Meerut

Meerut
Bhaarat ki khel rajdhani
shahar
शहीद स्मारक
shaheed smaarak
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya uttar pradesh
mandal Meerut
jila Meerut jila
mahaapaur
janasankhya
ghanatv
1,365,086 (2009 tak )
• 419 /kimi2 (1,085 /varg meal)
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)

• 219 meter (719 fee॰)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: meerut.nic.in/

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 28°a59′aN 77°a42′aE / 28.99°aN 77.70°aE / 28.99; 77.70 Meerut Bhaarat ke uttar pradesh raajya ka ek shahar hai. yahaaain nagar nigam kaaryarat hai. yeh praacheen nagar Delhi se 72 ki॰mee॰ (44 meal) uttar poorv mein sthit hai. Meerut, raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr (ऍn.si.aar) ka hissa hai. yahaaain bhaarateeya sena ki ek chhaavani bhi hai. yeh uttar pradesh ke sabse teji se viksit aur shikshit hote jilon mein se ek hai.

anukram

itihaas

san 1950 mein yahaaain se 23 meal uttar-poorv mein sthit ek sthal vidur ka teela ki puraataatvik khudaai se gyaat hua, ki yeh shahar praacheen nagar hastinaapur ka avashesh hai, jo mahaabhaarat kaal me kaurav raajya ki rajdhani thi.[1], yeh bahut pehle ganga nadi ki baadh mein bah gayi thi.[2] ek anya kivandati ke anusaar raavan ke shvasur maya daanav ke naam par yahaaain ka naam mayaraashtr pada, jaisa ki raamaayan mein varnit hai.[3].

chhathi shataabdi ke baalupatthar se bane ashok stambh ka ek ansh jis par ashok ne braahmi lipi me raajyaadesh khudavaaye the, moolat: Meerut me mila tha aur ab british sangraahalaya me rakha hai.

Meerut maurya samraat ashok ke kaal mein (273 isa poorv se 232 isa poorv) bauddh dharm ka kendra raha, jiske nirmaanon ke avashesh jaama masjid ke nikat vartamaan mein mile hain. [4] Delhi ke baada hindu Rao aspataal, Delhi vishvavidyaalaya ke nikat ashok stambh, firoj shaah tugalak (13511388) dvaara Delhi laaya gaya tha. [2][5], baad mein yeh 1713 mein, ek bam dhamaake mein dhvans ho gaya, evam 1867 mein jeernoddhaar kiya gaya.[6][7].

baad mein mugal samraat Akbar ke kaal mein, (1556-1605), yahaan taanbe ke sikkon ki takasaal thi.baad mein mugal samraat Akbar ke kaal mein, (1556-1605), yahaan taanbe ke sikkon ki takasaal thi.[4].

gyaarahaveen shataabdi mein, jile ka dakshin-pashchimi bhaag, bulandashahar ke dor –raaja har datt dvaara shaasit tha, jisne ek kila banavaaya, jiska aain-A-akabari mein ullekh bhi hai, tatha vah apni shakti hetu prasiddh raha.[8] baad mein vah Mehmood gajnavi dvaara 1018 mein paraajit hua. haalaanki shahar par pehla bada aakraman mohammad gauri dvaara 1192 mein hua,[2] kintu is shahar ka isse bura bhaagya abhi aage khada tha, jab taimoor lang ne 1398 mein aakraman kiya, use raajapooton ne kadi takkar di. yeh loni ke kile par hua, jahaan unhonne Delhi ke sultaan muhammad bin tuglak se bhi yuddh kiya. parantu antat: ve sab haar gaye, yeh taimoor lang ke apne ullekh tujuk-A-taimoori mein milta hai.[9]. uske baad, vah Delhi par aakraman karne aage badh gaya, va vaapas Meerut par hamla bola, jahaan tab ek afgaan mukhya ka shaasan tha. usane nagar par do dinon mein kabja kiya, jismein vistrut vinaash sammilit tha aur fir vah aage uttar ki or badh gaya.[8] baad mein vah Mehmood gajnavi dvaara 1018 mein paraajit hua. haalaanki shahar par pehla bada aakraman mohammad gauri dvaara 1192 mein hua,[2] kintu is shahar ka isse bura bhaagya abhi aage khada tha, jab taimoor lang ne 1398 mein aakraman kiya, use raajapooton ne kadi takkar di. yeh loni ke kile par hua, jahaan unhonne Delhi ke sultaan muhammad bin tuglak se bhi yuddh kiya. parantu antat: ve sab haar gaye, yeh taimoor lang ke apne ullekh tujuk-A-taimoori mein milta hai.[10]. uske baad, vah Delhi par aakraman karne aage badh gaya, va vaapas Meerut par hamla bola, jahaan tab ek afgaan mukhya ka shaasan tha. usane nagar par do dinon mein kabja kiya, jismein vistrut vinaash sammilit tha aur fir vah aage uttar ki or badh gaya.[2]

pratham svatantrata sangraam

Meerut ka naam british East India company ke viruddh 1857 ke pratham svatantrata sangraam ke liye bhi prasiddh hai.[11] prasiddh naara Delhi chalo pehli baar yaheen se diya gaya tha. Meerut chhaavani hi vah sthaan hai, jahaan hindu aur muslim sainikon ko bandookein di gayeen, jinmein jaanvaron ki khaal se bani goliyaan daalani padteen theen, jinhein munh se kholana padta tha. isse hinduon va musalmaanon ki dhaarmik bhaavanaaen aahat hui, kyonki vah jaanavar ki charbi gaaya va sooar ki thi. gaaya hinduon ke liye pavitra hai aur sooar musalmaanon ke liye achhoot hai.

Meerut ko antarraashtreeya prasiddhi 1857 ke vidroh se praapt hui. 24 April,1857 ko; truteeya ashvaarohi sena ki 90 mein se 85 tukadiyon ne goliyon ko chhoone tak se mana kar diya. court-maarshal ke baad unhein das varsh ka kaaraavas mila. iske vidroh mein hi, british raaj se mukti paane ki pehli chingaari bhadak uthi, jise shahari janta ka poora samarthan mila.

Meerut mein hi Meerut shadyantr maamala, March 1929 mein hua. ismein kai vyaapaar sanghon ko teen angrejon samet giraftaar kiya gaya, jo bhaarateeya railway ki hadtaal karaane vaale the. is par England ka seedha dhyaan gaya, jise vahaan ke mainchestr street thiyetsr group ne apne “arad maigaafona” naam ke naatak mein dikhaaya, jismein kolonaaijeshan va audyogikran ke haanikaarak prabhaav dikhaaye gaye the.</ref>

pauraanik mahatva

  • mahaabhaarat mein varnit laakshaagruh, jo paandavon ko jeevit jalaane hetu duryodhan ne taiyaar karavaaya tha, yaheen paas mein vaarnaavat (vartamaan baranaava) mein sthit tha. yeh Meerut-badaut maarg par padta hai.
  • raamaayan mein varnit shravan Kumar ne apne boodhe maata pita ko teerth yaatra karaane le ja raha tha. ve donon ek kaanvad par baithe the. yaheen aakar, shravan Kumar ne pyaas ke maare, unhein jameen par rakha, va bartan lekar sarovar se jal lene gaya. uske bartan ki paane mein aavaaj ko sunakar, aakhet hetu nikle mahaaraaja dasharath ne use jaanavar samajh kar teer chala diya, jisse vah mrutyu ko praapt hua. uske du:kh mein hi uske maata pita tadp tadp kar mar gaye, va marate hue, unhonne dasharath ko shaap diya, ki jis prakaar ham apne putr viyog mein mar rahe hain, usi prakaar tum bhi apne putr ke viyog mein maroge. aur vaisa hi hua bhi
  • Meerut ko daityaraaj raavan ki sasuraal bhi maana jaata hai.

bhoogol

Meerut ki bhaugolik sthiti 28.98° N 77.7° E[12] yahaan ki ausat oonchaai 219 meter (718 feet) hai.

niktavarti shahar hain: rajdhani Delhi, rudki, deharaadoon,sahaaranapur, Aligadh, nauyada, Ghaziabad haapud ityaadi.

janasaankhyiki

Meerut shahar hi Meerut jile ka mukhyaalaya hai, jismein 1,025 gaaainv bhi sammilit hain. 2011 ki raashtreeya janaganana ke anusaar Meerut shahari kshetr (jismein nagar nigam evam chhaavani parishad ke antargat aate kshetr sammilit hain) ki janasankhya lagbhag 14 lakh hai,[13] jismein se lagbhag 13 lakh 10 hajaar nagar nigam ke kshetr mein hai.[14] is hisaab se janasankhya anusaar Meerut shahari kshetr Bhaarat ke shahari kshetron mein 33ve sthaan par hai aur Bhaarat ke shaharon mein 26ve sthaan par hai. Meerut mein ling anupaat 888 hai, raajya ausat 908 se kam; baal ling anupaat 847 hai, raajya ausat 899 se kam. 12.41% janasankhya 6 saal ki umr se chhoti hai. saaksharata dar 78.29% hai, raajya ausat 69.72% se adhik.[13][15]

2012 anusaar Meerut mein aparaadh dar (bhaarateeya dand sanhita ke antargat kul sanjnyaeya aparaadh prati lakh janasankhya) 309.1 hai, raajya ausat 96.4 aur raashtreeya ausat 196.7 se adhik.

2001 ki raashtreeya janaganana anusaar shahar raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr mein janasankhya anusaar doosare sthaan par hai[16] aur raashtra mein 25ve sthaan par.[17]

aitihaasik janaganana aaainkade[8][18][19][a]
varsh purush stri kul vruddhi
1847 -- -- 29,014
1853 -- -- 82,035 182.74%
1872 -- -- 81,386 -0.79%
1881 -- -- 99,565 22.34%
1891 -- -- 119,390 19.91%
1901 65,822 (55.53%) 52,717 (44.47%) 118,539 -0.71%
1911 66,542 (57.05%) 50,089 (42.95%) 116,631 -1.6%
1921 71,816 (58.57%) 50,793 (41.43%) 122,609 5.12%
1931 80,073 (58.57%) 56,636 (41.43%) 136,709 11.49%
1941 98,829 (58.38%) 70,461 (41.62%) 169,290 23.83%
1951 133,094 (57.08%) 100,089 (42.92%) 233,183 37.74%
1961 157,572 (55.48%) 126,425 (44.52%) 283,997 21.79%
  1. ismein nagar nigam evam chhaavani ki janasankhyaaeain shaamil hain
janaganana aaainkade[a]
varsh purush stri kul vruddhi dar ling anupaat[b]
2001[20] 621,481 (53.50%) 540,235 (46.50%) 1,161,716 -- --
2011[13] 754,857 (52.98%) 670,051 (47.02%) 1,424,908 22.66% 888
  1. Meerut shahari kshetr ke liye, jismein nagar nigam aur chhaavani ki jansankhyaaeain shaamil hain
  2. 1000 purushon ke anupaat mein striyon ki sankhya
saaksharata dar (pratishat)
varsh purush stri kul
2001[21] 65.22 53.17 59.62
2011[13] 83.74 (+18.52) 72.19 (+19.02) 78.29 (+18.67)

Meerut mein Bhaarat ke mukhya shaharon mein, sarvaadhik muslim janasankhya hai, jo 45% ke lagbhag hai. yahaan ki isaai sankhya bhi theek thaak hai. Meerut 1987 ke saampradaayik dangon ki sthali bhi raha tha.

aavaagaman

vaayu maarg

pantanagar vimaanakshetr ya indira gaaaindhi antarraashtreeya vimaanakshetr Meerut ke niktatam airport hai. pantanagar ka airport Meerut se 62 kimi. ki doori par sthit hai.

rel maarg

Meerut jankshan desh ke pramukh shaharon se anek trainon ke maadhyam se juda hua hai. Delhi, Jammu, Ambala, sahaaranapur aadi sthaanon se aasaani se Meerut pahuncha ja sakta hai.

sadak maarg

Meerut uttar pradesh aur aaspaas ke raajyon ke anek shaharon se sadak maarg dvaara juda hua hai. raajya parivhan nigam ki basein anek shaharon se Meerut ke liye niyamit roop se chalti hain.

udyog

Meerut ka sarraafa Asia ka number ek ka vyavasaaya baajaar hai... sone ke baare mein kahein to Meerut shahar kai tarah ke udyogon ke liye prasiddh hai. Meerut mein nirmaan vyavasaaya mein khoob teji aayi hai, jaisa ki dikhta hai- shahar mein kai oonchi imaaratein , shopping parisar evam apaartaments hain.

Meerut Bhaarat ke shaharon mein kreeda saamagri ke sarvochch nirmaataaon mein se ek hai. saath hi vaadya yantron ke nirmaan mein bhi yeh uchch sthaan par hai. Meerut mein you.pi.S.aai.di.si ke do audyogik kshetr hain, ek parataapur mein evam ek udyog puram mein.[22][23] Meerut mein kuchh prasiddh faarmaasyootikl kanpaniyaaain bhi hain, jaise park faarmaasyootikls limited, mainakaaind pharma evam baistokaim.

aayakar vibhaag dvaara sankalit aankadon ke anusaar, Meerut ne varsh 2007-08 mein hi 10,089 karod rupaye, raashtreeya kosh mein diye hain, jo Lucknow, Jaipur, Bhopal, kochchi evam bhuvaneshvar se kaheen adhik hain.[24]

media

Meerut ek mahatvapoorn maas media kendra banta ja raha hai. desh ke vibhinn kshetron se patrakaar evam anya mediakarmi yahaan kaaryarat hain. haal hi mein, kai samaachaar channelon ne aparaadh par kendrit kaaryakram dikhaane aarambh kiye hain. chooainki media kendra Meerut mein sthit hain, to shahar ko raashtreeya star par achha prachaar mil raha hai. haal ke varshon mein nagar mein kaanoon vyavastha ki sthiti kaafi sudhari hai. ismein media ka bahut bada haath hai.

Meerut web media ka bhi mukhya kendra banta ja raha hai Meerut me eksaen vyoo news, aaainkhon dekhi live aur kai anya web media channel maujood hai.

shiksha

nagar mein kul chaar vishvavidyaalaya hain, chaudhari charan Singh vishvavidyaalaya, sardaar vallabh bhaai Patel krushi evam praudyogiki vishvavidyaalaya, shobhit vishvavidyaalaya evam svaami vivekaanand subhaarati vishvavidyaalaya. iske alaava nagar mein kai anya mahaavidyaalaya evam vidyaalaya hain.

nauchandi mela

yahaan ka aitihaasik nauchandi mela hindu – muslim ekta ka prateek hai. hajarat baale miyaan ki dargaah evam navachandi devi (nauchandi devi) ka mandir ek doosare ke nikat hi sthit hain. mele ke dauraan mandir ke ghanton ke saath ajaan ki aavaaj ek saampradaayik aadhyaatm ki pratidhvani deti hai. yeh mela chaitr maas ke navaraatri tyauhaar se ek saptaah pehle se lag jaata hai. holi ke lagbhag ek saptaah baad aur ek maah tak chalta hai.

paryatan sthal

shaheed smaarak parisar mein sthit mangal Pande ki moorti
  • '''paandav kila'''- yeh kila Meerut ke baranaava mein sthit hai. mahaabhaarat se sambandh rakhane vaale is kile mein anek praacheen moortiyaan dekhi ja sakti hain. kaha jaata hai ki yeh kila paandavon ne banavaaya tha. duryodhan ne paandavon ko unki maan sahit yahaan jeevit jalaane ka shadayantr racha tha kintu ve ek bhoomigat maarg se bach nikle the.
  • shaheed smaarak - shaheed smaarak un bahaaduron ko samarpit hai, jinhonne 1857 mein desh ke liye "pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam" mein apne praanon ki aahuti de di. sang-A-maramar se bana yeh smaarak lagbhag 30 meter ooncha hai. 1857 ka bhaarateeya vidroh Meerut chhaavani sthiti kaali palatan mandir, jise vartamaan mein aughadanaath mandir ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, se aarambh hua tha, jise pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam, sipaahi vidroh aur bhaarateeya vidroh ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai britaani shaasan ke viruddh ek sashastr vidroh tha. yeh vidroh do varshon tak Bhaarat ke vibhinn kshetron mein chala. is vidroh ka aarambh chhaavani kshetron mein chhoti jhadpon tatha aagajani se hua tha parantu January maas tak isne ek bada rup le liya. vidroh ka ant Bhaarat mein East India company ke shaasan ki samaapti ke saath hua aur poore bhaarateeya saamraajya par britaani taaj ka pratyaksh shaasan aarambh ho gaya jo agale 90 varshon tak chala.
  • shaahapeer makabara - yeh makabara mugalakaaleen hai. yeh Meerut ke old shaahapaIr gate ke nikat sthit hai. shaahapeer makabare ke nikat hi lokapriya sooraj kund sthit hai.
  • hastinaapur teerth - hastinaapur teerth jainiyon ke liye ek pavitra sthaan maana jaata hai. yahaan ka mandir jain teerthankar shaantinaath ko samarpit hai. aitihaasik drushti se jainiyon ke liye is sthaan ka vishesh mahatva hai kyonki jainiyon ke teesare teerthankar aadinaath ne yahaan 400 din ka upavaas rakha tha. is mandir ka sanchaalan shri hastinaapur jain shvetaanbar teerth samiti dvaara kiya jaata hai.
hastinaapur mandir
  • jain shvetaanbar mandir - Meerut jile ke hastinaapur mein sthit jain shvetaanbar mandir teerthankar viml naath ko samarpit hai. ek oonche chabootare par unki aakarshak pratima sthaapit hai. mandir ke chaaron kinaare chaar kalyaanak ke prateek hain. hastinaapur Meerut se 30 kimi. uttar-parv mein sthit hai.
sent John church
  • roman Catholic church - saradhana sthit roman Catholic church apni khoobsoorat kaareegari ke liye charchit hai. madar mairi ko samarpit is church ka design itaalik vaastukaar enthani raghelini ne taiyaar kiya tha. 1822 mein is church ko banavaane ki laagat 0.5 million roopaye thi. bhavan nirmaan saamragi jutaane ke liye aaspaas khudaai ki gayi thi. khudaai wala hissa aage chalakar do jheelon mein tabdeel ho gaya.
  • sent John church - 1819 mein is church ko East India company ki or se chepalin rev henari fishr ne sthaapit kiya tha. is church ki ganana uttar Bhaarat ke sabse praacheen charcho mein ki jaati hai. is vishaal church mein das hajaar logon ke baithane ki kshamata hai.
  • nangali teerth - pavitra nangali teerth Meerut ke nangali gaanv mein sthit hai. nangali teerth svaami svaroopaanand ji mahaaraaj ki samaadhi ki vajah se lokapriya hai. mukhya sadak se teerth tak 84 mod hain jo chauraasi lakh yoniyon ke mukti ke prateek hain. desh ke vividh hisson se shraddhaalu yahaan aate hain.
  • sooraj kund - is pavitra kund ka nirmaan ek dhani vyaapaari laavaar Jawahar laal ne 1714 E. mein karavaaya tha. praarambh mein abu naala se is kund ko jal praapt hota tha. vartamaan mein gang nahar se ise jal praapt hota hai. sooraj kund ke aaspaas anek mandir bane hue hain jinmein manasa devi mandir aur Baba manohar naath mandir pramukh hain. ye mandir shaahajahaan ke kaal mein bane the.
  • jaama masjid - kotavaali ke nikat sthit is masjid ka yeh nirmaan 11veen shataabdi mein karavaaya gaya tha.
  • dropadi ki rasoi - dropadi ki rasoi hastinaapur mein baraganga nadi ke tat par sthit hai. maana jaata hai ki mahaabhaarat kaal mein is sthaan par dropadi ki rasoi thi.
  • hastinaapur abhayaaranya - is abhyaaranya ki sthaapana 1986 mein ki gayi thi. 2073 varg kimi. ke kshetr mein faile is abhyaaranya mein mrug, saanbhar, cheetal, neelagaaya, teinduaa, haina, jangali billi aadi pashuon ke alaava pakshiyon ki anek prajaatiyaan dekhi ja sakti hain. nanvabar se June ka samay yahaan aane ke sabse upayukt maana jaata hai. abhyaaranya ka ek hissa Ghaziabad, bijnaur aur jyotiba fule nagar ke antargat aata hai.

anya tathya

  • 21 December, 2005, ko Meerut raashtreeya samaachaar ki jhalakiyon mein tha, jab police ne saarvajanik roop se haath pakade jodon ko maara peeta, jo ki desh ke kai bhaagon mein saanskrutik roop se asveekrut tatha abhadr hai. yeh aapreshan majanoon ke tahat tha. iske antargat yuva jode nishaana the. haalaanki iske baad sthaaneeya police ko aprasiddhi mili.
  • Meerut ki maal road, moolat: british chhaavani ka bhaag thi, jahaan raghuveer saarang naamak ek aadmi, jo ghode aur baghghiyaan chalaata tha; ko ek angrej afsar ke saath race mein haraane ke baad abhadr vyavahaar ka aarop lagaakar kode lagaaye gaye the.
  • 1940 ke dashak mein, Meerut ke cinemagharon mein british raashtragaan bajne ke samay hilna nishedh tha.
  • 2006 mein ek agni kaand mein 225 (aadhikaarik ghoshit) kog maare gaye, jab Victoria park mein lage ek electronic mele ke mandap mein ag lag gayi. anya sootron ke anusaar tab yahaan 1000 log maare gaye the. iske kuchh samay baad hi, yahaaain ke ek malteeplaiks cinemaghar pi vi S mall mein bhi aag lagi thi.
  • Meerut ke prasiddh kreeda saamaan (khaaskar cricket ka balla) vishv bhar mein prayog hota hai.
  • Meerut ko Bhaarat ki kreeda rajdhani kaha jaata hai.

sandarbh

  1. paryatan sthal - vidur-ka-teela Meerut aadhikaarik website
  2. a aa i E u Meerut jila - itihaas the imperiyl gaijetiyr of indiya, 1909, v. 17, p. 254-255.
  3. Homepage Meerut aadhikaarik website.
  4. a aa Meerut ke nikat samatal ilaakon mein sthit hindu mandir british pustakaalaya
  5. ashok stambh
  6. ashok stambh jeernoddhaar
  7. ashok stambh ki sthiti vikimaipiya.
  8. a aa i the impeeriyl gajaitiyr 1909, pru॰ 264
  9. Delhi ki fatah ki taiyaari … maalfujt-A-taimoori, ya tujuk- A-taimoori (taimoor ki aatmakatha), dvaara: taimoor lang, "en:The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period", by Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John Dowson; London, Trubner Company; 1867–1877.
  10. Delhi ki fatah ki taiyaari … maalfujt-A-taimoori, ya tujuk- A-taimoori (taimoor ki aatmakatha), dvaara: taimoor lang, "en:The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period", by Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John Dowson; London, Trubner Company; 1867–1877.
  11. The Sepoy War of 1857: Mutiny or First Indian War of Independence?.
  12. fauling ren jeenomiks, ink - Meerut hai|
  13. a aa i E "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011 [1 lakh aur adhik janasankhya vaale shahari kshetr/shahar, anantim janasankhya aaainkade, Bhaarat ki janaganana 2011]" (angreji mein) (pdf). Bhaarat ke mahaarajistraar evam janaganana aayukt ka kaaryaalaya, gruh mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar. http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_3_PR_UA_Citiees_1Lakh_and_Above.pdf. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2013.
  14. "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011 [1 lakh aur usase adhik janasankhya vaale shahar, anantim janasankhya aaainkade, Bhaarat ki janaganana 2011]" (angreji mein) (pdf). Bhaarat ke mahaarajistraar evam janaganana aayukt ka kaaryaalaya, gruh mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_2_PR_Cities_1Lakh_and_Above.pdf. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2013.
  15. "Census of India 2011 – Provisional Population Totals – Uttar Pradesh – Data Sheet [Bhaarat ki janaganana 2011 - anantim janasankhya aaainkade - uttar pradesh - data sheet]" (angreji mein) (pdf). Bhaarat ke mahaarajistraar evam janaganana aayukt ka kaaryaalaya, gruh mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar. http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/up/Census2011Data%20Sheet-UP.pdf. abhigman tithi: 15 March 2012.
  16. "Area, Population and Density of Cities and Towns of India - 2001, Chapter II - Area and Density – All Cities and Towns [Bhaarat ke shaharon aur kasbon ke kshetrafal, janasankhya aur janasankhya ghanatv - 2001, adhyaaya 2 - kshetrafal aur janasankhya ghanatv - sabhi shahar aur kasbe]" (angreji mein). Socio-economic and Monitoring Division, Town and Country Planning Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. December 2007. http://urbanindia.nic.in/moud/theministry/subordinateoff/tcpo/DMA_Report/CHAPTER_2.pdf.
  17. "India's largest cities / urban areas" (angreji mein). http://www.citymayors.com/gratis/indian_cities.html. abhigman tithi: August 2013.
  18. Sylvia Vatuk (1972) (angreji mein). Kinship and Urbanization: White Collar Migrants in North India. University of California Press. pp. 2–3. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780520020641. http://books.google.com/books?id=cQf7hqm-iXcC.
  19. the impeeriyl gajaitiyr 1909, pru॰ 263
  20. "Census of India 2001: View Population Details: Meerut UA [Bhaarat ki janaganana 2001: janasankhya aaainkade dekhein: Meerut shahari kshetr]" (angreji mein). Bhaarat ke mahaarajistraar evam janaganana aayukt ka kaaryaalaya, gruh mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/PopulationFinder/View_Village_Population.aspx?pcaid=5576&category=U.A.. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2013.
  21. "Table - 3 : Population, population in the age group 0-6 and literates by sex - Cities/Towns (in alphabetic order): 2001 [saarani - 3 : janasankhya, 0-6 varsh varg mein janasankhya aur ling anusaar saakshar log - shahar/kasbe (varnaanukram mein): 2001]" (angreji mein). Bhaarat ke mahaarajistraar evam janaganana aayukt ka kaaryaalaya, gruh mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar. Archived from the original on 14 August 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040814033526/http://www.censusindia.net/results/town.php?stad=A&state5=999. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2013.
  22. "audyogik kshetr vivran - you.pi.S.aai.di.si". you.pi.S.aai.di.si. http://upsidc.com/search_action3.php?name=Meerut&ind_area=Udyog+Puram&Submit2=Submit. abhigman tithi: 9 April 2011.
  23. "audyogik kshetr vivran - you.pi.S.aai.di.si". you.pi.S.aai.di.si. http://upsidc.com/search_action3.php?name=Meerut&ind_area=Partapur&Submit2=Submit. abhigman tithi: 9 April 2011.
  24. Meerut kar deya shaharon ki ginti mein naunvein sthaan