Moscow

Moscow sthit red skevyar ka ek drushya

Moscow ya Moscow (roosi: Мaaоaaсaaкaaвaaаaá (moskava)), roos ki rajdhani evam Europe ka sabse bada shahar hai, Moscow ka shahari kshetr duniya ke sabse bade shahari kshetron mein gina jaata hai. Moscow roos ki raajanaitik, aarthik, dhaarmik, vitteeya evam shaikshanik gatividhiyon ka kendra maana jaata hai. yeh moskava nadi ke tat par basa hua hai. aitihaasik roop se yeh puraane soviyt sangh evam praacheen roosi saamraajya ki rajdhani bhi rahi hai. Moscow ko duniya ke arabpatiyon ka shahar bhi kaha jaata hai jahaan duniya ke sabse jyaada arabpati basate hain.[1] 2007 mein Moscow ko lagaataar doosari baar duniya ka sabse mahanga shahar bhi ghoshit kiya gaya tha.[2]

anukram

itihaas

Moscow shahar ka naam moskava nadi par rakha gaya hai. 1237-38 ke aakraman ke baad, mangolon ne saara shahar jala diya aur logon ko maar diya. Moscow ne dubaara vikaas kiya aur 1327 mein vlaadimeer - sujdaal riyaasat ki rajdhani banaai gayi. volga nadi ke shuroovaat par sthit hone ke kaaran yeh shahar anukool tha aur is kaaran dheere dheere shahar bada hone laga. Moscow ek shaant aur sampann riyaasat ban gaya aur saare roos se log aakar yahaaain basane lage.

1654-56 ke pleg ne Moscow ki aadhi aabaadi ko khatm kar diya. 1703 mein baaltik tat par Peter mahaan dvaara saint peetarsabarg ke nirmaan ke baad, 1712 se Moscow roos ki rajdhani naheen rahi. 1771 ka pleg madhya roos ka aakhiri bada pleg tha, jisme keval Moscow ke hi 100000 vyaktiyon ki jaan gayi. 1905 mein, alekjeindar adrinov Moscow ke pehle mahaapaur bane. 1917 ke rusi kraanti ke pashchaat, Moscow ko soviyt sangh ki rajdhani banaaya gaya. May 8,1965 ko, naaji Germany par vijay ki 20veen varshagaanth ke avsar par Moscow ko hero city ki upaadhi pradaan ki gayi.

arthavyavastha

Moscow Europe ki sabse badi shahari arthavyavasthaaon mein se ek hai | yeh roos ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ka kareeb 24% yogadaan karta hai | 2008 mein Moscow ki arthavyavastha 8.44 triliyn roobal thi | Moscow mein ausat maasik vetan 41600 roobal hai | 2010 mein, Moscow mein berojgaari dar sirf 1% thi, jo roos ke sabhi prashaasanik kshetron mein sabse kam hai | Moscow roos ka nirvivaadit roop se mukhya aarthik kendra hai | yahaaain roos ke sabse bade bank aur companiyaan sthit hain jinme roos ki sabse badi company gejprom bhi shaamil hai | Moscow ki roos ki khudara bikri mein 17% evam sabhi nirmaan gatividhiyon mein 13% hissedaari hai | cherkijovsaki baajaar, 3 karod dollar ki dainik bikri evam das hajaar vikretaaon ke saath Europe ka sabse bada baajaar hai | yeh baajaar prashaasanik roop se 12 bhaagon mein banta hai aur shahar ke ek bade bhoobhaag par sthit hai |2008 mein, Moscow mein 74 arabpati the aur yeh nyooyork, 71 arabpati, se ooainche paayadaan par hai |

shiksha

dekhein, Moscow raajya vishvavidyaalaya

Moscow mein 1696 uchchatar vidyaalaya evam 91 mahaavidyaalaya hain | inke alaava, 222 anya sansthaan bhi uchch shiksha upalabdh karaatein hain, jinme 60 pradesh vishvavidyaalaya evam 1755 mein sthaapit lomonosov Moscow state vishvavidyaalaya bhi shaamil hain | vishvavidyaalaya mein 29 sankaaya evam 450 vibhaag hain jinme 30000 poorvasnaatak evam 7000 snaatakottar chhaatr padhate hain | saath hi vishvavidyaalaya mein, uchchatar vidyaalaya ke kareeb 10000 vidyaarthi shiksha grahan karte hain evam kareeb 2000 shodhaarthi kaarya karte hain | Moscow state vishvavidyaalaya pustakaalaya, roos ke sabse bade pustakaalayon mein se ek hai, yahaaain lagbhag 90 lakh pustakein hain |

shahar mein 452 pustakaalaya hain, jinme se 168 bachchon ke liye hain | 1862 mein sthaapit rusi state pustakaalaya, roos ka raashtreeya pustakaalaya hai |

sthaapatya

Moscow ka sthaapatya vishv prasiddh hai | Moscow seint besil kethedral, kraaist the seviyr kethedral aur seven sistars ke liye prasiddh hai | lambe samay tak Moscow par roodhivaadi charchon ka prabhaav raha | haalaaainki, shahar ke samagr roop mein soviyt kaal se bhaari parivartan hua hai, khaaskar Joseph staalin ke shahar ke aadhunikeekaran ke bade paimaane par kiye prayaas ke kaaran yeh parivartan hua | staalin ki shahar ke liye yojana mein chaude raaston aur sadakon ka jaal shaamil tha jinme kai sadkein 10 len tak chaudi theen | isse shahar ka yaataayaat sugam ho gaya, par iske liye bahut saari etihaasik imaaraton ko hataana pada |

staalinvaadi avadhi ka sabse prasiddh yogadaan seven sistars (saat bahanein) maana ja sakta hai | seven sistars saat gaganachumbi imaaratein hain, jo kremalin se samaan doori par shahar bhar mein faili huin hain | saat taavaron ko shahar ke sabhi ooainche sthaanon se dekha ja sakta hai | ostaankiyo tauvar ke alaava ye saat tauvar madhya Moscow ki sabse oonchi imaaraton mein se hain | ostaankiyo tauvar ka nirmaan 1967 mein poora hua tha, us samay yeh duniya ki sabse ooainchi mukt khadi bhoomi sanrachana thi | aaj burj khaleefa dubai, keintoon tauvar gvaangajhoo aur si.N. tauvar toronto ke baad chauthe sthaan par hai |

har naagrik aur uske parivaar ko anivaarya aavaas upalabdh karaane ki soviyt neeti evam Moscow ki aabaadi ke teji se vikaas ke kaaran, vishaal evam neeras aavaaseeya parisaron ka nirmaan kiya gaya | in parisaron ko inki shaili, aayu, majabooti evam nirmaan saamagri ke aadhaar par vibhedit kiya ja sakta hai | iname se adhiktar ka nirmaan staalin yug ke pashchaat hua aur inki nirmaan shailiyaaain netaaon (brejhenev, khrushchev ityaadi) ke naam se jaani jaati hain | aamtaur par in parisaron ka rakharakhaav kharaab hai |

janasaankhyiki

Moscow ki janasankhya ki utkraanti : samay - 1400 se 1856
1400 1638 1710 1725 1738 1775 1785 1811 1813 1825 1840 1856
40,000 200,000 160,000 145,000 138,000 161,000 188,700 270,200 215,000 241,500 349,100 368,800
Moscow ki janasankhya ki utkraanti : samay - 1868 se 2002
1868 1871 1888 1897 1912 1920 1926 1939 1959 1979 1989 2002
416,400 601,969 753,459 1,038,600 1,617,157 1,027,300 2,101,200 2,609,200 6,133,100 8,142,200 8,972,300 10,383,000

baahari kadiyaaain

aadhikaarik jaalasthal

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sandarbh

  1. "Moscow bikms varlds biliynaayar kaipitl - Forbes". RIA Novsoti. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20080306/100793187.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-5.
  2. Sahadi, Jeanne, Moscow remains the world's most expensive city while London moves up from fifth to second place. CNNMoney.com