Patna

Patna
paataliputr[1]
پaaٹaaنaaہ
rajdhani
Patna Montage 2014.jpg
Map of बिहार with पटना marked
भारत के मानचित्र पर बिहार अंकित
पटना की भारत में स्थिति
Patna ka maanachitr
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
kshetr magadh
raajya Bihar
mandal Patna
jila Patna
paataliputr chhathi shataabdi i॰aapoo.
mahaapaur sanjaya Kumar
sansadeeya nirvaachan kshetr Patna nirvaachan kshetr
vidhaayak nirvaachan kshetr Patna pashchim (188), Patna madhya (189), Patna poorv (190)
yojana agency Patna kshetriya vikaas praadhikran
naagrik paalika Patna nagar nigam
ward 72 wards
janasankhya
ghanatv
2,046,652[2][3] (14th) (2011 tak )
• 1,405 /kimi2 (3,639 /varg meal)
lingaanupaat 1.145 /
saaksharata
• purush
• mahila
84.71%%
• 87.71%%
• 81.33%%
aadhikaarik bhaasha(eain) hindi, magahi, maithili, Bhojpuri, urdu, angreji
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
3,202 ki.mee² (1,236 varg meal)
• 53 meter (174 fee॰)
mausam
varsha
taapamaan
• greeshm
• sheet
ETh (kaupen)
1,000 mm (39.4 in)
26 °aC (79 °aF)
35 °aC (95 °aF)
12 °aC (54 °aF)
Governing body Bihar sarkaar
Bhaarat sarkaar
ISO 3166-2 IN-BR-PA
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: www.patna.nic.in

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 25°a36′a40″aN 85°a08′a38″aE / 25.611°aN 85.144°aE / 25.611; 85.144

Patna (urdoo: پaaٹaaنaaہ) Bhaarat mein Bihar praant ki rajdhani hai. Patna ka praacheen naam paataliputr tha. aadhunik Patna duniya ke gine-chune un vishesh pracheen nagaron mein se ek hai jo ati praacheen kaal se aaj tak aabaad hai. apne aap mein is shahar ka aitihaasik mahatva hai.

isa poorv megaasthaneej(350 ipoo-290 ipoo) ne apne Bhaarat bhraman ke pashchaat likhi apni pustak indika mein is nagar ka ullekh kiya hai. palibothra (paataliputr) jo ganga aur arennovaas (sonabhadr-hirnyavaah) ke sangam par basa tha. us pustak ke aakalanon ke hisaab se praacheen Patna (palibotha) 9 meal (14.5 ki॰mee॰) lamba tatha 1.75 meal (2.8 ki॰mee॰) chauda tha.

Patna Bihar raajya ki rajdhani hai aur ganga nadi ke dakshini kinaare par avasthit hai. jahaan par ganga ghaaghara, son aur gandak jaisi sahaayak nadiyon se milti hai. yahaan par paavan ganga nadi ka svarup nadi ke jaisa na hokar saagar jaisa viraat dikhta hai- anant aur athaah! man ko prasann kar denevaali ek vishaal pravaah![4]

solah lakh (2011 ki janaganana ke mutaabik 1,683,200) se bhi adhik aabaadi wala yeh shahar, lagbhag 15 ki॰mee॰ lamba aur 7 ki॰mee॰ chauda hai.[5] [6]

praacheen bauddh aur jain teerthasthal vaishaali, raajageer ya raajagruh, naalanda, bodhagaya aur paavaapuri Patna shahar ke aas paas hi avasthit hain. Patna sikkhon ke liye ek atyant hi pavitra sthal hai. sikkhon ke 10vein tatha antim guru guroo gobind Singh ka janm Patna mein heen hua tha. prati varsh desh-videsh se laakhon sikkh shraddhaalu Patna mein haramandir saahab ke darshan karne aate hain tatha mattha tekate hain.

Patna evam iske aaspaas ke praacheen bhagnaavashesh/khandahar nagar ke aitihaasik gaurav ke maun gavaah hain tatha nagar ki praacheen garima ko aaj bhi pradarshit karte hain.

etihaasik aur prashaasanik mahatva ke atirikt, Patna shiksha aur chikitsa ka bhi ek pramukh kendra hai. deevaalon se ghira nagar ka puraana kshetr, jise Patna city ke naam se jaana jaata hai, ek pramukh vaanijyik kendra hai.

anukram

naam

Patna naam patanadevi (ek hindu devi) se prachalit hua hai.[7] ek anya mat ke anusaar yeh naam sanskrut ke pattan se aaya hai jiska arth bandaragaah hota hai. mauryakaal ke yoonaani itihaasakaar megaasthanij ne is shahar ko paalibothara tatha cheeneeyaatri faahiyaan ne paalinfoo ke naam se sambodhit kiya hai. yeh aitihaasik nagar pichhli do sahastraabdiyon mein kai naam pa chuka hai - paataligraam, paataliputr, pushpapur, kusumapur, ajeemaabaad aur Patna. aisa samjha jaata hai ki vartamaan naam sherashaah soori ke samay se prachalit hua.

itihaas

mukhya lekh: Patna ka itihaas[8] [9]

praacheen Patna (poorvanaam- paataligraam ya paataliputr) son aur ganga nadi ke sangam par sthit tha. son nadi aaj se do hajaar varsh poorv agamakuainaa se aage ganga me milti thi. paataligraam me gulaab (paatali ka fool) kaafi maatra mein upajaaya jaata tha. gulaab ke fool se tarah-tarah ke itr, dava aadi banaakar unka vyaapaar kiya jaata tha isliye iska naam paataligraam ho gaya. lokakathaaon ke anusaar, raaja patrak ko Patna ka janak kaha jaata hai. usane apni raani paatali ke liye jaadoo se is nagar ka nirmaan kiya. isi kaaran nagar ka naam paataligraam pada. paataliputr naam bhi isi ke kaaran pada. sanskrut mein putr ka arth beta tatha gram ka arth gaanv hota hai.

puraataatvik anusandhaano ke anusaar Patna ka likhit itihaas 490 isa poorv se hota hai jab haryak vansh ke mahaan shaasak ajaatashatru ne apni rajdhani raajagruh ya raajageer se badalkar yahaaain sthaapit ki. yeh sthaan vaishaali ke lichhaviyon se sangharsh mein upayukt hone ke kaaran raajagruh ki apeksha saamarik drushti se adhik mahatvapoorn tha kyonki yeh yuddh anek maah tak chalne wala ek bhayaavah yuddh tha. usane ganga ke kinaare saamarik roop se mahatvapoorn yeh sthaan chuna aur apna durg sthaapit kar liya. us samay se is nagar ka itihaas lagaataar badalta raha hai. 2500 varshon se adhik puraana shahar hone ka gaurav duniya ke bahut kam nagaron ko haasil hai. bauddh dharm ke pravartak Gautam buddh apne antim dinon mein yahaaain se hokar gujre the. unki yeh bhavishyavaani thi ki nagar ka bhavishya ujjaval hoga, baadh ya aag ke kaaran nagar ko khatra bana rahega. aage chal kar ke mahaan nand shaasakon ke kaal mein iska aur bhi vikaas hua evam unke baad aane vaale shaasakon yathamaurya saamraajya ke utkarsh ke baad paataliputr bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein satta ka kendra ban gaya. chandragupt maurya ka saamraajya Bengal ki khaadi se afgaanistaan tak fail gaya tha. maurya kaal ke aarambh mein paataliputr ke adhikaansh raajamahal lakadiyon se bane the, par samraat ashok ne nagar ko shilaaon ki sanrachana mein tabdeel kiya. cheen ke faahiyaan ne, jo ki san 399-414 tak Bhaarat yaatra par tha, apne yaatra-vrutaant mein yahaaain ke shail sanrachanaaon ka jeevant varnan kiya hai. megaasthaneej, jo ki ek yoonaani itihaasakaar aur chandragupt maurya ke darbaar mein yoonaani shaasak silyookas ke ek raajadoot ke naate aaya tha, ne paataliputr nagar ka pratham likhit vivran diya hai usane apni pustak me is shahar ke vishay me evam yahaan ke logon ke baare me bhi vishd vivran diya hai jo aaj bhi bhaarateeya itihaas ke chhaatron ke liye sandarbh ke roop me kaam aata hai. sheegra hi paataleeputr gyaan ka bhi ek kendra ban gaya. baad mein, gyaan ki khoj mein kai cheeni yaatri yahaaain aae aur unhone bhi yahaan ke baare mein apne yaatra-vrutaanton mein bahut kuchh likha hai. mauryon ke pashchaat kanv evam shungo saheet anek shaasak aaye lekin is nagar ka mahatva kam nahi hua.

iske pashchaat nagar par gupt vansh sahit kai raajavanshon ka raaj raha. in raajaaon ne yaheen se bhaarateeya upamahaadveep par shaasan kiya. gupt vansh ke shaasanakaal ko praacheen Bhaarat ka svarn yug kaha jaata hai. par lagaataar hone vaale huno ke aakraman evam gupt saamraajya ke patan ke baad is nagar ko vah gaurav naheen mil paaya jo ek samay maurya vansh ya gupt vansh ke samay praapt tha.

gupt saamraajya ke patan ke baad Patna ka bhavishya kaafi anishchit raha. 12 veen sadi mein bakhtiyaar khilji ne Bihar par apna adhiptya jama liya aur kai aadhyaatmik pratishthaanon ko dhvast kar daala. is samay ke baad Patna desh ka saanskrutik aur raajanaitik kendra naheen raha.

mugalakaal mein Delhi ke sattaadhaariyon ne apna niyantran yahaaain banaae rakha. is kaal mein sabse utkrushth samay tab aaya jab sherashaah soori ne nagar ko punarjeevit karne ki koshish ki. usane ganga ke teer par ek kila banaane ki sochi. usaka banaaya koi durg to abhi naheen hai, par afgaan shaili mein bana ek masjid abhi bhi hai.

mugal baadshah Akbar ki sena 1574 isavi mein afgaan saragana daaud Khan ko kuchalane Patna aaya. Akbar ke raajya sachiv evam aaine-akabari ke lekhak abul fjal ne is jagah ko kaagaj, patthar tatha sheeshe ka sampann audyogik kendra ke roop mein varnit kiya hai. Patna Rice ke naam se Europe mein prasiddh chaaval ke vibhinn naslon ki gunavatta ka ullekh bhi in vivranon mein milta hai. mugal baadshah aurangajeb ne apne priya pote muhammad ajeem ke anurodh par 1704 mein, shahar ka naam ajeemaabaad kar diya, par is kaalakhand mein naam ke atirikt Patna mein kuchh vishesh badlaav naheen aaya. ajeem us samay Patna ka soobedaar tha. mugal saamraajya ke patan ke saath hi Patna Bengal ke nabaabon ke shaasanaadheen ho gaya jinhonne is kshetr par bhaari kar lagaaya par ise vaanijyik kendra bane rahane ki chhoot di. 17veen shataabdi mein Patna antarraashtreeya vyaapaar ka kendra ban gaya. angrejon ne 1620 mein resham tatha kailiko ke vyaapaar ke liye yahaaain factory kholi. jald hi yeh sault Peter (poteshiym naaitret) ke vyaapaar ka kendra ban gaya jiske kaaran French aur dach log se pratispardha tej hui. baksar ke nirnaayak yuddh ke baad nagar ist India company ke adheen chala gaya aur vaanijya ka kendra bana raha.

isavi san 1912 mein Bengal vibhaajan ke baad, Patna udeesa tatha Bihar ki rajdhani bana. I ef munning ne Patna ke prashaasanik bhavanon ka nirmaan kiya. sangrahaalaya, uchch nyaayaalaya, vidhaanasabha bhavan ityaadi banaane ka shreya unheen ko jaata hai. kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki Patna ke nae bhavanon ke nirmaan mein haasil hui mahaarath Delhi ke shaasanik kshetr ke nirmaan mein bahut kaam I. san 1935 mein udeesa Bihar se alag kar ek raajya bana diya gaya. Patna raajya ki rajdhani bana raha.

bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam mein nagar ne apni mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. neel ki kheti ke liye 1917 mein champaaran aandolan tatha 1942 ka Bhaarat chhodo aandolan ke samay Patna ki bhoomika ullekhaneeya rahi hai. aajaadi ke baad Patna Bihar ki rajdhani bana raha. san 2000 mein Jharkhand raajya ke alag hone ke baad Patna Bihar ki rajdhani poorvavat bana raha.

bhoogol

Patna se dekhne par ganga nadi ka drushya

Patna ganga ke dakshini tat par sthit hai. ganga nadi nagar ke saath ek lambi tat rekha banaati hai. Patna ka vistaar uttar-dakshin ki apeksha poorv-pashchim mein bahut adhik hai. nagar teen or se ganga, son nadi aur punapun nadi nadiyon se ghira hai. nagar se theek uttar Hajipur ke paas gandak nadi bhi ganga mein aa milti hai. haal ke dinon mein Patna shahar ka vistaar pashchim ki or adhik hua hai aur yeh daanaapur se ja mila hai.

mahaatma Gandhi setu jo ki Patna se Hajipur ko jodne ko liye ganga nadi par uttar-dakshin ki disha mein bana ek pul hai, duniya ka sabse lamba sadak pul hai. do len vaale is prabalit kankreet pul ki lambaai 5575 meter hai.

  • samudratal se ooainchaai: 53 meter
  • taapamaan: garmi 43 °aC - 21 °aC, sardi 20 °aC - 6 °aC
  • ausat varsha : 1,200 mileemeetar

jalavaayu

Bihar ke anya bhaagon ki tarah Patna mein bhi garmi ka taapamaan uchch rahata hai. grushm ritu mein seedha sooryaatap tatha ushn tarangon ke kaaran asahya sthiti ho jaati hai. garm hava se banane waali loo ka asar shahar mein bhi maaloom padta hai. desh ke shesh maidaani bhaagon (yatha - Delhi) ki apeksha halaaainki yeh kam hota hai. chaar badi nadiyon ke sameep hone ke kaaran nagar mein aardrata saalobhar adhik rahati hai.

grushm ritu April se aarambh hokar June- July ke maheene mein charam par hoti hai. taapamaan 46 degree tak pahunch jaata hai. July ke madhya mein maunasoon ki jhadiyon se raahat pahuainchati hai aur varsha ritu ka shreeganesh hota hai. sheet ritu ka aarambh chhath parv ke baad yaani November se hota hai. February mein vasant ka aagaman hota hai tatha holi ke baad March mein iske avsaan ke saath hi ritu-chakr poora ho jaata hai.

janasaankhyiki

varsh jan.
1807-14* 3,12,000
1872 1,58,000 −49.4%
1881 1,70,684 8.0%
1901 1,34,785 −21.0%
1911 1,36,153 1.0%
1921 1,19,976 −11.9%
1931 1,59,690 33.1%
1941 1,96,415 23.0%
1951 2,83,479 44.3%
1961 3,64,594 28.6%
1971 4,75,300 30.4%
1981 8,13,963 71.3%
1991 9,56,418 17.5%
2001 13,76,950 44.0%
2011 16,83,200 22.2%
tippani: 1814 ke baad vishaal janasankhya mein giraavat, kaaran nadi janit vyaapaar, lagaataar asvaasthyakarata aur pattika ki mahaamaari.
* - anumaanit
(srot -[10])

Patna ki janasankhya varsh 2011 ki janaganana ke anusaar 16,83,200 hai, jo 2001 mein 13,76,950 thi. jabki Patna mahanagar ki janasankhya 2,046,652 hai. janasankhya ka ghanatv 1132 vyakti prati varg kilometer tatha stri puroosh anupaat hai - 882 stri prati 1,000 puroosh. saaksharata ki dar purooshon mein 87.71% tatha striyon mein 81.33% hai.[11]

Patna mein aparaadh ki dar apekshaakrut kam hai. mukhya jail beur mein hai.

Patna mein kai bhaashaaeain tatha boliyaaain boli jaati hain. hindi evam urdoo raajya ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai. angreji ka bhi prayog hota hai. magahi yahaaain ki sthaaneeya boli hai. anya bhaashaaeain, jo ki Bihar ke anya bhaagon se aae logon ki maatrubhaasha hai, mein angika, Bhojpuri, bajjika aur maithili pramukh hain. aanshik prayog mein aanevaali anya bhaashaaon mein bangaali aur udiya ka naam liya ja sakta hai.

Patna ke meman ko paatani meman kehte hai aur unki bhaasha memani bhaasha ka ek svaroop hai.

dharmon ka vitran (2001)[12]
dharm pratishat
hindu
91.8%
islaam
7.8%
isaai
0.2%
sikh
0.1%
anya log
0.1%

anya shaamil jain (0.04%) naastik (0.04%) & bauddh (0.02%)

janajeevan evam striyon ki dasha

Patna ka mukhya janajeevan ang tatha mithila pradeshon se kaafi prabhaavit hai. yeh sanskruti Bengal se milti julati hai. striyon ka parivaar mein sammaan hota hai tatha paarivaarik nirnayon mein unki baat bhi suni jaati hai. yadyapi striyaan abhi tak ghar ke kamaaoo sadasyon mein naheen hain par unki dasha uttar Bhaarat ke anya kshetron se achhi hai. bhroon hatya ki khabarein shaayad hi suni jaati hai lekin kahi kaheen striyon ka shoshan bhi hota hai. shiksha ke maamale mein striyon ki tulana mein purooshon ko tarajeeh milti hai.

sanskruti

parv-tyauhaar

deevaali, durgaapooja, holi, Eid, christmas, chhath aadi lokapriytam parvo mein se hai. chhath parv Patna hi nahi varan saare Bihar ka ek pramukh parvan hai jo ki soorya Dave ki araadhana ke liye kiya jaata hai.[13]

dashahara

mukhya lekh dekhein: Patna mein dashahara

dashahara mein saanskrutik kaaryakramon ki lambi par ksheen hoti parampara hai. is parampara ki shuruaat varsh 1944 mein madhya Patna ke govind mitra road muhalle se hui thi. dhurandhar sangeetajnyaon ke saath-saath bade kvvaal aur mukesh ya talat Mehmood jaise gaayak bhi yahaaain se judte chale gaye.

1950 se lekar 1980 tak to yahi lagta raha ki desh ke sheershasth sangeetakaaron ka teerth-sa ban gaya hai Patna. DV paluskar, omkaar naath thaakur, bheemasen Joshi, Ali Akbar Khan, nikhil Bannerjee, vinaayak Rao patavardhan, pandit jasaraaj, Kumar gandharv, beeji jog, Ahmad jaan thirkava, birjoo mahaaraaj, sitaara devi, kishn mahaaraaj, gudai mahaaraaj, bismilla Khan, hariprasaad chaurasiya, shivkumaar sharma ... badi lambi soochi hai. pandit ravishankar aur ustaad ameer Khan ko chhodkar baaki praay: sabhi naami sangeetajnya un dinon Patna ke dashahara sangeet samaarohon ki shobha ban chuke the.

60 varsh pehle Patna ke dashahara aur sangeet ka jo sambandh sootr kaayam hua tha vah 80 ke dashak mein aakar toot-bikhr gaya. usi parampara ko fir se jodne ki ek tathaakathit sarkaari koshish varsh 2006 ke dashahara ke mauke par hui lekin naakaam rahi.

Khan-paan

janta ka mukhya bhojan bhaat-daal-roti-tarakaari-achaar hai. sarason ka tel paaramparik roop se khaana taiyaar karne mein prayukt hota hai. khichdi, joki chaaval tatha daalon se saath kuchh masaalon ko milaakar pakaaya jaata hai, bhi bhojya vyanjanon mein kaafi lokapriya hai. khichdi, praay: shanivaar ko, dahi, paapad, ghi, achaar tatha chokha ke saath-saath parosa jaata hai. Bihar ke khaadya padaarthon me litti evam baingan evam tamaatar va aaloo ke saath mila kar banaaya gaya chokha bahut hi pramukh hai. vibhinn prakaar ke sattooon ka prayog is sthaan ki visheshta hai.

Patna ko kendreeya Bihar ke mishthaannon tatha meethe pakavaanon ke liye bhi jaana jaata hai. inmein khaaja, maave ka laddoo,moteechoor ke laddoo, kaala jaamun, kesariya peda, paraval ki mithaai, khubi ki laai aur chana marki evam thekuaa aadi ka naam liya ja sakta hai. in pakavaano ka mool inke sambandhit shahar hain jo ki Patna ke nikat hain, jaise ki silaav ka khaaja, baadh ka maave ka laai,maner ka laddoo, vikram ka kaala jaamun, gaya ka kesariya peda, bakhtiyaarapur ka khubi ki laai (???) ka chana marki, bihiya ki poori ityaadi ullekhaneeya hai. halavaaiyon ke vanshaj, Patna ke nagareeya kshetr mein badi sankhya mein bas gaye is kaaran se yahaan nagar mein hi achhe pakavaan tatha mithaaiyaan upalabdh ho jaate hain. bangaali mithaaiyon se, joki praay: chaashni mein doobe rahate hain, bhinn yahaan ke pakavaan praay: sookhe rahate hain.

iske atirikt in pakavaanon ka prachalan bhi kaafi hai -

  • puaa, - maida, doodh, ghi, cheeni madhu ityaadi se banaaya jaata hai.
  • piththa - chaaval ke choorn ko pise hue chane ke saath ya khove ke saath taiyaar kiya jaata hai.
  • tilkut - jise bauddh granthon mein palaala naam se varnit kiya gaya hai, til tatha cheeni gud banaaya jaata hai.
  • chivda ya chyoora' - chaaval ko koot kar ya daba kar patale tatha chauda kar banaaya jaata hai. ise praay: dahi ya anya chaajo ke saath hi parosa jaata hai.
  • makhaana - (paani mein ugane waali fali) iski kheer kaafi pasand ki jaati hai.
  • sattoo - bhoone hue chane ko peesane se taiyaar kiya gaya sattoo, dinbhar ki thakaan ko sahane ke liye subah mein kai logon dvaara prayog kiya jaata hai. isko roti ke andar bhar kar bhi prayog kiya jaata hai jise sthaaneeya log makuni roti kehte hain.
  • litti-chokha - litti jo aante ke andar sattoo tatha masaale daalkar aag par seinkane se banta hai, ko chokhe ke saath parosa jaata hai. chokha ubale aaloo ya baingan ko goonthane se taiyaar hota hai.

aamish vyanjan bhi lokapriya hain. machhali kaafi lokapriya hai aur mugl vyanjan bhi Patna mein dekhe ja sakte hain. abhi haal mein kauntinental khaane bhi logon dvaara pasand kiye ja rahe hain. kai tarah ke rol, joki New York mein bhi upalabdh hain, ka mool Patna hi hai. vibhaajan ke dauraan kai muslim parivaar Pakistan chale gaye aur baad mein America. apne saath -saath vo yahaan ki sanskruti bhi le gaye. ve kai shaakaahaari tatha aamish rolon rol-bihaari naam se, New York mein bechate hain. is sthaan ke log khaanapaan ke vishay me apne bade dil ke kaaran mashahoor hain.

yaataayaat

sadak parivhan raashtreeya raajamaarg sankhya 31 tatha 19 nagar se hokar gujarata hai. raajya ki rajdhani hone se Patna Bihar ke sabhi pramukh shaharon se sadak maarg dvaara juda hai. Bihar ke sabhi jila mukhyaalaya tatha Jharkhand ke kuchh shaharon ke liye niyamit bas-seva yahaaain se upalabdh hai. ganga nadi par bane mahaatma Gandhi setu ke dvaara Patna Hajipur se juda hai.

rel parivhan

Patna relve station.

bhaarateeya rel ke nakshe par Patna ek mahatvapoorn jankshan hai. bhaarateeya rel dvaara raashtreeya rajdhani Delhi ke atirikt yahaaain se mumbai, chennai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Jammu, amrutasar, Guwahati tatha anya mahatvapoorn shaharon ke liye seedhi trainein upalabdh hai. Patna desh ke anya sabhi mahatvapoorn shaharon se relamaarg dvaara juda hai. Patna se jaane vaale railway maarg hain- Patna-mokaama, Patna-mugalasaraaya' tatha Patna-gaya. yeh poorv railway ke Delhi-haavada mukhya maarg par sthit hai.

havaai parivhan Patna ke antararaashtreeya havaai patti ka naam lokanaayak jayaprakaash Narayan havaai adda hai aur yeh nagar ke pashchimi bhaag mein sthit hai. bhaarateeya vimaanapattan praadhikran dvaara sanchaalit lokanaayak jayaprakaash havaaikshetr, Patna (IATA code- PAT) antardesheeya tatha seemit antarraashtreeya udaanon ke liye bana hai. air india, jetaeyar, spaaisajet tatha indigo ki udaanein Delhi, Ranchi, Calcutta, mumbai tatha kuchh anya nagaron ke liye niyamit rup se upalabdh hai.

jal parivhan Patna shahar 1680 kilometer lambe Allahabad-haldiya raashtreeya jalamaarg sankhya-1 par sthit hai. ganga nadi ka prayog naagrik yaataayaat ke liye haal tak kiya jaata tha par iske upar pul ban jaane ke kaaran iska mahatva ab bhaaravahan ke liye seemit rah gaya hai. desh ka ekamaatr raashtreeya antardesheeya naukaayan sansthaan Patna ke gaayaghaat mein sthit hai.

sthaaneeya parivhan - Patna shahar ka saarvajanik yaataayaat mukhyat: city bason, autorickshaw aur cycle riksha par aashrit hai. lagbhag 30 kilometer lambe aur 5 kilometer chaude raajya ki rajdhani ke yaataayaat ki jruratein mukhyaroop se autorickshaw (jise tempo bhi kaha jaata hai) hi poora karti hain. sthaaneeya bhraman hetu taxi seva upalabdh hai, jo niji maalikon dvaara sanchaalit manhaga saadhan hai. nagar bas seva kuchh ilaako ke liye upalabdh hai par unki seva aur samayasaarani bharose ke laayak naheen hai. nagar ka mukhya maarg ashok raajapath tempo, cycle-riksha tatha niji dopahiya aur chaupahiya vaahanon ke kaaran hamesha jaam ka shikaar rahata hai.

aarthik sthiti

praacheen kaal mein vyaapaar ka kendra rahe is shahar mein ab niryaat karne laayak kam upaadaan hi bante hain, hanlaanki Bihar ke anya hisson mein Patna ke poorvi puraane bhaag (Patna city) nirmit maal ki maang hone ke kaaran kuchh udyog dhandhe fal fool rahe hain. vaastav me british kaal me is kshetr me panapane vaale paaramparik udyogon ka hraas ho gaya evam is pradesh ko sarkaar ke dvaara anumanya fasal hi ugaani padti thi iska bahut hi pratikool prabhaav is pradesh ki arthavyavastha par pada| aage chal kar ke is pradesh me hone vaale anek vidrohon ke kaaran bhi is pradesh ki taraf se sarkaari dhyaan hatata gaya evam is prakaar yeh kshetr atyant hi pichhdta chala gaya. aage chal kar ke svatantrata sangraam ke samay hone vaale kisaan aandolan ne naksal aandolan ka roop le liya evam is prakaar yeh bhi is pradesh ki audyogik vikaas ke liye ghaatak ho gaya evam aage chal kar ke yuvaaon ka palaayan aarambh ho gaya.

darshaneeya sthal

  • agam kuaaain – maurya vansh ke shaasak samraat ashok ke kaal ka ek kuaaain gulajaarabaag station ke paas sthit hai. paas hi sthit ek mandir sthaaneeya logon ke shaadi-vivaah ka mahtvapoorn sthal hai.
  • kumrahaar - chandragupt maurya, bindusaar tatha ashok kaaleen paataliputr ke bhagnaavashesh ko dekhne ke liye yeh sabse achhi jagah hai. kumrahaar parisar bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan vibhaag dvaara sanrakshit tatha sanchaalit hai aur somvaar ko chhod saptaah ke har din 10 baje se 5 baje tak khula rahata hai.
  • begoo hajjaam ki masjid san 1489 mein Bengal ke shaasak alaauddeen shaah dvaara nirmit
  • 'patthar ki masjid - jahaaaingeer ke putr shaah paravej dvaara 1621 mein nirmit yeh chhoti si masjid ashok raajapath par sulataanaganj mein sthit hai.
  • sherashaah ki masjid Afghan shaili mein bani yeh masjid Bihar ke mahaan shaasak sherashaah soori dvaara 1540-1545 ke beech banvaai gayi thi. Patna mein bani yeh sabse badi masjid hai.
  • paadari ki haveli - san 1772 mein nirmit Bihar ka praacheenatam church Bengal ke navaab meer kaasim tatha britis East India company ke beech ki kadvaahaton ka gavaah hai..
  • khudaabakhsh laaibreri ashok raajapath par sthit yeh raashtreeya pustakaalaya 1891 mein sthaapit hua tha. yahaaain kuchh atidurlabh mugal kaaleen paandulapiyaan hain.
  • kila house (jaalaan house) deevaan bahaadur raadhaakrushn jaalaan dvaara sherashaah ke kile ke avashesh par nirmit is bhavan mein heere javaaharaat tatha cheeni vastuon ka ek niji sangrahaalaya hai.
haramandir saaheb, Patna city
  • takht shreeharamandir Patna sikhon ke dasamein aur antim guru govind Singh ki janmasthali hai. navam guru shri tegabahaadur ke Patna mein rahane ke dauraan guru govindasinh ne apne bachapan ke kuchh varsh Patna city mein bitaae the. baalak govindaraaya ke bachapan ka pangura (paalana), lohe ke chaar teer, talavaar, paaduka tatha 'hukumanaama' yahaaain gurudvaare mein surakshit hai. yeh sthal sikkhon ke liye ati pavitra hai.
  • mahaaveer mandir sankatamochan raamabhakt hanumaan mandir Patna jankshan ke theek baahar bana hai. new maarkit mein bane masjid ke saath khada yeh mandir hindu-muslim ekta ka prateek hai.
  • Gandhi maidaan vartamaan shahar ke madhyabhaag mein sthit yeh vishaal maidaan Patna ka dil hai. janasabhaaon, sammelanon tatha raajaneetik railiyon ke atirikt yeh maidaan pustak mela tatha dainik vyaayaam ka bhi kendra hai. iske chaaron or ati mahatvapoorn sarkaari imaaratein aur prashaasanik tatha manoranjan kendra bane hain.
  • golaghar 1770 isvi mein is kshetr mein aae bhayankar akaal ke baad anaaj bhandaaran ke liye banaaya gaya yeh golaakaar imaarat apni khaas aakruti ke liye prasiddh hai. 1786 isvi mein John gaarstin dvaara nirmaan ke baad se golagha‍aar Patna shahar k prateek chinh ban gaya. do taraf bani seedhiyon se oopar jaakar paas hi bahanevaali ganga aur iske parivesh ka shaanadaar avlokan sambhav hai.
vidhaan sabha
  • gaaaindhi sangrahaalaya golaghar ke saamane bani baaainkeepur baalika uchch vidyaalaya ke bagal mein mahaatma gaaaindhi ki smrutiyon se judi cheejon ka naayaab sangrah dekha ja sakta hai. haal mein isi parisar mein navasthaapit chaanakya vidhi vishvavidyaalaya ka adhyayan kendra bhi avlokan yogya hai.
  • shreekrushn vigyaan kendra gaaaindhi maidaan ke pashchim bhaag mein bana vigyaan parisar schooli shiksha mein lage baalakon ke liye jnyaaanavardhak kendra hai.
  • Patna sangrahaalaya jaadooghar ke naam se bhi jaanevaale is myoojiym mein praacheen Patna ke hindu tatha bauddh dharm ki kai nishaaniyaan hain. lagbhag 30 karod varsh puraane ped ke tane ka fausil yahaaain ka vishesh dharohar hai.
  • taaraaghar sangrahaalaya ke paas bana indira gaaaindhi vigyaan parisar mein bana taaraaghar desh mein vruhattam hai.
  • sanjaya Gandhi jaivik udyaan - raajyapaal ke sarkaari nivaas Rajbhavan ke peechhe sthit jaivik udyaan shahar ka fefada hai. vijnyaaanapremiyon ke liye ‌ayah jantu tatha vaanaspatik gaveshana ka kendra hai. vyaayaam karanevaalon tatha piknik ke liye yah pasandeeda sthal hai.
mahaaveer mandir se Patna shahar ka drushya
    • darabhanga house ise navalakha bhavan bhi kehte hain. iska nirmaan darabhanga ke mahaaraaj kaameshvar Singh ne karavaaya tha. ganga ke tat par avasthit is praasaad mein Patna vishvavidyaalaya ke snaatakottar vibhaagon ka kaaryaalaya hai. iske parisar mein ek kaali mandir bhi hai jahaan raaja khud archana kiya karte the.

Patna ke aaspaas

shiksha

anugrah Narayan siainh kaalej Patna ka naami kaalej hai. isne shiksha ke kshetr meain Bihar ka naam videshoain tak mashahur kiya. yeh lekh bhi dekhein - khudaabaksh laaibreri saath aur sattar ke dashak mein apne gauravapoorn shaikshanik dinon ke baad schooli shiksha hi ab star ki hai. praay: Bihar board tatha seebeeesai ke school hain. haal mein hi Bihar college of injeeniyring koenaaaiti ka darja mila hai. Patna university, magadh vishvavidyaalaya tatha naalanda open university ve teen vishvavidyaalaya hai jinke shikshan sansthaan nagar mein sthit hai.

haal hi mein Patna mein prabandhan, soochana takaneek, janasanchaar evam vaanijya ki padhaai hetu kaitalist prabandhan evam aadhunik vaishvik utkrushtata sansthaan arthaat simej college ki sthaapana ki gayi hai, jo uchch shiksha ke kshetr mein nit nae maanadand sthaapit kar raha hai.


sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain