Michelle fooko

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Michelle fooko

Michelle fooko (Michel Foucault ; 15 October 1926 - 25 June 1984) France ke pramukh vichaarak aur daarshanik the. fooko ki ginti 20 veen sadi ke sabse pramukh vichaarakon mein se ki jaati hain. yeh fooko ke lekhon ka hi prabhaav tha ki aadhunik vigyaan ke bahut se kshetron mein aur khaaskar itihaas lekhan ke kshetr mein kraantikaari parivartan huye.

Michelle fooko ki raajya ki avadhaarana

raajya ki sanstha logon se kaise apni baat manavaati hai— is samajh mein sabse taaja aur vichaarottejak vikaas Michelle fooko ne kiya hai. pooainjeepati varg raajya mein apni saamaajik satta keval hinsa ke upakaranon (sena, police aadi) ke dvaara hi sthaapit naheen karta. vah tarah-tarah ke saanskrutik roopon ka istemaal karke bhi apni saamaajik satta ki nirantarata sunishchit karta hai. isliye raajya ki sanrachanaaon ko unke saanskrutik roopon mein samajhna bhi aavashyak hai. antat: raajya ke paksh mein sahamati paida karne ki jimmedaari ye saanskrutik sanrachanaaeain hi nibhaati hain.

fooko bataate hain ki aadhunik samaaj mein logon ko niyantrit ya anushaasit karne ke liye nigraani ki ek bahustareeya vyavastha ke alaava doosaron dvaara kiye gaye nirnayon ko aatmasaat karne tatha pareeksha pranaali jaise upaaya apnaaye jaate hain. fooko jor dekar kehte hain ki logon par drushti rakhane maatr se satta ka aadha kaam poora ho jaata hai. iske liye ve stadium ki vyavastha ka havaala dete hain jismein seaton ki vyavastha is tarah ki jaati hai ki darshak kisi kaaryakram ko aasaani se dekh paayein par saath hi yeh vyavastha satta ke niyantrakon ko darshakon par nigaah rakhane ki sahooliyt bhi pradaan karti hai. yahaaain fooko anushaasan aur niyantran ki satta ka model chihnit karne ke liye raajaneetik chintak jeremi baintham dvaara kalpit jail panoptikaun ka ullekh bhi karte hain. jiski mool vaastu-yojana kuchh aisi thi ki kothariyon mein band kaidi ek doosare ke liye to adrushya rahein lekin jail ke keindreeya tauvar ki nigraani se baahar na ho paayein. kaidiyon ko kabhi is baat ka pata naheen chalta ki un par nigaah rakhi ja rahi hai ya naheen par unke mastishk mein yeh baat baith jaati hai ki koi un par drushti rakhata hai. fooko painauptikn ke siddhaant ko ek aise roopak ki tarah dekhte hain jo jail ki chauhaddi ke paar jaakar schoolon, kaarkhaanon aur aspataalon mein anushaasan ka aam dharra ban jaata hai. haalaaainki baintham ki yeh prastaavit jail kabhi moort roop naheen le paayi lekin ek siddhaant ke roop mein vah aadhunik samaaj ki lagbhag har gatividhi par kaabijj ho gayi hai. aadhunik samaaj mein anushaasan kaayam karne waali vyavasthaaon ke liye vah ek aisa aujaar siddh hui hai jisne praak-aadhunik kaal ke raajaaon aur haakimon ko apadasth kar unki jagah khud ko sthaapit kar liya hai.

is kram mein fooko yeh bhi darshaate hain ki aadhunik satta ya anushaasan kaayam karne waali vyavastha keval logon ki gatividhiyon par hi nazar naheen rakhati balki vah logon ko unki akshamata dikhaakar bhi niyantrit karti hai. unke anusaar aadhunik satta samajh, pratibha, saamaanya aur asaamaanya vyavahaar jaisi kotiyon ka nirmaan karti hai aur jab koi vyakti iske dvaara sthaapit kasautiyon ya maanakon par khra naheen utarata to vyavastha aise vyakti ko kamtar ya asaamaanya ghoshit karne ka mauka naheen chookati. is sandarbh mein fooko yeh yaad dilaana naheen bhoolate ki aadhunik samaaj ki in anushaasanakaari sansthaaon ka yeh ravaiya kisi tarah ke pratishodh se naheen balki sudhaar se prerit hota hai. jiska antim lakshya yeh hota hai ki vyakti samaaj ki pradatt kasautiyon ya maanakon ko sveekaar kar le. dhyaan dein ki samaaj ki maanyataaon ke dvaara anushaasan kaayam karne ka yeh dhang nyaayik dand ki us vyavastha se khaasa alag hai jismein kisi vyakti ko keval is aadhaar par dandit kiya jaata tha ki usaka krutya kaanoon sammat hai ya naheen. aise kisi faisale mein yeh naheen kaha jaata tha ki vyakti saamaanya hai ya asaamaanya. lekin aadhunik samaaj shaikshik kaaryakramon, chikitsa ke taur-tareekon tatha udyog va utpaadon ke maamalon mein kuchh nishchit maanak sthaapit karne par jor deta hai aur in maanakon ka varchasv itna chautarafa hota hai ki vyakti ka vyavahaar aur vyaktitv unheen ke hisaab se dhalane lagta hai. saamaanyat: raajya ko shaasan, sangathan ya raajaneetik samudaaya ke taur par dekha jaata hai. maana jaata hai ki itihaas ke har daur mein iske vividh roop maujood rahe hain. ismein hone vaale badlaav itihaas ke pramukh vishay rahe hain. sirf aadim ghumantoo raajaneetik samudaayon ko raajya ka darja naheen diya jaata hai. maana jaata hai ki in samudaayon mein is avadhaarana ke saath- saath usase judi sunishchit vyavastha ka abhaav hota hai. asal mein raajya hone ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki samudaaya aur bhoo-kshetr ke beech takareeban sthaai sambandh ho. is saamaanya tareeke se upayog kiye jaane par yeh shabd is vichaar ko abhivyakt karta hai ki raajaneetik samudaaya ki kuchh aisi nishchit saarvabhaumik visheshataaeain hoti hain, jo samay aur sthaan (ya space) se pare hoti hain; arthaat greek polis, madhyayugeen reganam aur aadhunik ganatantron ke beech kuchh saamaanya visheshata hain. kya is gun ya visheshata ko zyaada sankuchit roop mein paribhshit kiya ja sakta hai?

yeh baat to spasht hai ki yadi raajya ki koi paribhaasha ise shaashvat aur aparivrtanasheel vastu ya sangathan ke roop mein pesh karti hai, to aisa karke vah itihaas mein badlaav aur vikaas ki prakriya ki upeksha karti hai. isliye ek vaidh paribhaasha ko doosare pahaluon aur kaaryon par dhyaan dena chaahiye. itihaas yeh dikhaata hai ki ek saarvabhaumik parightana ke roop mein raajya ek aisi gatividhi ya sangathan hai, jo manushya par aavashyakataaon ke roop mein thopi gayi hai. is tarah ki gatividhi ke roop mein iski kuchh mukhya visheshataaeain is prakaar hain : yeh manushyon aur unki sampatti ke beech mein ek nishchit sambandh banaata hai; ya doosare shabdon mein yeh manushyon ke beech ekta ya samaaj ka nirmaan karta hai. isliye raajya ka astitv vishisht taur par ek buniyaadi cheej hai. doosra, yeh manushyon ke beech vyavastha ki shakti, ya shaasan ke ek roop ya aadesh aur aajnyaa paalan ka ek sambandh sveekaar karta hai. teesara, raajya ko banaane aur kaayam rakhane waali gatividhi vishisht hoti hai, jo hamesha khud ko un logon ke khilaaf pesh karti hai, jo is samudaaya ka bhaag naheen hote hain.

baharahaal, raajya ko ek aitihaasik parightana ke roop mein dekhne ke baavajood is baat se inkaar naheen kiya ja sakta hai ki is par hone vaale lekhan mein ek daarshanik pahaloo hamesha shaamil raha hai. iske tahat prashn uthata hai ki raajya jis tarah ki vyavastha ya logon ke beech sambandh sthaapit karna chaahata hai, usaka aadarsh roop kya hai? kya vah aadarsh roop haasil kar liya gaya hai? kya shaasan ka vartamaan tareeka sahi hai? kya samudaaya ke baahari sambandhon ko sahi tareeke se sanchaalit kiya ja raha hai? asal mein, is najriye se vichaar karne par raajya sirf manushyon par thopi gayi aavashyakta ke roop mein hi saamane naheen aata hai, balki yeh manushyon ke saamane 'sahi' ke chunaav ki samasya ke roop mein bhi saamane aata hai. raajya mein sirf araajakata ki jagah ek vyavastha sthaapit karne ka hi sangharsh naheen hai. iski bajaay, yeh ek aisi vyavastha sthaapit karne ka bhi sangharsh hai, jo sachchi, praamaanik aur nyaayapoorn ho. isliye, pleto, arastoo, haubs, heegel aadi ke lekhan ko is savaal ka daarshanik uttar khojane ki koshish ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai ki raajya kaisa hona chaahiye. in vidvaanon ne raajya aur doosare tarah ke maanav- sangathanon ke beech antar karne ki koshish ki hai aur iske saath hi inhonne apne aadarsh raajya ki parikalpana aur uske paksh mein tark bhi prastut kiye hain.

saarvabhaum aitihaasik parightana ke roop mein raajya aur ek daarshanik avadhaarana ke roop mein raajya ko dekhne ke vichaar ke saath raajya ko vishesh roop se aadhunik parightana maanane ke vichaar ko bhi jodne ki aavashyakta hai. aise bahut se itihaasakaar aur raajaneetik sidghaantakaar hain, jo yeh tark dete hain ki 'raajya' shabd ka upayog yurop mein punarjaagaran aur dharm-sudhaar ke baad saamane aayi vyavastha ke liye kiya jaana chaahiye. inka yeh maanana hai ki raajya ka sidghaant daraasal isi vishisht parightana se juda hua sidghaant hai. isliye yadi iska prayog itihaas ke doosare daur mein maujood sangathanon ke liye kiya jaata hai, to isse iske arth ke baare mein bhram badhega. ek sangathit vyavastha ke roop mein raajya shabd ka udaya bhi chaudahaveen sadi ke ant aur satrahaveen sadi ke beech hua. raajya ka angreji shabd 'state' laitin shabd 'steyar' se nikla hai, jiska arth hai khada hona. is tarah yeh ek sthiti ke baare mein bataata hai. raajya ko ek aadhunik avadhaarana maanane ke peechhe ek mukhya vichaar yeh bhi hai ki aadhunik raajya ka ubhaar prabhusatta ki avadhaarana ke saath hua. yeh ek spasht aadhunik maanyata hai ki jo raajya prabhusatta-sampann naheen hai, vah sahi arthon mein raajya hi naheen hai. prabhusatta ka arth yeh hai ki raajya apne adhikaar mein aane vaale bhoo-kshetr mein raajaneetik praadhikaar ka sarvochch srot hai. prabhusatta ke do pahaloo hain— aantarik pahaloo aur baahari pahaloo. aantarik pahaloo ka arth hai ki raajya ki seemaaon ke bheetar raajya se ooaincha koi bhi praadhikaari naheen hai. raajya sarvochch hai aur naagrik raajya ke khilaaf kisi anya praadhikaari se appeal naheen kar sakta hai. baahari prabhusatta ka arth hai— kisi vishisht raajya ko doosare raajyon dvaara di jaane waali maanyata. saath hi, ismein yeh bhi sveekaar kiya jaata hai ki koi raajya antarraashtreeya maamalon mein apne naagrikon ki or se bol sakta hai. yeh adhikaar antarraashtreeya daayare mein raajya ki svaayattata aur prabhusatta ko vyakt karta hai.

raajya ko ek aadhunik parightana maanane ka matlab yeh naheen hai ki ise ek aitihaasik satta ya daarshanik vichaar ke roop mein bhi khaarij kar diya jaaye. yeh bhi naheen kaha ja sakta hai ki aadhunik raajya ki koi bhi visheshata itihaas ke pehle ke daur mein maujood naheen thi. asal mein, aadhunik daur ke pehle ke 'raajya' aur aadhunik daur ke saath saamane aaye 'raajya' ki kai visheshataaeain samaan hain. isi tarah, yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki ek daarshanik vichaar ke roop mein raajya aadhunik raajya ki 'poorn avadhaarana' ka pratinidhitv karta hai. asal mein daarshanik roop se raajya ki avadhaarana alag- alag tareekon se kalpit aur vivechit ki jaati rahi hai. masalan, udaarataavaadiyon ne raajyon ko ek 'tatasth' sanstha ke roop mein dekha, lekin raajya ki bhoomika ke baare mein udaarataavaad ke bheetar gambheer aur vividh charcha hoti rahi hai. maarksavaad ke bheetar bhi raajya ke lekar vaad-vivaad ki samrudgh parampara rahi hai. ismein raajya ko pooainjeepati vargon ka saadhan maanane ke saath hi 'raajya ki saapekshik svaayattata' se juda vaad-vivaad bhi shaamil raha hai. araajakataavaadiyon ne raajya ko ek apraakrutik satta maane hue ise poori tarah khtm karne ki vakaalat ki hai. maarks-engels ke lekhan mein bhi ek aisi saamyavaadi sthiti ki kalpana ki gayi hai, jismein raajya poori tarah khtm ho jaayega. lekin araajakataavaadi aisi kisi sthiti ka intajaar karne ki bajaay raajya ko jald-se-jald khtm karna chaahate hain. inka maanana hai ki raajya manushya ki svaabhaavik prakruti ke khilaaf hinsa par aadhaarit hai. doosari or, anudaarataavaadi raajya ki tarafdaari isliye karte hain taaki vah kai peedhiyon se sanchit paramparaaon aur moolyon ka sanrakshan kar paaye. naareevaadiyon ke bheetar ki vibhinn dhaaraaon mein raajya ke baare mein alag-alag tarah se vichaar kiya gaya hai. udaaharan ke taur par, udaarataavaadi-naareevaad yeh maanata hai ki ek sanstha ke roop mein raajya purush varchasv ki or jhuka hua hai, lekin kaanoon banaakar raajya ki is pravrutti mein sudhaar kiya ja sakta hai aur iska upayog purush-mahila samaanata sthaapit karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. doosari or, samaajavaadi-naareevaad raajya ke pooainjeevaadi charitra ko mahilaaon ki samasya ka mukhya kaaran maanata hai. iski maanyata hai ki pooainjeevaadi raajya khtm karne se hi striyon ki sthiti mein sudhaar ho sakta hai. teesara, raidikl naareevaadi vichaar ke mutaabik raajya pitrusatta par aadhaarit parivaar aur uske dvaara aage badhaaye jaane vaale moolyon ki hifaajt ka kaam karta hai. isliye pitrusatta ko poori tarah khtm karne ke liye aavashyak hai ki raajya ko bhi khtm kiya jaae. spasht taur par, raajya, iski prakruti aur bhoomika ke baare mein bahut vividh aur gahan vaad-vivaad hai. haal ke daur mein yuropeeya union jaisi sanrachanaaon ke ubhaar ke kaaran yeh tark diya gaya hai ki raajya dheere-dheere apraasangik ho raha hai. lekin yeh tark bahut majboot naheen hai. yeh sach hai ki yuropeeya union mein shaamil deshon ne ek majboot kshetreeya sangathan ko banaane ke liye apni sahamati di hai. fir bhi, ve ek raashtra-raajya ke roop mein apni-apni pehchaan khtm naheen karna chaahate hain. doosare kai kshetreeya sangathanon ne bhi kshetr ke deshon ke beech sahayog badhaaya hai, lekin is baat ki koi sambhaavana nazar naheen aati hai ki ve raashtra-raajya ka vikalp saabit honge. samakaaleen duniya mein raajya ek aisi hakeekat hai, jiske khtm hone ka koi aasaar naheen hai. vaichaarik roop se iska virodh karne vaale kai vichaaradhaaraaon ke anuyaayi vyaavahaarik mauka milne par bhi raajya ki sanstha ko khtm kar paane mein naakaam rahe hain.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

saamaanya jaalasthal:

jeevani:

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patrikaayein:

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