachanaaon ka jeevant varnan kiya hai.

megaasthaneej, jo ki ek yunaani itihaasakaar aur chandragupt maurya ke darbaar mein ek raajadoot ke naate aaya tha, ne paataliputr nagar ka pratham likhit vivran diya. gyaan ki khoj mein, baad mein kai cheeni yaatri yahaan aae aur unhone bhi yahaan ke baare mein, apne yaatra-vrutaanton mein likha hai.

iske pashchaat nagar par kai raajavanshon ka raaj raha. in raajaaon ne yaheen se bhaarateeya upamahaadveep par shaasan kiya. gupt vansh ke shaasanakaal ko praacheen Bhaarat ka svarn yug kaha jaata hai. par iske baad nagar ko vah gairav naheen mil paaya jo ek samay maurya vansh ke samay praapt tha.

gupt saamraajya ke patan ke baad Patna ka bhavishya kaafi anishchit raha. 12 veen sadi mein bakhtiyaar khilji ne Bihar par apna adhiptya jama liya aur kai aadhyaatmik pratishthaanon ko dhvast kar daala. Patna desh ka saanskrutik aur raajanaitik kendra naheen raha.

mugalakaal mein Delhi ke sattaadhaariyon ne yahaan apna niyantran banaae rakha. is kaal mein sabse utkrushth samay tab aaya jab sherasaah soori ne nagar ko punarjeevit karne ki koshish ki. usane ganga ke teer par ek kila banaane ki sochi. usaka banaaya koi durg to abhi naheen hai, par afgaan shaili mein bana ek masjid abhi bhi hai.

mugal baadshah Akbar 1574 mein afgaan saragana daaud Khan ko kuchalane Patna aaya. Akbar ke raajya sachiv evam aaine akabari ke lekhak (abul fjal) ne is jagah ko kaagaj, patthar tatha sheeshe ka sampann audyogik kendra ke roop mein varnit kiya hai. Patna Rice ke naam se Europe mein prasiddh chaaval ke vibhinn naslon ki gunavatta ka ullekh bhi in vivranon mein milta hai.

mugal baadshah aurangajeb ne apne priya pote muhammad ajeem ke anurodh par 1704 mein, shahar ka naam ajeemaabaad kar diya. ajeem us samay Patna ka soobedaar tha. par is kaalakhand mein, naam ke atirikt Patna mein kuchh vishesh badlaav naheen aaya.

mugal saamraajya ke patan ke saath hi Patna Bengal ke nabaabon ke shaasanaadheen ho gaya jinhonne is kshetr par bhaari kar lagaaya par ise vaanijyik kendra bane rahane ki chhoot di. 17veen shataabdi mein Patna antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ka kendra ban gaya. angrejon ne 1620 mein yahaan resham tatha kailiko ke vyaapaar ke liye yahaan factory kholi. jald hi yeh sault Peter (poteshiym naaitret) ke vyaapaar ka kendra ban gaya jiske kaaran French aur dach log se pratispardha tej hui.

baksar ke nirnaayak yuddh ke baad nagar ist India company ke adheen chala gaya aur vaanijya ka kendra bana raha.

1912, mein Bengal ke vibhaajan ke baad, Patna udeesa tatha Bihar ki raajadhaaaan bana. It soon emerged as an important and strategic centre. A number of imposing structures were constructed by the British. Credit for designing the massive and majestic buildings of colonial Patna goes to the architect, I. F. Munnings. Most of these buildings reflect either Indo-Saracenic influence (like Patna Museum and the state Assembly), or overt Renaissance influence like the Raj Bhawan and the High Court. Some buildings, like the General Post Office (GPO) and the Old Secretariat bear pseudo-Renaissance influence. kuchh logon ka kehna hai ki Patna ke nae bhavanon ke nirmaan mein haasil hui mahaarath Delhi ke shaasanik kshetr ke nirmaan mein bahut kaam I.

Patna mein kai pratishthit shaikshanik sansthaan bhi hain.There are several prestigious educational institutions in Patna like Patna College, Patna Women's College, Patna Science College,Bihar National College,Bihar College of Engineering, Patna Medical College (formerly, Prince of Wales Medical College), Nalanda Medical College, Patna Dental College and the Patna Veterinary College.

1935 mein udeesa Bihar se alag kar ek raajya bana diya gaya. Patna raajya ki rajdhani bana raha.

bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam mein nagar ne apni mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. neel ki kheti ke liye champaaran ka aandolan tatha 1942 ka Bhaarat chhodo aandolan inmein se kuchh ullekhaneeya naam hai. aajaadi ke baad Patna Bihar ki rajdhani bana raha. 2000 mein Jharkhand raajya ke banane ke baad abhi tak yeh Bihar ki rajdhani hai.