O. henari

William Sydney porter
William Sydney Porter.jpg
O henari
janm: 11 September, 1862
greensabaro, uttar kerolaaina, America
mrutyu: 5 June, 1910
New York, America
kaaryakshetr: saahityakaar
raashtreeyata: Amreeki
bhaasha: angreji

O. henari ya William Sydney porter (angreji: William Sydney Porter) (11 September, 1862–5 June, 1910) prasiddh American lekhak the. unka janm 11 September, 1862 ke din greensabaro, uttar kerolaaina mein hua aur mratyu 5 June, 1910 ko new yaark mein. pichhle varshon mein vah apna beech ka naam 'Sydney' hi likha karte the.

anukram

jeevan

solah varsh ki umr mein unhone school chhod diya, par unki padhne-likhne ki aaturata naheen chhooti. bachapan mein unhone greensabaro ki ek davaaiyon ki dukaan mein kaam kiya tha, jahaan ab tak usaki jayanti manaayi jaati hai. unnees varsh ki avastha mein vah apna svaasthya sudhaarane ke liye Texas pradesh ke gocharon mein rahane chala gaya. vahaan usane ghudsavaari seekh li aur jangali, adiyl ghodo ko bhi vash mein karne laga. fir ostin mein use ek kheti-baadi ke daftar mein naukri mil gayi.

aapne aas-paas ke chitramaya jeevan ki jin vastuon ka bhi use parichay hua, ve sab ki sab usaki kahaaniyon mein chhan aayeen. yahi kaaran hai ki usaki kahaaniyaan adhiktar charaagaahon ke pradesh, madhya amareeka ya New York mein ghatit hoti hai. shahari jeevan ki kahaaniyon mein jinke liye vah prasiddh hai, jeevan ki vidmbanaaon keesveekrati hain. ve unke apne katu anubhavon ke pratibimb hain.

apne pandrah varsh ke jis Texas pravaas mein unhone vivaah kiya aur ek putri ke pita bane, usi mein khedajanak ghataanaaon ne unki umango ko dhank liya. unhe kisi bank mein not ginne ka kaam mil gaya, lekin kuchh hi dinon mein uske hisaab mein kuchh hajaarek dollar ki gadbad ka pata chalne par, vah naukri bhi chhoot gayi. ऎsa lagta hai ki uske maalik use saja dilaana naheen chaahate the, isliye vah bina rok-tok, lagbhag ek varsh tak hyustan shahar ke ek akhbaar mein kaam karta raha. tab, shaayad girftaari se bachane ke liye vah new orliyns chale gaye, jahaan se unhone toojilo aur hondooraas ka ticket kata liya. 'kebejas end kings' naamak usaki sarvapratham pustak mein varnit, saahas aur jeevat ki saari kahaaniyon ka ghatnaasthal yaheen se mila hai. apni patni ki beemaari ne unhe vaapis ostin bula liya. unke lautate hi vah mar gayi. tab khayaanat ke aparaadh mein unapar mukadama chala aur saja ho gayi.

upanaam ki khoj

William porter, teen varsh aur teen maheenon tak jail mein rahe. vah apni saja ko utsaahapoorvak jhelne wala ek sadaachaari kaidi the. lekin uske jeevan par is kaal ki kaali chhaaya hamesha dikhaai padti rahi. yaheen se unamein gareebon ke prati daya bhaav utpann hua aur yahi se usaki kai shreshth kahaaniyon ka janm hua, jinmein se 'hradaya parivartan' naamak kahaani ke aadhaar par khela gaya 'urf jimmi bailantaain' naamak naatak, us samay ka sarvashreshth naatak siddh hua. jail kesipaahiyon ke oran henari naamak kaptaan ne hi uske upanaam ko khoj nikaala gaya hai. porter ne socha ki hastaakshar karne ke liye 'o0 henari' hi kaafi hai. unhone jab likhna shuroo kiya to sampaadakon se apna naam gupt rakhane ki bhi praarthana ki.

likhne ka andaaj

New York mein o0 henari, maidisn chauk aur iraving plais ke muhallon ke kamron mein rahate aur apni kahaaniyon se paisa kama-kama kar kiraaya chukaane ke liye bheeshan sangharsh karte rahate. raabart echa0 Davis, baartalet maaris, iravin esa0 kaab aadi mitron ne aur doosare kai likhkon aur sampaadakon ne unke kamron ka varnan kiya hai. ve ek baahar vaale kamre mein rahata the. jiski khidkiyaan frsh tak faili hui theen,. yahaan baithakar vah raahageeron ki or ghoorate rahate aur unke ird-gird jeevat ke jaal bunate rahate. unahone aashaavaadi, ekaanki saamaanya vyaktiyon ko apni kahaaniyon ke paatr banaana shuroo kiya. un ladkiyon ki kalpana ki, jo dhandha aur pyaar paane ke liye, shaharon mein bhatakne aati hain; ve yuvak, jo doosaron se adhik laabh khojate hain aur ve sharaabi tatha ayogya aadmi, jo durbhaagya ko bhi ahankaar se jhelate hain tatha kabhi-kabhi kahaaniyon ke paatron ki tarah bhaavukata pradarshit karte hain, uske kathaanaayak bane.

yadi kathaavastu dukhaant hui to o0 henari usamein sthaaneeya boliyon ka namak-mirch laga deta. uske liye koi ghatna itni neeras naheen thi ki jismein vah chamak na paida kar sake. theek isi jagah aakar usane us charam bindu ya mod ka aavishkaar kiya, jisse usaki anek kahaaniyon ka ant apratyaashit banane laga. "saja hua kamara,""chhat par ka kamara" aur "vaasanti menoo" jaisi chhoti kahaaniyon mein to yeh spasht hai hi, kuchh badi kahaaniyon mein bhi is tatv ke darshan hote hain. amareeka ke shrotaao me, puraane jamaane ke aag ke chaaro or baithakar kahaaniyaan sunane ke yug se, is prakaar ke kisson ke prati vishesh lagaav raha hai. o0 henari ki kahaaniyaan inheen paramparaagat kathaaon ki vistrat pratikratiyaan maaloom deti hai. kathaanak ke to vah jaadoogar the aur ऎsi-ऎsi kalpanaaramya paristhitiyaan nirmaan karanein mein vah siddhahast the, jahaan uske paatr jeevan jeete naheen balki usase khilvaad karte prateet hote hai. paathako ka manoranjan karna usaka dhyeya tha aur unki kautoohalavratti ko jagaate rakhane ke liye, unahone apanepaatron se tarah-tarah ke tamaashe karavaaye hain. ve romance ke bhookhe, bure vakt ka himmat se mukaabala karne vaale, kuleenata ka dhong karne vaale aur aadhunik 'alif-laila' ki rangeen duniya mein vichrane vaale chitrit kiye gaye hain.

manushya ka sarvasparshi aur saagopaang vishleshan unhone shaayad hi kaheen kiya ho. unhone to manushya ka, aadhunik shahari jeevan ke bhanvar me fse hue, asahaaya vyakti ke roop me hi, darshan karaaya. 'sneh deep' kahaani ki naansi ko sirf ek dukaan mein kaam karne ke kaaran, ek dukaanadaar ladki maanane se vah inkaar kar deta hai aur kehta hai," ऎsi koi kism naheen hoti. aaj ke bhrasht samaaj ko kism khojane ki aadat pad gayi hai." usane manushya ko itna gira hua shaayad heechitrit kiya ho ki vah apni kamjoriyon ke liye sharminda bhi na ho. usaki sab kahaaniyon ke neeche sahradayata aur sahaanubhuti ki antardhaara bah rahi hai. jeevanamein bhoole-bhatake ya pichhde hue har badanaseeb ko vah manushyata ke vyaapak kutumb mein sthaan dene ko sada tatpar raha. kabhi-kabhi ve usaka manoranjan karte hain, kabheeapane jeevan ki vidmbanaaon se use dukhi kar dete hai aur kabhi vah bhaavuk bhi ho uthata ahi parantu har haalat mein, vah bhaagya ki har chhedchhaad ko sveekaar kar letehai aur uske khalanaayak bhi haasyaaspad hi ho paate hain- dusht naheen.

o0 henari ki kala, usaki doosari kitaab 'the for million' mein nikhr uthi, jisse use kaafi lokapriyta bhi mili. pratham baar prakaashit hone ke chaalees varsh baad, usaki 'upahaar' naamak kahaani ka chalachitr bana. usaki anya kahaaniyon ke kai sankalan prakaashit hue jaise 'sneh deep' (1907), 'pashchim ki aatma' (1907), 'shahar ki aavaaj' (1908),'bhaagyachakr' (1909),'vikalp' (1909),'dhandhe ki baat' (1910),' jeevan chakr' (1910). usaki mratyu ke baad teen kitaabein aur chhapeen- 'safedaposh thag', 'aavaara' aur 'bhoole-bhatake'.

kahaaniyaaain

o0henari ki kahaaniyaan uske jeevanakaal mein atyann prasiddh raheen aur yeh bhi kaha ja sakta hai ki apni rachanaaon aur apni vichaaradhaara, donon mein manushyasvabhaav ki numaaish vratti ke prati asantosh pradarshit karte hue usane hradaya ki gaharaaiyon mein utarane ki koshish ki. vah manushya ke sachche roop ko chhipaane vaale, roodhi aur vishvaas ke har parde ko cheer kar satya ke darshan karaana chaahate the. vah kaha karte the ki satya ki sachchi anubhooti keval kathaasaahitya mein hi ho sakti hai. apne niji anubhav se is nishkarsh par pahunch kar, o0 henari ne vidvaanon ke is vishvaas ko fir se sthaapit kar diya ki ऎtihaasik tathya ki apeksha, kalpana hi saundarya ka adhik prabhaavashaali aavishkaar karti hai.

peshevar kahaaneekaaron dvaara bhi kahaani-kala mein parivartan kiya ja raha tha. manushya ke bartaav ko prabhaavit karne vaale har hetu ke mool, maanasik aur shaareerik kamiyon mein dhundhe jaane lage the aur vyakti ke jeevan par saamaajik prabhaavon ka moolyaankan kiya jaane laga tha. yadi jeevit rahata to O- henari kahaan pahunchate- yeh kehna kathin hai, par usaka yogadaan kaafi hota.

aaj o0 henari ki kahaaniyaan, uske yug ke prateek ke roop mein hi padhi jaati hai. jis prakaar bret heart ki kathaaen, pashchimi seemaapradesh ke Khan ke majadooron, juaariyon aur thekedaaron ko punarjeevit kar deti hain, usi prakaar o0 henari ki kahaaniyaan san 1900 ke aas-paas ki duniya khadi kar deti hai. jab usane ghudsavaaron ka majaak udaaya, tab Spain ki ladaai ke ghudsavaaron ki yaad jaata thi.

amareekanon ko madhya amareeka ke chhote-chhote raajya, utane hi vichitr lagte hain, jitna ki usaki kahaani mein varnit achchooriya! svabhaav se vah sankochi aur mitbhaashi tha. apne kuchh ghanisht mitron- jo mukhyat: akhbaaron ke sampaadak the- ki sohabat aur jara si sharaab use priya thi. use hamesha samay ki kami rahati thi, kyonki usaki kahaaniyaan atyant chhoti hoti thi aur unke badalein mein use jo kuchh milta, turant samaapt ho jaata tha. sampaadakon ki nirntar maang ke neeche vah pista raha. uske liye jeevan ek ast-vyast vyaapaar tha, jismein puraskaar milne ka dhang bada sanaki hai. fir bhi usane, is vyavahaar hi har ghoop-chhaanv ka svaagat muskaara kar kiya. usaki kahaaniyon mein bhaagya aur sanyog, mahatvapoorn part ada karte hai. du:kh aur peeda bhi paryaapt maatra mein hai, parantu kadvaahat kaheen naheen ghusne paayi hai. 47 varsh ki chhoti-si aayu mein niyti ne jab usaki ihaleela samaapt kar di, tab tak usaki sarvashreshth rachanaaen to shaayad likhi naheen gayeen thi, parantu usane jo kuchh bhi likha, usaki kathaasaahitya par amit chhaap rahegi aur usaki kuchh kahaaniyaan to amar rahegi.

baahari kadiyaaain

yeh bhi dekhe

  • aakhiri patti (kahaani)