Madras praijidnsi

saaaincha:Colonial India Madras preseedeinsi (tamil: சaaெaaனaa்aaனaaை மaaாaaகaaாaaணaaமaa், telugu: చaaెaaనaa్aaనaaపaaుaaరaaి సaaంaaసaa్aaథaaాaaనaaమaaు, malayalam: മaaദaa്aaരaaാaaസaa് പaa്aaരaaസaaിaaഡaaനaa്aa‍aaസaaി, kannad: ಮaaದaa್aaರaaಾaaಸaa್ ಪaa್aaರaaೆaaಸaaಿaaಡaaೆaaನaa್aaಸaaಿ, udiya: ମaaଦaa୍aaରaaାaaସaa୍ ପaa୍aaରaaେaaସaaୋaaଦaaେaaନaa୍aaଚaa୍aaଯ), jise aadhikaarik taur par fort seint George ki preseedeinsi tatha Madras provins ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, british Bhaarat ka ek prashaasanik anumandal tha. apni sabse vistrut seema tak preseedeinsi mein dakshin Bhaarat ke adhikaansh hisson sahit vartamaan bhaarateeya raajya Tamil Nadu, uttari Kerala ka maalaabaar kshetr, lakshadveep dveepasamooh, tateeya Andhra pradesh aur Andhra pradesh ke raayalaseema kshetr, ganjaam, malkaanagiri, koraaput, raayagadh, navarangapur aur dakshini udeesa ke gajapati jile aur bellaari, dakshin kannad aur Karnataka ke udupi jile shaamil the. preseedeinsi ki apni sheetakaaleen rajdhani Madras aur greeshmakaaleen rajdhani ootaakaamand thi.

1639 mein british East India company ne madraasapattanam gaanv ko khareeda tha aur iske ek saal baad Madras preseedeinsi ki poorvavarti, seint George kile ki agency ki sthaapana ki thi, haalaanki machhaleepattanam aur aarmaagon mein company ke kaarkhaane 17veen sadi ke praarambh se hi maujood the. 1655 mein ek baar fir se iski poorv ki sthiti mein vaapas laane se pehle agency ko 1652 mein ek preseedeinsi ke roop mein unnat banaaya gaya tha. 1684 mein ise fir se ek preseedeinsi ke roop mein unnat banaaya gaya aur eleehoo yel ko pehla presideint niyukt kiya gaya. 1785 mein pits India act ke praavadhaanon ke tahat Madras british East India company dvaara sthaapit teen praanton mein se ek ban gaya. uske baad kshetr ke pramukh ko "presideint" ki bajaay "Governor" ka naam diya gaya aur Calcutta mein Governor-general ka adheenasth banaaya gaya, yeh ek aisa pad tha jo 1947 tak kaayam raha. nyaayik, vidhaayi aur kaaryakaari shaktiyaan raajyapaal ke saath rah gayeen jinhein ek kaaunsil ka sahayog praapt tha jiske samvidhaan ko 1861, 1909, 1919 aur 1935 mein adhiniymit sudhaaron dvaara sanshodhit kiya gaya tha. 1939 mein dviteeya vishv yuddh chhidne ke samay tak Madras mein niyamit chunaav aayojit kiye gaye. 1908 tak praant mein 22 jile shaamil the jinmein se pratyek ek jila collector ke adheen tha aur aage ise taaluka tatha firka mein upavibhaajit kiya gaya tha jismein gaanv prashaasan ki sabse chhoti ikaai ke roop mein the.

Madras ne 20veen sadi ke praarambhik dashakon mein bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan mein ek mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya aur yeh 1919 ke monteg-chemsaford sudhaaron ke baad british Bhaarat mein dvishaasan ki pranaali ko laagoo karne wala pehla praant tha. iske baad Governor ne ek pradhaanamantri ke saath-saath shaasan kiya. 15 August 1947 ko bhaarateeya svatantrata ke aagaman ke saath preseedeinsi ko bhang kar diya gaya. 26 January 1950 ko bhaarateeya ganaraajya ke shubhaaranbh ke avsar par Madras ko bhaarateeya sangh ke raajyon mein se ek ke roop mein sveekrut kiya gaya.

anukram

udgam

angrejon ke aagaman se poorv

1685 aur 1947 ke beech vibhinn raajaaon ne jilon par shaasan kiya jisse Madras preseedeinsi ka gathan hua jabki dolmen ki khoj ne yeh saabit kar diya hai ki upamahaadveep ke is bhaag mein aabaadi kam se kam paashaan yug mein hi bas gayi thi.[1] saatavaahan raajavansh jiska adhiptya teesari sadi E.poo. se lekar teesari sadi Eddy ke sangam kaal ke dauraan Madras preseedeinsi ke uttari bhaag par tha, yeh is kshetr ka pehla pramukh shaasak raajavansh bana.[2] dakshin ki or cheras, chol aur pandya saatavaahan ke samakaaleen the.[2][3] Andhra ke saatavaahanon aur Tamil Nadu mein cholon ke patan ke baad is kshetr par kalaabhras naamak ek alp prasiddh jaati ke logon ne vijay praapt kar li.[4] is kshetr ne baad ke pallav raajavansh ke adheen apni poorv sthiti fir se bahaal kar li aur iske baad cholon tatha pandya vansh ke adheen iski sabhyata apne sunahare yug mein pahunch gayi.[2] 1311 E. mein malik kaafoor dvaara madurai ki vijay ke baad vahaan ek sankshipt khaamoshi chha gayi jab donon sanskrutiyon aur sabhyataaon ka patan hoga shuroo ho gaya.[5] tamil aur telugu pradeshon ki poorv sthiti 1336 mein sthaapit vijyanagar saamraajya ke adheen bahaal hui. saamraajya ke patan ke baad yeh kshetr anek sultaanon, poligaaron aur Europeeya kaarobaari companiyon ke beech bantakar rah gaya.[5]

praarambhik british vyaapaar post

31 December 1600 ko mahaaraani Elizabeth pratham ne angreji vyaapaariyon ke ek samooh ko ek shuruaati sanyukt-share waali company, angreji East India company ka gathan karne ka ek chaartar pradaan kiya.[6][7][8][9] baad mein King James pratham ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan sar William haukins aur sar Thomas ro ko company ki or se Bhaarat mein kaarobaari kaarkhaane sthaapit karne ki anumati praapt karne ke liye mugl samraat jahaangeer ke saath baatcheet karne ke liye bheja gaya.[10] inmein se pehla kaarkhaana desh ke pashchimi tat par soorat[11] mein aur poorvi samudratat par masooleepaatam mein banaaya gaya tha.[12] kam se kam 1611 mein masooleepaatam Bhaarat ke poorvi samudratat par sabse puraana vyaapaar post raha hai. 1625 mein dakshin ki or kuchh meal ki doori par aarmaagon mein ek aur kaarkhaana sthaapit kiya gaya tha jiske baad donon kaarkhaane machhaleepaatam mein sthit ek agency ke paryavekshan ke antargat aa gaye.[12] uske turant baad british adhikaariyon ne kaarkhaanon ko aur adhik dakshin ki or sthaanaantarit karne ka nirnaya liya kyonki us samay poorvi samudratat par khareed ke liye upalabdh vyaapaar ki mukhya saamagri, kapaas ke kapde ki kami thi. yeh samasya golakonda ke sultaan ke sthaaneeya adhikaariyon dvaara kiye jaane vaale utpeedn ke kaaran kai guna badh gayi thi.[12] tab East India company ke vyavasthaapak Francis de ko dakshin bheja gaya tha aur fir chandragiri ke raaja ke saath baatcheet ke baad unhonne madraasapatanam[12] gaanv mein ek kaarkhaana sthaapit karne ke liye ek bhoomi anudaan praapt karne mein safal praapt ki, yaheen nae seint George kile ka nirmaan kiya gaya. nayi basti ke niyantran ke liye ek agency banaayi gayi aur kaarak masooleepatanam ke Andrew kogan ko pehla agent niyukt kiya gaya. Bhaarat ke poorvi tat ke paas sabhi agencyan jaava mein baintam ki preseedeinsi ki adheenasth theen. 1641 tak fort seint George koromandal tat par company ka mukhyaalaya ban gaya tha.

fort seint George ki agency

Andrew kogan ka sthaan Francis de ne liya aur uske baad Thomas IV aur fir Thomas greenahil ne unki jagah li. 1653 mein greenahil ka kaaryakaal samaapt hone par fort seint George ko baintam se alag[12] ek preseedeinsi ke roop mein aur pehle presideint Aaron bekar ke netrutv mein unnat kiya gaya.[12] haalaanki 1655 mein kile ke darje ko ek agency ke roop mein avanat kiya gaya aur 1684 tak ke liye ise soorat mein sthit kaarkhaane ke adheen bana diya gaya.[13] 1658 mein Bengal ke sabhi kaarkhaanon ka niyantran Madras ko de diya gaya jab angrejon ne paas ke gaanv tripliken ko apne kabje mein kar liya.[14][15]

itihaas

staaf Lawrence jinhonne Madras army ke saath mohammad Ali Khan valaajan, Karnataka navaab ko sthaapit kiya

vistaar

1684 mein fort seint George ka darja fir se unnat kar ise Madras preseedeinsi bana diya gaya jiske pehle presideint William gaiford bane.[16] is avadhi ke dauraan preseedeinsi ka kaafi vistaar kiya gaya aur 19veen sadi ki shuruaat mein yeh apne vartamaan aayaamon tak pahunch gayi thi. Madras preseedeinsi ke shuruaati varshon ke dauraan shaktishaali mugalon, maraathon tatha golakunda ke navaabon aur Karnataka kshetr dvaara angrejon par baar-baar aakraman kiye gaye.[17] british East India company ke svaamitv vaale kshetron ke prashaasan ko ekeekrut aur viniymit karne ke liye british sansad dvaara paarit pits India adhiniyam ke jariye September 1774 mein Madras ke presideint ko Calcutta mein sthit Governor-general ka adheenasth bana diya gaya.[18] September 1746 mein fort seint George par fraanseesiyon ka adhikaar ho gaya jinhonne French India ke ek bhaag ke roop mein Madras par 1749 tak shaasan kiya jab aiks-la-chaipal ki sandhi ki sharton ke tahat Madras ko vaapas angrejon ke adheen saunp diya gaya.[19]

company raaj ke dauraan

inhein bhi dekhein: Company rule in India

1774 se 1858 tak Madras british East India company dvaara shaasit tha british Bhaarat ka ek hissa tha. 18veen sadi ki antim timaahi ek teevr vistaar ki avadhi thi. teepoo, veloo thaambi, poleegaaron aur seelon ke khilaaf safal yuddhon ne bhoomi ke vishaal kshetron ko joda aur preseedeinsi ke ghaateeya vruddhi mein yogadaan diya. nav-vijit seelon 1793 aur 1798 ke beech Madras presideinsi ka hissa bana.[20] Lord velesli dvaara shuroo ki gayi sahaayak gathabandhan ki pranaali ne bhi kai riyaasaton ko fort seint George ke Governor ka adheenasth bana diya.[21] ganjaam aur vishaakhaapattanam ke pahaadi ilaake angrejon dvaara kabje mein kiye gaye antim kshetr the.[22]

is avadhi mein anek vidroh bhi dekhe gaye jiski shuruaat 1806 ke vellor vidroh ke saath hui thi.[23][24] veloo thaambi aur paliyth achaan ke vidroh aur poligr ka yuddh british shaasan ke khilaaf anya ullekhaneeya vidroh the haalaanki Madras preseedeinsi 1857 ke sipaahi vidroh se apekshaakrut achhoota raha tha.[25]

Madras preseedeinsi ne kushaasan ke aaropon ke kaaran 1831 mein Mysore saamraajya par adhikaar kar liya[26] aur 1881 mein ise apadasth mummadi krushnaraaj vodeyaar ke pote aur vaaris, chaamaaraaja vodeyaar ko saunp diya. tanjaavur par 1855 mein shivaaji dviteeya ki mrutyu ke baad kabja kiya gaya tha jinka koi purush uttaraadhikaari naheen tha.[27]

1913 mein Madras praant

viktoriyaai yug

inhein bhi dekhein: British Raj

1858 mein mahaaraani Victoria dvaara jaari ki gayi mahaaraani ki udghoshana ki sharton ke tahat Madras preseedeinsi ke saath-saath shesh british Bhaarat british kraaun ke pratyaksh shaasan ke adheen aa gaya.[28] Lord hairis ko kraaun dvaara pehla Governor niyukt kiya gaya. is avadhi ke dauraan shiksha mein sudhaar aur prashaasan mein bhaarateeyon ke pratinidhitv ko badhaane ke upaaya kiye gaye. bhaarateeya parishad adhiniyam 1861 ke tahat vidhaayi shaktiyaan Governor ke parishad ko de di gayeen.[29] bhaarateeya parishad adhiniyam 1892,[30] 1909 ke Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam 1909,[31][32] Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam 1919 aur Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam 1935 ke tahat parishad ka sudhaar aur vistaar kiya gaya. vi. sadagopaachaarloo parishad ke liye niyukt kiye jaane vaale pehle bhaarateeya the.[33] kaanooni peshe mein vishesh roop se shikshit bhaarateeyon ke nae-ubharate samooh ko mauka diya gaya.[34] englo-Indian media ke bhaari virodh ke baavajood 1877 mein ti. muthusvaami ayyar Madras uchch nyaayaalaya ke pehle bhaarateeya nyaayaadheesh bane.[35][36][37] 1893 mein kuchh samay ke liye unhonne Madras uchch nyaayaalaya ke mukhya nyaayaadheesh ke roop mein bhi kaarya kiya jiske kaaran ve aisa karne vaale pehle bhaarateeya bane.[38]1906 mein si. shankaran Nair Madras preseedeinsi ke mahaaadhivkta ke roop mein niyukt kiye jaane vaale pehle bhaarateeya bane. is avadhi ke dauraan anekon sadkon, relamaargon, baandhon aur naharon ka nirmaan kiya gaya.[36]

is avadhi ke dauraan Madras ne do bheeshan akaalon ka saamana kiya, 1876-78 ka bheeshan akaal aur uske baad 1896-97 ka bhaarateeya akaal.[39] pehle akaal ke parinaam svaroop preseedeinsi ki janasankhya 1871 mein 31.2 million se ghatkar 1881 mein 30.8 million ho gayi. in akaalon aur chingaleput raayats maamale tatha salem dangon ki sunavaai mein sarkaar dvaara kathit taur par dikhaae gaye pakshapaat ke kaaran aabaadi ke bheetar asantosh fail gaya.[40]

bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan

inhein bhi dekhein: Indian independence movement in Tamil Nadu
1922 mein eni besent

19veen sadi ke uttaraarddh mein raashtreeya jaagrukta ki ek sudrudh bhaavana Madras preseedeinsi mein ubhari. praant mein pehle raajaneetik sangathan, Madras mool nivaasi sangh ki sthaapana 26 fravari 1852 ko gaajuloo lakshmeenarasoo chetti dvaara ki gayi thi.[41] haalaanki sangathan lambe samay tak naheen chal paaya.[42] Madras mool nivaasi sangh ke baad 16 May 1884 ko Madras mahaajan sabha shuroo ki gayi. December 1885 mein Mumbai mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke pehle satr mein bhaag lene vaale 72 pratinidhiyon mein se 22 Madras preseedeinsi se sambandhit the.[43][44] adhikaansh pratinidhi Madras mahaajan sabha ke sadasya the. bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke teesare satr ka aayojan December 1887 mein Madras mein kiya gaya[45] aur yeh kaafi safal raha jismein praant ke 362 pratinidhiyon ne bhaag liya.[46] iske baad ke bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke satr Madras mein 1894, 1898 1903, 1908, 1914 aur 1927 mein aayojit kiye gaye.[47]

maidam blaavatski aur Colonel H. S. olakaut ne 1882 mein thiyosofikl society ke mukhyaalaya ko adyaar sthaanaantarit kar diya.[48] society ki sabse pramukh shakhsiyt eni beseint theen jinhonne 1916 mein hom rool league ki sthaapana ki.[49] hom rool aandolan ka sanchaalan Madras se kiya gaya aur ise praant mein vyaapak samarthan mila. the hindu, svadeshamitran aur maatrubhoomi jaise raashtravaadi akhbaaron ne svatantrata sangraam ka sakriya roop se samarthan kiya.[50][51][52] Bhaarat ki pehli trade union ki sthaapana 1918 mein vi. kalyaanasundaram aur bi.pi. vaadiya dvaara Madras mein ki gayi.[53]

dvishaasan (1920-1937)

The non-Brahmin movement was started by Theagaroya Chetty (left) who founded the Justice Party in 1916; Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy (right), who founded the Self-Respect Movement and took over the Justice party in 1944. The non-Brahmin movement was started by Theagaroya Chetty (left) who founded the Justice Party in 1916; Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy (right), who founded the Self-Respect Movement and took over the Justice party in 1944.
The non-Brahmin movement was started by Theagaroya Chetty (left) who founded the Justice Party in 1916; Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy (right), who founded the Self-Respect Movement and took over the Justice party in 1944.

1920 mein monteg-chemsaford sudhaaron ke anusaar Madras preseedeinsi mein ek dvishaasan pranaali banaayi gayi jismein preseedeinsi mein chunaav karaane ke praavadhaan kiye gaye.[54] is prakaar lokataantrik dhang se nirvaachit sarkaaron ne Governor ki nirankush satta ke saath shaktiyon ko saajha kar liya. November mein 1920 mein hue pehle chunaavon ke baad Justice party jo prashaasan mein gair-braahmanon ke badhte pratinidhitv ke liye abhiyaan chalaane ke liye 1916 mein gathit ek sangathan tha, satta mein aaya.[55] A. subbaaraayaaloo reddiyaar Madras preseedeinsi ke pehle mukhyamantri bane lekin girte svaasthya ke kaaran unhonne jaldi hi isteefa de diya aur sthaaneeya svashaasan tatha saarvajanik svaasthya mantri, pi. raamaaraayaningar ne unki jagah li.[56] 1923 ke ant mein party ka vibhaajan ho gaya jab si.aar. Reddy ne praathamik sadasyata se isteefa de diya aur vipakshi svaraajyavaadiyon ke saath milkar ek alag samooh bana liya. 27 November 1923 ko raamaraayaningar sarkaar ke khilaaf ek avishvaas prastaav paarit kiya gaya aur yeh ise 65-44 mat se paraast kar diya gaya. raamaraayaningar, jo panaagal ke raaja ke roop mein lokapriya the, November 1926 November tak satta mein bane rahe. August 1921 mein pehle saampradaayik sarkaari aadesh (ji.O. sankhya 613),[57] jisne sarkaari naukariyon mein jaati aadhaarit saampradaayik aarakshan ki shuruaat ki thi, iske paarit hone se yeh unke shaasan ka ek pramukh bindu ban gaya.[57][58] agale 1926 ke chunaavon mein Justice party paraajit ho gayi. haalaanki, kisi bhi party ko spasht bahumat naheen milne ke kaaran Governor ne pi. subbaaraayan ke netrutv mein ek svatantr sarkaar ka gathan kiya aur iske samarthak sadasyon ko naamit kar diya.[59] 1930 mein Justice party ki jeet hui aur pi. munusvaami Naidu mukhyamantri bane.[60] mantraalaya se jameendaaron ke bahishkaar ne Justice party ko ek baar fir se vibhaajit kar diya. apne khilaaf avishvaas prastaav ke dar se munusvaami Naidu ne November 1932 mein isteefa de diya aur unki jagah bobbili ke raaja ko mukhyamantri niyukt kiya gaya.[61] antat: 1937 ke chunaavon mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke haathon Justice party ki haar hui aur chakravarti raajagopaalaachaari Madras preseedeinsi ke mukhyamantri bane.[62]

1920 aur 1930 ke dashak ke dauraan Madras preseedeinsi mein braahman-virodhi aandolan ubhar kar saamane aaya. iski shuruaat E.vi. raamaasvaami naayakar dvaara ki gayi thi jo praanteeya Congress ke braahman netrutv braahman ke siddhaanton aur neetiyon se naakhush the, unhonne party ko chhodkar ek aatm-sammaan aandolan shuroo kiya tha. periyaar, jis naam se unhein vaikalpik roop se jaana jaata tha, unhonne braahmanon, hindutv aur viduthaalaai tatha Justice jaise akhbaaron evam patrikaaon mein hindu andhavishvaason ki aalochna ki. unhonne vaaikaum satyaagrah mein bhi hissa liya jiske dvaara traavanakor mein mandiron mein achhooton ke pravesh ke adhikaaron ke liye abhiyaan chalaaya gaya tha.[63]

british shaasan ke antim din

bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress 1937 mein pehli baar chakravarti raajagopaalaachaari (rally ki tasveer) ke saath satta mein I aur iske mukhyamantri bane

1937 mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ko pehli baar satta ke liye chuna gaya.[62] chakravarti raajagopaalaachaari Congress party ki or se aane vaale Madras preseedeinsi ke pehle mukhyamantri the. unhonne mandir pravesh praadhikran evam kshatipoorti adhiniyam jaari kiya[64][65] aur Madras preseedeinsi mein nishedhaagya[66] tatha bikri karon ko shaamil kiya.[67] unke shaasan ko mukhyat: shaikshanik sansthaanon mein hindi ko anivaarya roop se shaamil karne ke liye jaana jaata hai jisne unhein ek raajaneetijnya ke roop mein atyadhik alokapriya bana diya.[68] is kadam ne vyaapak roop se hindi-virodhi aandolanon ko janm diya jiske kaaran kai sthaanon par hinsak ghatnaaen bhi huin. 1200 se adhik purushon, mahilaaon aur bachchon ko hindi-virodhi aandolanon mein unki bhaageedaari ke liye jail mein daal diya gaya[69] jabki virodh pradarshanon ke dauraan thaalaamuthoo aur naataraasan ki maut ho gayi.[69] 1940 mein Congress ke mantriyon ne Germany ke khilaaf yuddh ki ghoshana ke virodh mein unki sahamati ke bina isteefa de diya. Governor ne prashaasan apne haathon mein le liya aur antat: 21 fravari 1940 ko unke dvaara alokapriya kaanoon ko nirast kar diya gaya.[69]

jyaadaatar Congressi netrutv aur poorv mantriyon ko 1942 mein Bhaarat chhodo aandolan mein unki bhaageedaari ke baad giraftaar kar liya gaya tha.[70] 1944 mein periyaar ne Justice party ko dravidr kashagam ka naya naam diya aur ise chunaavi raajaneeti se alag kar liya.[71] dviteeya vishv yuddh ki samaapti ke baad bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ne fir se raajaneeti mein pravesh kiya aur kisi bhi gambhir vipaksh ki anupasthiti mein 1946 ke chunaav ko aasaani se jeet liya.[72] us samay kaamaraaj ke samarthan se tanguturi prakaasham ko mukhyamantri chuna gaya aur unhonne 11 maheenon tak kaam kiya. unki jagah O.pi. raamaasvaami reddiyaar ne li jo 15 August 1947 ko Bhaarat ko aajaadi diye jaane ke samay Madras raajya ke pehle mukhyamantri bane.[73] Madras preseedeinsi svatantr Bhaarat ka Madras raajya ban gaya.[74]

janasaankhyiki

inhein bhi dekhein: Demographics of Madras Presidency

1822 mein Madras preseedeinsi ki apni pehli janaganana hui jismein 13,476,923 ki aabaadi laut aayi. 1836-37 ke beech ek doosari janaganana ki gayi jismein 13,967,395 ki aabaadi darj ki gayi jismein 15 saalon mein sirf 490,472 ki vruddhi hui thi. janasankhya ki pehli panchavaarshik ganana 1851 se 1852 tak hui thi. ismein 22,031,697 ki aabaadi laut aayi thi. iske baad fir 1856-57, 1861-62 aur 1866-67 mein janaganana ki gayi. 1851-52 mein Madras preseedeinsi ki janasankhya ka Milan 22,857,855 par, 1861-62 mein 24,656,509 par aur 1866-67 mein 26,539,052 par kiya gaya.[75]

Bhaarat ki pehli suvyavasthit janaganana 1871 mein ki gayi aur ismein Madras preseedeinsi mein 31,220,973 ki aabaadi ki vaapasi hui.[76] tab se har das varsh mein ek baar janaganana karaayi jaati hai. british Bhaarat ki antim janaganana 1941 mein karaayi gayi thi jismein Madras preseedeinsi ki aabaadi 49,341,810 darj ki gayi thi.[77]

bhaashaaen

inhein bhi dekhein: Dravidian languages
chitr:Language map MadrasPresidency.jpg
Madras preseedeinsi ki bhaasha-sambandhi maanachitr

Madras preseedeinsi mein tamil, telugu, malayalam, kannad, udiya, tulu aur angreji sabhi bhaashaaen boli jaati theen. tamil bhaasha Madras shahar se kuchh meal uttar ki or preseedeinsi ke dakshini jilon se lekar sudoor pashchim disha mein neelagiri pahaadiyon aur pashchimi ghaaton tak mein boli jaati thi.[78] telugu bhaasha Madras shahar ke uttar ke jilon mein aur bellaari ke poorv tatha anantapur jilon mein boli jaati thi.[78] dakshin kanaara ke jilon, bellaari ke pashchimi bhaag aur anantapur jilon tatha maalaabaar ke kuchh bhaagon mein kannad bhaasha boli jaati thi.[79] malayalam bhaasha maalaabaar aur dakshin kanaara ke jilon mein aur traavanakor tatha kocheen ke riyaasati raajyon mein boli jaati thi jabki dakshin kanaara mein tulu bhaasha boli jaati thi.[79] udiya bhaasha ganjaam jile mein aur vijaagaapatam jile ke kuchh bhaagon mein boli jaati thi.[79] angreji bhaasha ka prayog englo-indiynon bhaarateeyon aur yooreshiyaaiyon dvaara kiya jaata tha. yeh preseedeinsi ke liye ek sampark bhaasha aur british Bhaarat ki aadhikaarik bhaasha bhi thi jismein sabhi sarkaari kaaryavaahiyaan tatha adaalati sunavaai poori ki jaati thi.[80]

1871 ki janaganana ke anusaar tamil bhaasha bolne vaale logon ki sankhya 14,715,000, telugu bhaasha bolne vaalon ki sankhya 11,610,000, malayalam bhaasha bolne vaalon ki sankhya 2,324,000, kainaareej ya kannad bhaasha bolne vaalon ke sankhya 1,699,000 thi aur 640,000 log udiya bhaasha tatha 29,400 log tulu bhaashaaon mein baat karte the.[81] 1901 ki janaganana mein tamil bhaashi logon ki sankhya 15,182,957, telugu bhaashi logon ki sankhya 14,276,509, malayalam bhaashi logon ki sankhya 2,861,297, kannad bhaashi logon ki sankhya 1,518,579, udiya bhaasha bolne vaalon ki sankhya 1,809,314 ho gayi jabki 880,145 log hindustaani aur 1,680,635 log anya bhaashaaon ka prayog karte the.[82] Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke samay preseedeinsi ki kul aabaadi mein tamil aur telugu bhaasha bolne vaalon ki sankhya 78% thi jahaan shesh aabaadi kannad, malayalam aur tulu bhaashi logon ki thi.[83]

dharm

tanjaur mein gurukulam ke vaishnav braahman chhaatr, si.A.1909
chitr:Village shrine 1911.jpg
ek gaanv ka mandir prabhu ayyaanar ko samarpit hai, si.A.1911
chitr:Mohammadan boy 1914.jpg
muhammadan ladka, si.A.1914

1901 mein janasankhya ka vibhaajan is prakaar tha: hindu (37,026,471), musalmaan (2,732,931) aur isaai (1,934,480). 1947 mein Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke samay Madras ki anumaanit janasankhya mein 49,799,822 hindu, 3,896,452 musalmaan aur 2,047,478 isaai shaamil the.[84]

hindu dharm preseedeinsi ka pramukh dharm tha aur aabaadi ke lagbhag 88% logon dvaara iska anusaran kiya jaata tha. mukhya hindu samudaaya shaiv, vaishnav aur lingaayat the.[85] braahmanon ke beech samarth ka siddhaant kaafi lokapriya tha.[86] gram devataaon ki pooja preseedeinsi ke dakshini jilon mein drudhataapoorvak ki jaati thi jabki kaanchi, shrrungeri aur ahobilm ke mathon ko hindu maanyata ke keindron ke roop mein maana jaata tha. hindu mandiron mein tirupati ka veinkateshvar mandir, tanjaur ka bruhadeeshvaraar mandir, madurai ka meenaakshi ammaan mandir, shreerangam ka rangaanaathasvaami mandir, udupi ka Krishna mandir aur riyaasati raajya traavanakor ka padmanaabhasvaami mandir sabse bade aur sabse mahatvapoorn mandir the. islaam dharm arab vyaapaariyon dvaara Bhaarat ke dakshini bhaag mein laaya gaya tha, haalaanki jyaadaatar dharmaantaran 14veen sadi ke baad kiye gaye jab maalik kaafoor ne madurai par vijay praapt ki thi. naagaur Madras preseedeinsi ke musalmaanon ke liye sabse pavitra shahar tha. preseedeinsi mein Bhaarat ki ek sabse praacheen isaai aabaadi bhi shaamil thi. Syriai girjaagharon ki shaakhaaon ki sthaapana seint Thomas dvaara ki gayi thi jo yeeshu maseeh ke ek prachaarak the jinhonne 52 isvi mein maalaabaar tat ka daura kiya tha,[87] isaai mukhya roop se Madras preseedeinsi ke tinneveli aur maalaabaar jilon mein faile hue the jahaan riyaasati raajya traavanakor ki kul janasankhya mein mool nivaasi isaaiyon ki aabaadi ek chauthaai thi.[88] neelagiri, palaani aur ganjaam kshetron ki pahaadi janajaatiyaaain jaise ki toda, badaaga, kodaava, kota, yerukala aur khond aadivaasi devi-devataaon ki pooja karti theen aur inhein aksar hinduon ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata tha. 20veen sadi ke praarambhik varshon tak pallaar, paraiyaar, sakkiliyaar, pulaayaar, madiga, ijhaava aur holeya hindu samudaayon ko achhoot maana jaata tha aur inhein hindu mandiron ke bheetar jaane ki anumati naheen thi. haalaanki, bhaarateeya mahilaaon ki daasatv se mukti aur saamaajik buraaiyon ko mitaane ke saath-saath asprushyata ko bhi dheere-dheere kaanoon aur samaaj sudhaar ke maadhyam se samaapt kar diya gaya. bobbili ke raaja jinhonne 1932 se 1936 tak Premier ki seva ki thi, sampoorn preseedeinsi mein mandir prashaasan bordon ke liye achhooton ko niyukt kiya.[89] 1939 mein si. raajagopaalaachaari ki Congress sarkaar ne mandir pravesh praadhikaar evam kshatipoorti adhiniyam ko pesh kiya jisne hindu mandiron mein achhooton ke pravesh par lage sabhi pratibandhon ko hata diya.[64] traavanakor ki chitra thiroonal ne apne deevaan sar si.pi. raamaasvaami ayyar ki salaah par 1937 mein isi tarah ka ek kaanoon, mandir pravesh udghoshana kaanoon pehle hi paarit kar diya tha.[90]

1921 mein paanaagal ke raaja ki sarkaar ne hindu dhaarmik daan vidheyak[91] paarit kiya tha jisne hindu mandiron ka prabandhan karne aur unki nidhiyon ke sambhaavit durupayog ko rokane ke liye Madras preseedeinsi mein sarkaar-niyantrit nyaason ka gathan kiya.[91] bobbili ke raaja ne bhi tirumaala tirupati devasthaanam ke prashaasan mein sudhaar kiya, yeh vahi nyaas hai jo tirupati mein hindu mandir ka prabandhan karta hai.[89]

prashaasan

1784 ke pits India adhiniyam ne Governor ki sahaayata ke liye vidhaayi shaktiyon vaale ek kaaryakaari parishad ka gathan kiya tha. parishad shuruaat mein chaar sadasyon ka tha jinmein se do sadasya bhaarateeya civil seva ya anubandhit civil seva se the aur teesara sadasya ek vishisht bhaarateeya tha.[92] chautha sadasya Madras army ka commander-in-cheef tha.[93] 1895 mein jab Madras army ko samaapt kar diya gaya tab parishad ke sadasyon ki sankhya ghatkar teen rah gayi thi.[93] is parishad ki vidhaayi shaktiyaan vaapas le li gayi theen aur iska darja ghatkar sirf ek salaahakaar nikaaya ka rah gaya tha. haalaanki 1861 ke bhaarateeya parishad adhiniyam ke anusaar in shaktiyon ko fir se bahaal kar diya gaya. sarkaari aur gair-sarkaari sadasyon ko shaamil kar samay-samay par parishad ka vistaar kiya gaya aur 1935 tak isne mukhya vidhaayi nikaaya ke roop mein seva ki, jab ek aur adhik pratinidhi prakruti waali vidhaanasabha ka gathan kiya gaya aur vidhaayi shaktiyaan vidhaanasabha ko sthaanaantarit kar di gayeen. 15 August 1947 ko Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke avsar par Governor ke teen sadasyeeya kaaryakaari parishad ko samaapt kar diya gaya.

Madras preseedeinsi ki jadein madraasapattanam gaanv mein nihit hain jise 1640 mein adhigruhit kiya gaya tha.[94] iske baad 1690 mein fort seint David ka adhigrahan kiya gaya tha. chingaleput jila jise 1763 mein adhigruhit chingaleput ke jagheere ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, yeh Madras preseedeinsi ka pehla jila tha.[94]salem aur maalaabaar jilon ko seringaapaatam ki sandhi ke anusaar 1792 mein teepoo sulataan se aur Coimbatore tatha kanaara jilon ko 1799 mein chauthe Mysore yuddh ke baad praapt kiya gaya tha.[95] tanjaur maraatha saamraajya ke pradeshon ko 1799 mein ek alag jile ke roop mein gathit kiya gaya tha. san 1800 mein bellaari aur kadappa jilon ka nirmaan Hyderabad ke nijaam dvaara sattaantarit kshetr se kiya gaya tha.[94] 1801 mein uttari arkaat, dakshin arkaat, nellor, trichneepoli, madura aur tinneveli jilon ko poorvavarti Karnataka saamraajya ke pradeshon se banaaya gaya tha.[94] trichinopoli jile ko June 1805 mein tanjaur jile ka ek anumandal banaaya gaya tha aur August 1808 tak yeh isi roop mein raha jab ek alag jile ke roop mein iske darje ko fir se bahaal kar diya gaya. raajamundari, masooleepattanam aur guntoor jile 1823 mein banaae gaye the.[96] in teenon jilon ko 1859 mein do jilon - godaavari aur Krishna jilon ke roop mein punargathit kiya gaya.[96] godaavari jile ko aage 1925 mein poorvi aur pashchimi godaavari jilon mein dvibhaajit kar diya gaya. kuranool saamraajya ko 1839 mein shaamil kiya gaya aur ise Madras preseedeinsi ke ek alag jile ke roop mein gathit kiya gaya.[94] prashaasanik suvidha ke liye kanaara jile ko 1859 mein uttar aur dakshin kanaara mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya. 1862 mein uttar kanaara ko Mumbai preseedeinsi mein sthaanaantarit kiya gaya. 1859-60 aur 1870 ke beech Madras aur chingaleput jilon ko ek saath milaakar ek ekal jile ke roop mein rakha gaya.[94] 1868 mein Coimbatore jile se ek alag neelagiri jila banaaya gaya.[95] 1908 tak Madras preseedeinsi 24 jilon[93] se milkar bana tha jinmein se pratyek bhaarateeya civil seva se aane vaale ek jila collector dvaara prashaasit tha. jilon ko kabhi-kabhi diveejanon mein up-vibhaajit kar diya jaata tha jinmein se pratyek ek deputy collector ke adheen hota tha. diveejanon ko aage taalukon aur sangh panchaayaton ya gram samitiyon ke roop mein up-vibhaajit kiya jaata tha. british Bhaarat mein agencyon ka gathan kabhi-kabhi preseedeinsi ke asthir, vidroh ki aashanka vaale kshetron mein se kiya jaata tha. Madras preseedeinsi ki do mahatvapoorn agencyan theen vijaagaapaatam hil traikts agency jo vijaagaapaatam ke jila collector ke adheen tha aur ganjaam hil traikts agency jo ganjaam ke jila collector ke adheen tha. 1936 mein ganjaam aur vijaagaapaatam jilon (vijaagaapaatam aur ganjaam agencyon sahit) ko Madras aur udeesa ke navanirmit praant ke beech vibhaajit kar diya gaya tha.

paanch riyaasati raajya Madras sarkaar ke adheenasth the. inke naam the bangaanaapalle, kocheen, pudukkottai, sandoor aur traavanakor.[97] in sabhi raajyon ko vyaapak star par aantarik svaayattata thi. haalaanki inki videsh neeti ka niyantran poori tarah se ek rejideint ke paas tha jo fort seint George ke Governor ka pratinidhitv karte the.[98] bangaanaapalle ke maamale mein rejideint kuranool ka jila collector tha jabki bellaari[99] ka jila collector sandoor ka rejideint tha.[100] pudukkottai ka rejideint 1800 se 1840 aur 1865 se 1873 tak tanjaur ka jila collector, 1840 se 1865 tak tanjaur ka jila collector aur 1873 se 1947 tak trichinopoli ka jila collector tha.[101]

army

chitr:Madras Light Cavalry 1845.JPG
Madras laait kaivelari mein ek british adhikaari

british East India company ko apni swayam ki sena gathit karne ki anumati sabse pehle 1665 mein iski bastiyon ki suraksha ke liye di gayi thi. sena ki ullekhaneeya praarambhik kaarravaaiyon mein mugal evam maraatha aakramanakaariyon aur Karnataka ke navaab ki senaaon se shahar ki raksha karna shaamil tha. 1713 mein lieutenant John di maurgan ke netrutv mein madraasi sainya balon ne swayam fort seint David ki gheraabandi aur richrd rauvarth ke vidroh ko kuchalane mein prasiddhi haasil ki.[102]

jab French Bhaarat ke Governor Joseph fraaainsva dupleks ne 1748 mein svadeshi bataaliynon ko badhaana shuroo kiya, Madras ke angrejon ne mukadama daayar kar diya aur Madras rejimeint ki sthaapana ki.[103] haalaanki baad mein Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon mein angrejon dvaara svadeshi rejimeinton ka gathan kiya gaya, teen prejideinsiyon ko alag karne waali dooriyon ke kaaran pratyek sainya bal dvaara alag-alag siddhaant aur sangathan viksit kiye gaye. sena ka pehla punargathan 1795 mein kiya gaya jab Madras army ko nimnalikhit ikaaiyon mein punargathit kiya gaya:

  • Europeeya paidal sena - das companiyon ki do bataaliynein.
  • topakhaane - pratyek paanch companiyon ki do Europeeya bataaliynein jismein laskaron ki pandrah companiyaan shaamil theen.
  • svadeshi kaivelari - chaar rejimeint.
  • svadeshi paidal sena - do bataaliynon vaale gyaarah rejimeint.[104]
chitr:Jamadar 20thDeccanHorse Madras.JPG
20veen Deccan ghode ka ek jamaadaar

1824 mein ek doosra punargathan kiya gaya jiske baad dohari bataaliynon ko samaapt kar diya gaya aur maujooda bataaliynon ko fir se naya number diya gaya. us samay Madras army mein ghudsavaar topachi sanikon ke ek Europeeya aur ek svadeshi briged, pratyek chaar companiyon vaale paidal topachi sainikon ki teen bataaliynein shaamil theen jismein laskar ki companiyaan, laait kaivalari ke teen rejimeint, agrim pankti ke do kor, Europeeya paidal sena ki do bataaliynein, svadeshi paidal sena ki 52 bataaliynein aur teen sthaaneeya bataaliynein sanlagn theen.[105][106]

1748 aur 1895 ke beech Bengal aur Mumbai ki senaaon ki tarah Madras army ka apna khud ka commander-in-cheef tha jo presideint ke adheenasth tha aur baad mein Madras ke Governor ke adheenasth ho gaya. difault roop se Madras army ka commander-in-cheef Governor ke kaaryakaari parishad ke ek sadasya the. army ke sainikon ne 1762 mein Manila ki vijay,[107] seelon tatha dach ke khilaaf 1795 ke abhiyaanon ke saath-saath usi varsh spaais dveepasamooh ki vijay mein bhaag liya. unhonne maurootiys (1810), jaava (1811)[108] ke khilaaf abhiyaanon, teepoo sultaan ke khilaaf yuddhon aur 18veen sadi ke Karnataka yuddhon, doosare englo-maraatha yuddh ke dauraan Cuttack par angrejon ke hamle,[109] bhaarateeya gdar ke dauraan Lucknow ki gheraabandi aur teesare englo-barmi yuddh ke dauraan oopari barma par aakraman mein bhi bhaag liya.[110]

1857 ka gadar jo Bengal aur Mumbai ki senaaon mein bhaari badlaav ka kaaran bana tha, Madras army par iska koi prabhaav naheen pada. 1895 mein prejideinshiyl senaaon ko antat: samaapt kar diya gaya aur Madras rejimeint ko british Bhaarat ke commander-in-cheef ke pratyaksh niyantran mein la diya gaya.[111]

Madras army maalaabaar ke mopalaaon aur kodaagoo ke sainikon par kaafi bharosa karti thi jinhein us samay koorg ke roop mein jaana jaata tha.[110]

bhoomi

inhein bhi dekhein: List of zamindari estates in Madras Presidency

bhoomi ke kiraaye se praapt raajasv ke saath-saath kiraayedaaron ki bhoomi se unke shuddh laabhon par aadhaarit aay kar preseedeinsi ki aay ke mukhya srot the.[112][112]

praacheen samay mein aisa prateet hota hai ki bhoomi aam taur par ek aise vyakti ke paas hoti thi jo ise anya svaamiyon ki sahamati ke bina bech naheen sakta tha, jo jyaadaatar maamalon mein ek hi samudaaya ke sadasya hote the.[113] angrejon ke aagaman se poorv bhoomi ke vyaktigat svaamitv ki avadhaarana Bhaarat ke pashchimi tat ke paas pehle hi ubhar chuki thi[114] jisse ki nae prashaasan ki bhoomi raajasv pranaali iski poorvavarti pranaali se suspasht roop se alag naheen thi.[115] fir bhi jameendaaron ne bhoomi ko samudaaya ke anya sadasyon ki sahamati ke bina kabhi naheen becha.[114] is saamyavaadi sanpada adhikaar pranaali ko vellaalaaron ke beech kaniyaachi ke roop mein, braahmanon ke beech svastiym ke roop mein aur musalmaanon tatha isaaiyon ke beech miraasi ke roop mein jaana jaata tha.[114] tanjaur jile mein gaanv ki sabhi miraasi ek akele vyakti ke paas nihit rahati thi jise ekaabhogam kaha jaata tha.[114] miraaseedaaron ko ek nishchit raashi daan ke roop mein dena aavashyak hota tha jise gram prashaasan mein mirei ke roop mein jaana jaata tha.[114] unhonne sarkaar ko bhi ek nirdisht raashi ka bhugataan kiya tha. badle mein miraaseedaaron ne sarkaar se gaanv ke aatanrik maamalon mein hastakshep naheen karne ki maang ki thi.[116]

maalikaana pranaali maalaabaar jile aur kocheen tatha traavanakor raajyon mein poori tarah se alag thi jahaan bhoomi ka saampradaayik svaamitv maujood naheen tha.[117] iski bajaay bhoomi vyaktigat sampatti thi jiska svaamitv adhikaanshat: namboodiri, Nair aur mopala samudaayon ke logon ke paas tha jinhonne bhoomi kar ka bhugataan naheen kiya tha. badle mein Nair yuddh ke samay purush ladaakon ki aapoorti karte the jabki namboodiri hindu mandiron ke rakharakhaav ka prabandhan karte the. ye jameendaar kuchh had tak aatmanirbhar the aur inki apni police aur nyaayik pranaaliyaan theen jisse raaja ke niji kharche nyoonatam hote the.[117] haalaanki agar jameendaar bhoomi ko bech dete the to is par milne vaale karon par chhoot se unhein vanchit rahana padta tha[118] jiska arth yeh tha ki bhoomi ko bandhak rakhana ise bechne ki tulana mein kaheen adhik aam tha. bhoomi ka vyaktigat svaamitv preseedeinsi ke telugu bhaashi kshetron mein bhi aam tha.[119] telugu-bhaashi jilon ke pramukhon ne kamobesh kaafi samay se ek svatantr astitv banaae rakha tha,[119] jo yuddh ke samay senaaon aur upakaranon ke saath apni prabhuta prastut karte the. badle mein bhoomi se unke raajasv ko baadhaarahit rakha jaata tha.[119] angrejon ke samay ke dauraan preseedeinsi ke uttari jilon mein adhikaansh bhoomi in chhote "raajaaon" ke beech baaaint di jaati thi.[119]

islaami aakramanon ke kaaran bhoomi svaamitv pranaali mein chhote-mote badlaav kiye gaye jab hindu bhoosvaamiyon par karon ko badha diya gaya aur sampatti ka niji svaamitv kam ho gaya.[120]

jab angrejon ne prashaasan ko apne haathon mein liya, unhonne bhoomi svaamitv ki sadiyon puraani pranaali ko akshunn chhod diya gaya.[121] nae shaasakon ne un jameenon se raajasv ki vasooli ke liye bichauliyon ko niyukt kiya jo sthaaneeya jameendaaron ke niyantran mein naheen the. adhikaansh maamalon mein in bichauliyon ne kisaanon ke kalyaan ki anadekhi ki aur poori tarah se unka faayda uthaaya.[121] is mudde ko hal karne ke liye 1786 mein ek raajasv board ka gathan kiya gaya lekin iska koi faayda naheen hua.[122] isi avadhi mein Lord kaurnavaalis dvaara Bengal mein sthaapit jameendaari bastiyaan kaafi safal siddh huin aur baad mein 1799 ke baad se inka prayog Madras presideinsi mein kiya gaya.[123]

haalaanki sthaayi basti utani safal naheen hui jitni ki yeh Bengal mein thi.[112] jab company apekshit munaafe ke star tak naheen pahunch paayi to 1804 aur 1814 ke beech tinneveli, trichinopoli, Coimbatore, uttari arkaat aur dakshini arkaat jilon mein "graameen basti" (vilej setalameint) ke naam se ek nayi pranaali prayog mein laai gayi.[112] ismein pramukh kisaanon ko bhoomi patte par dena shaamil tha jo iske badle mein bhoomi raiyaton ya khetihr kisaanon ko patte par dete the.[112] haalaanki sthaayi basti ki tulana mein graameen basti mein kuchh bhinnataaen hone ke kaaran antat: ise hata diya gaya. iski jagah 1820 aur 1827 ke beech sar Thomas munaro dvaara prayog mein laai gayi "raiyatavaari basti" ne li.[112] nai vyavastha ke anusaar bhoomi seedhe taur par raiyaton ko saunp di gayi jinhonne inka kiraaya seedhe sarkaar ko bhugataan kiya. bhoomi ka moolyaankan aur raajasv ke bhugataan ka nirdhaaran sarkaar dvaara kiya gaya.[112] is pranaali mein raiyaton ke liye kai faayde aur nuksaan the.[112] 1833 mein Lord William beintink ne ek nai pranaali laagoo ki jise "mahalavaari" ya graameen pranaali ka naam diya gaya jiske tahat jameendaaron ke saath-saath raiyaton ne sarkaar ke saath ek anubandh kiya.[112]

1911 mein bhoomi ka adhikaansh hissa raiyaton ke paas tha jo kiraae ka bhugataan seedhe sarkaar ko karte the. jameendaari sanpadaaon mein lagbhag 26 million ekad (1,10,000 kimi2) hissa shaamil tha jo sampoorn preseedeinsi ke ek chauthaai se adhik tha.[124] nityata mein sarkaar ko deya peshakash ya bheint lagbhag 330,000 pound prati varsh thi.[124] dhaarmik daanon ya raajya ko di gayi sevaaon ke liye inaamon, bhoomi ke raajasv-mukt ya kiraaya-chhodne ke anudaanon mein kul milaakar lagbhag 8 million ekad (32,000 kimi2) kshetr shaamil tha.[124] 1945-46 mein 2,09,45,456 ekad (84,763.25 kimi2) jameendaari sanpada maujood thi jisse 97,83,167 rupaye ka aur 5,89,04,798 ekad (2,38,379.26 kimi2) raiyatavaari bhoomi se 7,26,65,330 ka raajasv utpann hua tha.[125] Madras mein 15,782 varg meal (40,880 kimi2) ka van kshetr shaamil tha.[126]

jameendaari ke kisaanon ko utpeedn se bachaane ke liye Madras sarkaar dvaara 1908 ka bhoomi sanpada adhiniyam paarit kiya gaya tha.[89] adhiniyam ke tahat raiyaton ko bhoomi ka sthaayi dhaarak bana diya gaya tha.[127] haalaanki raiyaton ki raksha se door yeh kaanoon preseedeinsi ke udiya bhaashi uttari jilon mein iske apekshit laabhaarthi kisaanon ke hiton ke liye haanikaarak saabit hua[128] kyonki isne kisaanon ko unki bhoomi aur jameendaar ke saath nirantar daasatv ki janjeer se baandh diya.[89] san 1933 mein bobbili ke raaja dvaara jameendaaron ke adhikaaron par ankush lagaane aur shoshan se kisaan ki raksha ke liye adhiniyam mein ek sanshodhan pesh kiya gaya. jameendaaron ke kade virodh ke baavajood is adhiniyam ko vidhaan parishad mein paarit kar diya gaya.[89]

krushi aur sinchaai

Madras preseedeinsi mein 1936 mein liye gaye chaaval stationon ke maanachitr

Madras preseedeinsi ki lagbhag 71% aabaadi krushi kaarya mein lagi hui thi[129][130] jahaan krushi varsh aam taur par July mein shuroo hota tha.[131] Madras preseedeinsi mein ugaayi jaane waali fasalon mein chaaval, makka, kanbhu (bhaarateeya baajara) aur raagi jaise anaajon ke saath-saath[132] baingan, shakarakand, bhindi, sem, pyaaj, lahasun jaisi sabjiyon sahit[133] mirch, kaali mirch aur adarak ke alaava arandi ke beejon aur moongafali se bane vanaspati tel shaamil the.[134] yahaaain ugaaye jaane vaale falon mein neenboo, kela, katahal, kaajoo, aam, shareefe aur papeete shaamil the.[135] iske alaava pattaagobhi, foolagobhi, pomelo, aadoo, paan mirch, naaijar seed aur jvaar jaisi fasalon ko Asia, Europe ya Africa se laakar yahaaain ugaaya gaya tha[132] jabki angoor Australia se laaye gaye the.[136] khaadya fasalon ke istemaal kiya gaya kul upaj kshetr 80% aur nagadi fasalon ke liye 15% tha.[137] kul kshetr mein chaaval ka hissa 26.4 pratishat; kanbhu ka 10 pratishat; raagi ka 5.4 pratishat aur cholam ka 13.8 pratishat tha.[137] kapaas ki kheti 17,40,000 ekad (7,000 kimi2), tilhan ki 2.08 million, masaalon ki 0.4 million aur neel ki 0.2 million hoti thi.[137] 1898 mein Madras ne raiyatavaari aur inaam ki 1,93,00,000 ekad (78,000 kimi2) bhoomi par ugaaye gaye 2,15,70,000 ekad (87,300 kimi2) fasalon se 7.47 million tan khaadyaannon ka utpaadan kiya tha jisse 28 million aabaadi ko sahayog mila.[130] chaaval ki upaj 7 se 10 seedablyooti prati ekad, cholam ki paidaavaar 3.5 se 6.25 seedablyooti prati ekad, kanbu ki 3.25 se 5 seedablyooti prati ekad aur raagi ki paidaavaar 4.25 se 5 seedablyooti prati ekad thi.[137] khaadya fasalon ki ausat paidaavaar 6.93 seedablyooti prati ekad thi.[130]

chitr:Periyar Dam during construction.JPG
vidyut utpaadan ke liye periyaar nadi par mulaaperiyr baandh banaaya gaya tha

poorvi tat ke aaspaas sinchaai mukhyat: nadiyon par bane baandhon, jheelon aur sinchaai ke tainkon ke maadhyam se ki jaati thi. Coimbatore jile mein kheti ke liye paani ke mukhya srot tank hi the.[136]

1884 mein paarit bhoomi sudhaar aur krushak rin adhiniyam ne kuon ke nirmaan aur bhoomi uddhaar pariyojanaaon mein unke upayog ke liye dhan ki vyavastha pradaan ki.[138] 20veen sadi ke praarambhik bhaag mein Madras sarkaar ne bijli ke pumpon se nalakoopon ki khudaai ke liye pamping evam boring vibhaag ka gathan kiya.[135] mettur baandh,[139] periyaar pariyojana, kadappa-kuranool nahar aur rushikulya pariyojana Madras sarkaar dvaara shuroo ki gayi badi sinchaai pariyojanaaen theen. Madras-Mysore seema par hogenakkal fauls ke neeche 1934 mein nirmit mettur baandh ne preseedeinsi ke pashchimi jilon ko paani ki aapoorti ki. traavanakor mein seema ke paas periyaar nadi par periyaar baandh (jise ab mullaaperiyaar baandh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai) ka nirmaan kiya gaya.[140] is pariyojana se periyaar nadi ke paani ko vaigai nadi ke besin mein bheja gaya jisse ki pashchimi ghaaton ke poorv ki nirjal bhoomi mein sinchaai ki ja sake.[140] isi tarah ganjaam mein rushikulya nadi ke paani ko upayog karne ke liye rushikulya pariyojana shuroo ki gayi.[141] is yojana ke tahat 1,42,000 ekad (570 kimi2) bhoomi ko sinchaai ke antargat laaya gaya.[141] angrejon ne sinchaai ke liye kai baandhon aur naharon ka bhi nirmaan kiya. shreerangam dweep ke nikat kolidm nadi par ek oopari baandh ka nirmaan kiya gaya.[142] godaavari nadi par bana daulaaishvaram baandh, vaineteyam godaavari par gunnaavaram jalasetu, kuranool-kadappa nahar[130] aur Krishna baandh angrejon dvaara kiye gaye pramukh sinchaai kaaryon ke udaaharan hain.[141][142] 1946-47 mein kul 97,36,974 ekad (39,404.14 kimi2) ekad kshetr sinchaai ke daayare mein tha jisse poonji parivyaya par 6.94% ki aay ki praapti hoti thi.[143]

vyaapaar, udyog aur vaanijya

chitr:Sea front Tuticorin 1913.jpg
tooteekorin ka bandargaah
mannaar ki khaadi mein machhali pakadte hue, si.A.1926
chitr:Handloom weaving 1913.JPG
hathakaragha par bunaai, si.A. 1913
chitr:ParryRefinery Samalkota 1914.jpg
samaalakot mein pairi end company sugar rifaainari, si.A.1914
chitr:MadrasAutomobilesLtd1914.JPG
Madras automobile limited ki kaaryashaalaaen, si.A.1914

Madras preseedeinsi ke vyaapaar mein anya praanton ke saath preseedeinsi ka aur iska videshi vyaapaar donon shaamil tha. videshi vyaapaar ka hissa kul vyaapaar ka 93 pratishat tha jabki shesh bhaag aantarik vyaapaar ka tha.[144] videsh vyaapaar ka hissa kul ka 70 pratishat tha jabki 23 pratishat bhaag antar-praanteeya vyaapaar ka tha.[144] 1900-01 mein british Bhaarat ke anya praanton se aayaat ki raashi 13.43 karod rupaye thi jabki anya praanton ko niryaat ki raashi 11.52 karod rupae thi. usi varsh ke dauraan anya deshon ko kiya gaya niryaat 11.74 karod rupaye par pahunch gaya jabki aayaat ka aankada 6.62 karod rupae tha.[145] Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke samay preseedeinsi ke aayaat ki raashi 71.32 karod rupaye prati varsh thi jabki niryaat ka aankada 64.51 karod rupae tha.[143] United kingadam ke saath kiya gaya vyaapaar preseedeinsi ke kul vyaapaar ka 31.54% tha jismein pramukh bandargaah Madras ka hissa kul vyaapaar ka 49% tha.[143]

kapaas ke pees-guds, kautan tvist aur dhaage, dhaatu aur mitti ka tel aayaat ki mukhya vastuen theen jabki pashu ki chamadi aur khaal, kachcha kapaas, kaufi aur pees-guds niryaat ki mukhya vastuen thi.[144] kachcha kapaas, jaanvaron ki khaal, tilhan, anaaj, daalein, kaufi, chai aur kapaas nirmaan saamagriyaan samudri vyaapaar ki mukhya vastuen theen.[146] adhikaansh samudri vyaapaar Madras mein preseedeinsi ke pramukh bandargaah ke maadhyam se kiya jaata tha. poorvi tat par gopaalapur, kalingapattanam, bimleepattanam, vishaakhaapattanam, masooleepattanam, kokanaada, Madras, kuddaalor, negaapaatam, panban aur tooteekorin ke saath-saath pashchimi samudratat par mangalaur, kannaanor, kaaleekat, telleecheri, kocheen, alleppi, kvilon aur kolaachel anya mahatvapoorn bandargaah the.[147] 1 August 1936 ko kocheen bandargaah aur 1 April 1937 ko Madras bandargaah ko Bhaarat sarkaar ne apne niyantran mein le liya.[143] Madras, kocheen aur kokaanaada mein vaanijya mandal maujood the.[148] inmein se pratyek mandal ne Madras vidhaan parishad mein ek-ek sadasya ko naamit kiya.[148]

kapaas ki gining aur bunaai Madras preseedeinsi ke do pramukh udyog the. kapaas ka utpaadan bellaari jile mein bhaari maatra mein kiya jaata tha aur Madras ke jaurjataaun mein inhein press kiya jaata tha.[149] ameriki gruh yuddh ki vajah se lankaashaayar mein kapaas ki kami ke kaaran vyaapaar mein ek giraavat aa gayi thi jisne kapaas aur vastr nirmaan ko protsaahan diya aur isne sampoorn preseedeinsi mein kapaas ke preson ki sthaapana ko badhaava diya.[149] 20veen sadi ke praarambhik varshon mein Coimbatore sooti vastron ka ek mahatvapoorn kendra ban kar ubhara[150] aur isne "dakshin Bhaarat ke Manchester" ki upaadhi haasil ki.[151] godaavari, vijaagaapaatam aur kistana jaise uttari jile kapaas ki bunaai ke suprasiddh kendra the. ef.J.vi. minchin dvaara sanchaalit ek cheeni mil ganjaam ke asaka mein aur East India distilreej end sugar faiktreej company dvaara sanchaalit doosra cheeni mil dakshin arkaat jile ke nellikuppam mein sthit tha.[152] preseedeinsi ke telugu-bhaashi uttari jilon mein bhaari maatra mein tambaakoo ki kheti ki jaati thi jinhein baad mein sigaaron mein bhara jaata tha.[153] trichinopoli, Madras aur dindeegul mukhya sigaar-utpaadak kshetr the.[153] krutrim enilin aur elijrin rangon ki khoj ke samay tak Madras ke paas ek sampann vanaspati rang nirmaan udyog maujood tha.[153] is shahar ne elyoomeeniym ke bartan banaane ke liye bhaari maatra mein elyoomeeniym ka aayaat bhi kiya tha.[154] 20veen sadi mein sarkaar ne krom taining factory sthaapit ki jahaan uchch-gunavatta ke chamade ka utpaadan hota tha.[155] preseedeinsi mein pehli sharaab ki bhaththi 1826 mein neelagiri hills mein sthaapit ki gayi.[155] kahava ki kheti vaayanaad ke kshetron tatha koorg evam Mysore[156] raajyon mein ki jaati thi jabki chai ki kheti neelagiri hills ki dhlaanon mein ki jaati thi.[157] kahava ke baagaan traavanakor mein bhi banaae gaye the lekin 19veen sadi ke ant mein ek gambhir olaavrushti ne is raajya mein kahava ki kheti ko nasht kar diya aur pados ke vaayanaad mein kahava ke baagaanon ko lagbhag poori tarah se mita diya.[156] kahava-shodhan kaarya kaaleekat, telleecheri, mangalor aur Coimbatore mein kiye jaate the.[157] 1947 mein Madras mein 3,761 kaarkhaanon ke saath-saath 276,586 kaareegar maujood the.[143]

preseedeinsi ka matsya-paalan udyog kaafi samruddh tha jahaan shaark ke par,[158] machhaliyon ke pet[158] aur matsya-shodhan kaarya[159] machhuaaron ke liye aay ke mukhya srot the. tooteekorin ka dakshini bandargaah konch-fishing ka ek kendra tha[160] lekin Madras ke saath-saath seelon ko mukhya roop se iski parl fishri ke liye jaana jaata tha.[161] parl fishri paraava samudaayon dvaara ki jaati thi aur yeh ek aakarshak pesha tha.

1946-47 mein preseedeinsi ka kul raajasv 57 karod rupae tha jiska vitran is prakaar tha: bhoomi raajasv, 8.53 karod rupae; aabakaari, 14.68 karod rupae; aayakar, 4.48 karod rupae; staanp raajasv 4.38 karod rupae; van, 1.61 karod rupae; anya kar, 8.45 karod rupae; asaadhaaran praaptiyaan, 2.36 karod rupae aur raajasv nidhi, 5.02 karod rupae. 1946-47 ke liye kul vyaya 56.99 karod rupae tha.[143] 1948 ke ant mein 208,675 keveee bijli ka utpaadan kiya gaya tha jiska 98% bhaag sarkaar ke svaamitv ke adheen tha.[143] bijli utpaadan ki kul maatra 467 million unit thi.[143]

Madras stock exchange ki sthaapana 1920 mein Madras shahar mein ki gayi thi jismein 100 sadasya shaamil the lekin dheere-dheere yeh sankhya kam hoti chali gayi aur 1923 tak iski sadasyata ghatkar teen rah gayi jab ise band kar dena pada.[162][163] fir bhi September 1937 mein Madras stock exchange ko safalataapoorvak punarjeevit kar liya gaya aur ise Madras stock exchange association limited ke roop mein nigmit kiya gaya.[162][164] iaaidi pairi, binni end company aur arbuthanot bank 20veen sadi ke ant mein sabse bade niji-svaamitv vaale vyaavasaayik nigam the.[165] iaaidi pairi raasaayanik urvarakon aur cheeni ka utpaadan aur bikri karti thi jabki binni end company apne kataai evam bunaai milon, oteri ke bakingham evam Karnataka mils mein nirmit sooti kapadon aur yoonifaurm ki maarketing karti thi.[165][166][167] arbuthanot parivaar ke svaamitv wala arbuthanot bank 1906 mein iske vightan tak preseedeinsi ka sabse bada bank bada tha.[168] daridrata ki sthiti mein aa gaye digbhramit poorv bhaarateeya niveshakon ne nattukottaai chettees dvaara pradatt daan ki nidhiyon se Indian bank ki sthaapana ki.[169][170]

1913-14 ke beech Madras mein 247 companiyaan maujood theen.[171] 1947 mein is shahar ne panjeekrut kaarkhaanon ki sthaapana ka netrutv kiya lekin kul utpaadak poonji ke keval 62% bhaag ko niyojit kiya.[171]

Bhaarat ka pehla pashchimi-shaili ka banking sansthaan Madras bank tha jiski sthaapaana 21 June 1683 ko ek sau hajaar pound starling ki poonji se ki gayi thi.[172][173] iske baad 1788 mein Karnataka bank, 1795 mein bank of Madras aur 1804 mein eshiyaatik bank ka shubhaaranbh kiya gaya tha.[172] 1843 mein sabhi bankon ka ek saath vilay kar bank of Madras ko banaaya gaya.[173] bank of Madras ki shaakhaaen Coimbatore, mangalaur, kaaleekat, telleecheri, alleppi, kokanaada, guntoor, masooleepattanam, ootaakaamand, negaapataam, tooteekorin, Bangalore, kocheen aur seelon ke Colombo sahit preseedeinsi ke sabhi pramukh shaharon aur riyaasati raajyon mein theen. 1921 mein bank of Mumbai aur bank of Bengal ke saath bank of Madras ka vilay kar impeeriyl bank of India banaaya gaya.[174] 19veen sadi mein arbuthanot bank preseedeinsi ke sabse bade niji-svaamitv vaale bankon mein se ek tha.[168] city union bank,[175] Indian bank,[175] Canara bank,[175] kauraporeshan bank,[175] naadar bank,[176] karur vaishya bank,[177] Catholic seeriyn bank,[177] Karnataka bank,[177] bank of chetteenaad,[178] Andhra bank,[179] vaishya bank,[179] vijaya bank,[177] Indian overseas bank[180] aur bank of madura kuchh aise agrani bank the jinke mukhyaalaya preseedeinsi mein the.

parivhan evam sanchaar

Madras aur dakshini maharaata railway laainon ke maanachitr

agency ke shuruaati dinon mein paalaki ke saath-saath parivhan ke liye ekamaatr saadhan bailagaadiyaan theen jinhein jhatakon ke roop mein jaana jaata tha.[181] teepoo sultaan ko sadkon ke nirmaan mein agrani maana jaata tha.[181] uttar mein Calcutta se aur dakshin mein traavanakor raajya se Madras ko jodne waali sadkon ka mukhya uddeshya yuddhon ke dauraan sanchaar ki laainon ke roop mein sevaaen pradaan karna tha.[181] 20veen sadi ke praarambh se bailagaadiyon aur ghodon ki jagah dheere-dheere saaikilon aur motor vaahanon ne le li jabki niji sadak parivhan ke liye mukhya saadhan motor basein theen.[182][183] preseedeinsi parivhan aur city motor sevaaen kam se kam 1910 mein Simpson end company dvaara nirmit paayoniyr, operating basein theen.[182] Madras shahar mein pehli suvyavasthit bas pranaali Madras traamavej kauraporeshan dvaara 1925 aur 1928 ke beech sanchaalit ki gayi thi.[182] 1939 ke motor vaahan adhiniyam ne saarvajanik-svaamitv waali bas evam motor sevaaon par pratibandh laga diya.[183] adhikaansh shuruaati bas sevaaen niji agencyon dvaara sanchaalit theen.[183]

neelagiri maaunten railway, ek yoonesko vishv viraasat sthal
panban railway pul, jo panban dweep ko bhaarateeya mahaadveep ke saath jodti hai, jiska nirmaan 1914 mein hua tha
chitr:Backwater Malabar 1913.JPG
maalaabaar mein ek pichhda hua kshetr aur nahar, si. 1913

preseedeinsi mein nayi sadkon ke nirmaan aur maujooda sadkon ke rakharakhaav ke liye pehla sangathit prayaas 1845 mein kiya gaya jab mukhya sadkon ke rakharakhaav ke liye ek vishesh adhikaari ki niyukti ki gayi.[184] vishesh adhikaari ke tatvaavadhaan mein bani pramukh sadakein theen, Madras-Bangalore sadak maarg, Madras-trichinopoli sadak maarg, Madras-Calcutta sadak maarg, Madras-kadappa road aur sumpaaji ghaat road.[184] 1852 mein Lord dalahauji dvaara ek lok nirmaan vibhaag banaaya gaya aur uske baad 1855 mein sugam nauparivhan ke prayojan se ek poorvi tat nahar ka nirmaan kiya gaya.[184] sadak maargon ka niyantran lok nirmaan sachivaalaya dvaara kiya gaya jo lok nirmaan kaarya ke prabhaar mein raajyapaal ke kaaryakaari parishad ke sadasya ke niyantran mein tha. preseedeinsi ke pramukh raajamaargon mein Madras-Calcutta road, Madras-traavanakor road aur Madras-kaaleekat road shaamil the.[185] 1946-47 tak Madras preseedeinsi ke paas 26,201 meal (42,166 kimi) pakki sadkein, 14,406 meal (23,184 kimi) kachchi sadkein aur 1,403 meal (2,258 kimi) nauvahan yogya naharein maujood theen.[143]

dakshin Bhaarat mein yaataayaat ke liye pehli railway line arkaat aur Madras ke beech 1 July 1856 ko bichhaai gayi.[186] is line ka nirmaan 1845 mein gathit Madras railway company dvaara kiya gaya tha.[186] royaapuram mein dakshin Bhaarat ke pehle station station ka nirmaan 1853 mein kiya gaya tha aur isne Madras railway company ke mukhyaalaya ke roop mein kaam kiya.[186] great southern Indian railway company ki sthaapana 1853 mein United kingadam mein ki gayi thi[186] aur iska mukhyaalaya trichinopoli mein tha jahaan isne trichinopoli aur negaapaatam ke beech 1859 mein apni pehli railway line ka nirmaan kiya.[186] Madras railway company ne maanak ya braud gej railway laainon ka sanchaalan kiya jabki great southern Indian railway company ne meter gej railway laainon ko sanchaalit kiya.[187] 1874 mein great southern Indian rel company ka Karnataka railway company (1864 mein sthaapit) ke saath vilay kar diya gaya aur iska naya naam southern Indian railway company rakha gaya.[188] southern Indian railway company ka vilay 1891 mein paandicheri railway company ke saath kar diya gaya jabki 1908 mein southern maharatta railway company ke saath Madras railway company ka vilay kar Madras evam south maharatta railway company ka gathan kiya gaya.[186] Madras evam south maharatta railway company ke liye egmor mein ek naya tarmins banaaya gaya.[186] 1927 mein south Indian railway company ne apna mukhyaalaya madurai se chennai central mein sthaanaantarit kar liya. company ne May 1931 ke baad se Madras shahar ke liye ek upanagareeya ilektrik train seva sanchaalit ki.[188] April 1944 mein Madras sarkaar dvaara Madras evam south maharatta railway company ka adhigrahan kar liya gaya. 1947 mein 136 meal (219 kimi) distrikt board laainon ke alaava preseedeinsi mein 4,961 meal (7,984 kimi) relamaarg maujood tha.[143] Madras ka sampark Mumbai aur Calcutta jaise anya bhaarateeya shaharon aur seelon ke saath achhi tarah juda hua tha.[189] bhaarateeya mahaadveep par mandapam ko panban dweep ke saath jodne waali 6,776 fut (2,065 mi) panban railway brij ko 1914 mein yaataayaat ke liye khola gaya tha.[190] mettupalaayam aur ootaakaamand ke beech neelagiri maaunten railway ka shubhaaranbh 1899 mein kiya gaya.[191]

Madras traamavej kauraporeshan ko hachinsans end company dvaara 1892 mein Madras shahar mein pronnat kiya gaya aur iska sanchaalan 1895 mein yahaaain tak ki London ki apni traamave pranaali banane se pehle hi shuroo ho gaya tha.[182] Madras mein isse chh: raaste nikalte the jo Madras shahar ke dooravarti bhaagon ko jodta tha aur ismein kul milaakar 17 meal (27 kimi) maarg shaamil tha.[182]

preseedeinsi mein mukhya naugamya jalamaarg godaavari aur kistana deltaaon ki naharon ke roop mein tha.[185] bakingham nahar ko 1806 mein 90 lakh ki chaandi[192] ki laagat par Madras shahar ko peddaaganjaam mein Krishna nadi ke delta se jodne ke liye kaat kar nikaala gaya tha. british India steem nevigeshan company ke jahaaj aksar Madras mein utarate the aur Mumbai, Calcutta, Colombo tatha rangoon ko niyamit sevaaen pradaan karte the.[192]

1917 mein Simpson end company ne Madras mein pehle havaai jahaaj dvaara ek pareekshan udaan ki vyavastha ki[193] jabki October 1929 mein ji vlaasto naamak ek pilot dvaara seint Thomas parvat ke nikat mount golf club maidaan par ek udaan club ki sthaapana ki gayi.[194] baad mein is sthaan ka upayog Madras havaai adde ke roop mein kiya gaya.[194] club ke praarambhik sadasyon mein se ek, raaja sar annaamalaai chettiyaar ne apni maatrubhoomi chetteenaad mein ek havaai adda sthaapit kiya.[194] 15 October 1932 ko royal air fors ke pilot nevil vinseint ne JRD tata ke vimaan ko sanchaalit kiya jo Mumbai se bellaari hokar Madras tak havaai-daak le ja raha tha.[195] yeh tata sons ki Karachi se Madras tak ki niyamit ghareloo yaatri seva tatha havaai daak seva ki shuruaat thi. baad mein udaan ka naya maarg fir se Hyderabad hokar banaaya gaya aur yeh dvi-saaptaahik ho gaya.[195] 26 November 1935 ko tata sons ne Mumbai se Goa aur kannaanor hokar tiruvanantapuram tak ek prayogaatmak saaptaahik seva shuroo ki. 28 fravari 1938 ke baad se tata sons vimaanan vibhaag, jise ab tata airlines ka naya naam diya gaya hai, isne Karachi se Madras aur trichinopoli hokar Colombo tak ek havaai daak seva shuroo ki.[195] 2 March 1938 ko Mumbai-trivendram havaai seva ko trichinopoli tak badha diya gaya.[195]

pehli sangathit daak seva 1712 mein Governor Edward hairisn dvaara Madras aur Calcutta ke beech sthaapit ki gayi thi.[196] sudhaar aur niymiteekaran ke baad sar aarcheebaald Campbell dvaara ek nayi daak pranaali shuroo ki gayi aur 1 June 1786 ko iska shubhaaranbh kiya gaya.[196] preseedeinsi ko teen daak mandalon mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya tha: Madras uttar se lekar ganjaam tak, Madras dakshin-pashchim se enjeingo (tatkaaleen traavanakor) tak aur Madras pashchim se vellor tak.[196] usi varsh Mumbai ke saath ek link sthaapit kiya gaya,[196] uske baad 1837 mein Madras, Mumbai aur Calcutta daak sevaaon ko ekeekrut kar all India service ka gathan kiya gaya. 1 October 1854 ko impeeriyl postal service dvaara pehla daak ticket jaari kiya gaya.[197] general post office (jeepeeo), Madras ki sthaapana sar aarcheebaald kainpabel dvaara 1786 mein ki gayi thi.[197] 1872-73 mein Madras aur rangoon ke beech ek dvimaasik samudri daak seva shuroo hui. iske baad Madras aur poorvi tat ke bandaragaahon ke beech ek paakshik samudri-daak seva ki shuruaat hui.[36]

1853 mein teleegraaf ke maadhyam se Madras ka sampark shesh duniya se jod diya gaya aur 1 fravari 1855 ko ek naagrik teleegraaf seva ka shubhaaranbh kiya gaya.[197] iske turant baad teleegraaf laainon ke jariye Madras aur ootaakaamand ka sampark Bhaarat ke anya shaharon se jod diya gaya. 1854 mein ek teleegraaf vibhaag sthaapit kiya gaya aur ek up adheekshak ko Madras shahar mein niyukt kar diya gaya. 1882 mein Colombo-talaaimannaar teleegraaf line, jiski sthaapana 1858 mein ki gaye thi, ise Madras tak badha diya gaya jisse shahar ka sampark seelon ke saath jud gaya.[198] preseedeinsi mein telephone seva ka shubhaaranbh 1881 mein hua aur 19 November 1881 ko 17 kanekshan ke saath pehla telephone exchange Madras ke eraabaaloo street mein sthaapit kiya gaya.[199] 1920 mein Madras tatha port bleyar ke beech ek wireless teleegraafi seva shuroo ki gayi aur 1936 mein Madras tatha rangoon ke beech indo-barma radio telephone seva ka shubhaaranbh kiya gaya.[200]

shiksha

chitr:Annamalai University hostel 1941.JPG
annaamalaai vishvavidyaalaya chhaatraavaas

pashchimi shaili ki shiksha pradaan karne vaale pehle schoolon ki sthaapana preseedeinsi mein 18veen sadi ke dauraan ki gayi thi.[201] 1822 mein sar Thomas munaro ki sifaarishon par aadhaarit ek saarvajanik nirdesh board gathit kiya gaya jiske baad svadeshi bhaasha mein shiksha pradaan karne vaale schoolon ki sthaapana ki gayi.[202] munaro ki yojana ke anusaar Madras mein ek kendreeya prashikshan vidyaalaya sthaapit kiya gaya.[202] haalaanki yeh pranaali jo vifal hoti dikhaai de rahi thi aur 1836 mein Europeeya saahitya evam vigyaan ko badhaava dene ke liye is neeti mein sanshodhan kiya gaya.[202] saarvajanik nirdesh board ke oopar svadeshi shiksha ki ek samiti bana di gayi.[203] January 1840 mein vaayasaraaya ke roop mein Lord elenaboro ke kaaryakaal ke dauraan ek vishvavidyaalaya board gathit kiya gaya jismein Alexander J. arbuthanot ko saarvajanik nirdesh ke sanyukt nideshak ke roop mein niyukt kiya gaya.[204] April 1841 mein keindreeya vidyaalaya ko 67 chhaatron ke saath ek uchch vidyaalaya mein parivrtit kiya gaya aur 1853 mein ek college vibhaag ko jodne ke saath yeh preseedeinsi college ban gaya.[203][204] 5 sitmbar 1857 ko Madras vishvavidyaalaya ko ek pareekshak nikaaya ke roop mein gathit kiya gaya jiske liye London vishvavidyaalaya ko ek model ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya tha, yahaaain pehli pareekshaaen February 1858 mein aayojit ki gayeen.[204] seelon ke si. dablyoo. thaamotharam pillai aur Carol vi. vishvanaath pillai is vishvavidyaalaya se snaatak banane vaale pehle chhaatr the.[204] sar S. subramanyam ayyar vishvavidyaalaya ke pehle bhaarateeya vaais-chaansalar the.[204]

isi tarah 1925 ke Andhra vishvavidyaalaya adhiniyam dvaara Andhra vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki gayi[205] aur 1937 mein riyaasati raajya traavanakor mein traavanakor vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit kiya gaya.[206]

1867 mein kunbhakonam mein sthaapit gavarnameint Arts college Madras ke baahar sthaapit pehle shaikshik sansthaanon mein se ek tha.[207] preseedeinsi ke sabse praacheen engineering college, college of engineering, gindi ki sthaapana 1794 mein ek sarkaari sarvekshan vidyaalaya ke roop mein ki gayi thi jiske baad 1861 mein ise ek engineering college ke roop mein pronnat kiya gaya.[208] praarambh mein yahaaain keval civil engineering ki padhaai hoti thi[208] jismein agale vishyon ke roop mein mekaanikl engineering ko 1894 mein, vidyut abhiyaantriki ko 1930 mein aur doorasanchaar tatha raajamaargon ko 1945 mein shaamil kiya gaya.[209] AC college, jahaan vastr tatha charm praudyogiki par jor diya jaata tha, iski sthaapana alagappa chettiyaar dvaara 1944 mein ki gayi thi.[210] Madras praudyogiki sansthaan jisne eyaronautikl evam automobile engineering jaise paathyakramon ko shuroo kiya tha, iski sthaapana 1949 mein ki gayi thi.[210] 1827 mein preseedeinsi ke pehle chikitsa vidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki gayi jiske baad 1835 mein Madras medical college ki sthaapana hui.[211] gavarnameint teechars college 1856 mein saidaapet mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha.[212]

niji sansthaanon mein 1842 mein sthaapit pachaiyappa college preseedeinsi ka sabse praacheen hindu shikshan sansthaan hai.[213] raaja sar annaamalaai chettiyaar dvaara apni maatrubhoomi chetteenaad mein 1929 mein sthaapit annaamalaai vishvavidyaalaya preseedeinsi ka pehla aisa vishvavidyaalaya tha jahaan chhaatraavaas ki suvidhaaen maujood theen,[214] isaai mishnariyaan kshetr mein shiksha ko badhaava dene mein agrani theen. Madras krishchiyn college, mangalaur mein seint elauyasiys college, Madras mein loyola college aur tanjaur mein seint peetars college isaai mishnariyon dvaara sthaapit kuchh shaikshik sansthaan the.

Madras preseedeinsi ke paas british Bhaarat ke sabhi praanton mein uchchatam saaksharata dar thi.[215] 1901 mein Madras mein purush saaksharata dar 11.9 pratishat aur mahila saaksharata dar 0.9 pratishat thi.[216] 1950 mein jab Madras preseedeinsi Madras raajya ban gaya, iski saaksharata dar 18 pratishat ke raashtreeya ausat ki tulana mein thodi adhik thi.[217] 1901 mein yahaan 26,771 saarvajanik evam niji sansthaan maujood the jahaan 923,760 vidvaan kaaryarat the jinmein 784,621 purush aur 139,139 mahilaaen shaamil theen.[218] 1947 tak shaikshik sansthaanon ki sankhya badhkar 37,811 ho gayi thi aur vidvaanon ki sankhya 3,989,686 par pahunch gayi thi.[83] collegeon ke alaava 1947 mein yahaan 31,975 saarvajanik tatha praathamik vidyaalaya, ladkon ke liye 720 maadhyamik vidyaalaya aur ladkiyon ke liye 4,173 praathamik tatha 181 maadhyamik vidyaalaya maujood the.[83] praarambh mein adhikaansh snaatak braahman the.[53][219][34]vishvavidyaalayon aur naagrik prashaasan mein braahmanon ki pradhaanata preseedeinsi mein braahman-virodhi aandolan ke badhne ke pramukh kaaranon mein se ek tha.[219] Madras british Bhaarat ka pehla aisa praant tha jahaan jaati-aadhaarit saampradaayik aarakshan ki shuruaat hui thi.[57]

shiksha mantri A.pi. paatro dvaara Madras vishvavidyaalaya adhiniyam ko pesh kiye jaane ke baad 1923 mein ise paarit kar diya gaya tha.[205] vidheyak ke praavadhaanon ke tahat Madras vishvavidyaalaya ke sanchaalak nikaaya ko poori tarah se lokataantrik dhaaainche par punargathit kiya gaya. vidheyak mein kaha gaya tha ki sanchaalak nikaaya ka pramukh ab ek kulaadhipti hoga jinhein ek samarthak-kulaadhipti ka sahayog praapt hoga jo aam taur par shiksha mantri hoga. nirvaachit kulaadhipti aur samarthak-kulaadhipti ke alaava kulaadhipti dvaara niyukt ek up-kulaadhipti bhi hoga.[205]

sanskruti aur samaaj

hindu, musalmaan aur bhaarateeya isaai aam taur par ek sanyukt parivaar pranaali ka anusaran karte the.[220][221] samaaj mote taur par pitrusattaatmak tha jismein sabse jyeshth purush sadasya parivaar ka mukhiya hota tha.[221] preseedeinsi ke adhikaansh bhaag mein viraasat ki pitruvansheeya pranaali ka anusaran kiya jaata tha.[222]ismein keval maalaabaar jile aur riyaasati raajya traavanakor tatha kocheen ka apavaad shaamil tha jahaan marumakkathaayam pranaali prachalan mein thi.[223]

mahilaaon se swayam ko ghareloo gatividhiyon tak seemit rahane aur ghar-parivaar ke rakharakhaav ki apeksha ki jaati thi. musalmaan aur uchch jaati ki hindu mahilaaen parada pratha ka paalan karti theen.[220] parivaar mein beti ko shaayad hi shiksha praapt hoti thi aur vah aam taur par ghareloo gatividhiyon mein apni maaain ki madad karti thi.[224] shaadi ke baad vah apne sasuraal chali jaati thi jahaan usase apne pati aur unke parivaar ke varishth sadasyon ki seva karne ki apeksha ki jaati thi.[225][226] bahuon ko yaatana dene aur unke saath anuchit vyavahaar karne ki ghatnaaen darj ki gayeen hain.[225][226] kisi braahman vidhva se apna sir munda lene aur kai tarah ke tirskaar sahan karte rahane ki apeksha ki jaati thi.[227][228]

graameen samaaj mein aise gaanv shaamil hote the jahaan vibhinn samudaayon ke log ek saath milkar rahate the. braahman alag kshetron mein rahate the jinhein agrahaaram kaha jaata tha. achhoot gaanv ki seemaaon ke baahar chhoti jhonpadiyon mein rahate the jinhein cheris kaha jaata tha aur inhein gaanv mein ghar banaane se sakhti se vanchit rakha jaata tha.[229] inka mahatvapoorn hindu mandiron mein pravesh karna ya uchch-jaati ke hinduon ke sampark mein aana varjit tha.[229][230]

19veen sadi ke madhya se shuroo karte hue pashchimi shiksha ke pravaah ke saath paaramparik bhaarateeya samaaj ki samasyaaon ko mitaane ke liye saamaajik sudhaaron ki shuruaat ki gayi. 1896 ke maalaabaar vivaah adhiniyam ne kaanooni vivaahon ke roop mein sanbandham anubandh ko maanyata di jabki 1933 ke marmakkathaayam kaanoon dvaara marmakkathaayam pranaali ko samaapt kar diya gaya.[231] bhaari sankhya mein daliton ke bahishkaar se nikaalne ke liye kai sudhaaravaadi upaaya kiye gaye. tirumala tirupati devasthaanam adhiniyam (1933) ne daliton ko devasthaanam ke prashaasan mein shaamil kiya.[89] preseedeinsi ke mandir pravesh adhikaar adhiniyam (1939)[65][64] aur uske traavanakor ke mandir pravesh udghoshana (1936) ka uddeshya daliton tatha anya nimn jaatiyon ke star ko oopar utha kar unhein uchch-jaati ke hinduon ke baraabar rakhana tha. 1872 mein ti. muthusvaami ayyar ne Madras mein vidhva punarvivaah sangh gathit kiya aur braahman vidhvaaon ke punarvivaah ki vakaalat ki.[232] devadaasi pratha ko 1927 mein viniymit kiya gaya aur 26 November 1947 ko ise poori tarah se samaapt kar diya gaya.[233]kandukuri veereshalingam ne godaavari jile mein vidhva punarvivaah aandolan ka netrutv kiya.[234]saamaajik sudhaar ke agradooton mein se adhikaansh bhaarateeya raashtravaadi the.[235][236]

graameen kshetron mein paramparaagat khelakood aur manoranjan ke saadhan murgon ki ladaai, saandon ki ladaai, gaanv ke melon aur naatakon ke roop mein the[237] shahari kshetron mein purush manoranjan clubon, sangeet samaarohon ya sabhaaon, naatakon aur kalyaanakaari sangathanon mein saamaajik aur saamyavaadi gatividhiyon mein sanlagn rahate the. Karnataka sangeet aur bharatanaatyam ko vishesh roop se uchch aur uchch-madhyam vargeeya Madras society ka sanrakshan praapt tha. angrejon dvaara preseedeinsi mein shuroo kiye gaye khelon mein cricket, tennis, football aur hockey sabse adhik lokapriya the. Madras preseedeinsi maichon ke roop mein jaana jaane wala ek vaarshik cricket tournament pongal ke dauraan bhaarateeyon aur Europeeya logon ke beech aayojit kiya jaata tha.[238]

preseedeinsi ka pehla samaachaar patra Madras kooriyr 12 October 1785 ko british East India company dvaara niyukt ek mudrak, richrd jaunastan dvaara shuroo kiya gaya tha.[239] bhaarateeya svaamitv wala angreji bhaasha ka pehla samaachaar patra the Madras kreeseint tha jise svatantrata senaani gaajulu lakshmeenaaraasu chetti dvaara October 1844 mein shuroo kiya gaya tha.[240] lakshmeenaaraasu chetti ko Madras preseedeinsi association ki sthaapana ka shreya bhi diya jaata hai jo bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ka ek agradoot tha. 1948 mein preseedeinsi mein prakaashit hone vaale akhbaaron aur patrikaaon ki kul sankhya 821 thi. ji subramanyam ayyar dvaara 1878 mein sthaapit the hindu aur 1868 mein gantj parivaar dvaara Madras times ke roop mein sthaapit the mel[199] angreji bhaasha ke do sabse lokapriya samaachaar patra the.[241]

preseedeinsi mein niyamit radio seva 1938 mein shuroo hui jab all India radio ne Madras mein ek radio station ki sthaapana ki.[242] cinema 1930 aur 1940 ke dashak mein lokapriya hua jiski pehli film ek dakshin bhaarateeya bhaasha mein thi, yeh 1916 mein release hui aar. nataraaj mudaliyaar ki tamil film keechak vadham thi. tamil aur telugu bhaashaaon mein bani pehli bolti filmon ka nirmaan 1931 mein kiya gaya tha jabki pehli kannad tauki sati sulochana 1934 mein aur pehli malayalam tauki Balan 1938 mein banaayi gayi thi.[243] Coimbatore,[244] salem,[245] Madras aur karaaikudi mein film studio banaae gaye the.[246] jyaadaatar shuruaati filmein Coimbatore aur salem mein banaayi gayi theen [244][245] lekin 1940 ke dashak ke baad Madras film nirmaan ke ek pramukh kendra ke roop mein ubharane laga.[244][246] 1950 ke dashak tak telugu,[247] kannad[248] aur malayalam[249] bhaasha ki jyaadaatar filmein Madras mein banaayi gayi theen.

gailari chhavi: tamil braahman yugal lagbhag 1945.jpg. | ek paashchaatya madhyavargeeya shahari tamil yugal 1945 chhavi: raaja sar annaamalaai chettiyaar havaai addau॰ JPG | chetteenaad sthit apne havaaiadde mein raaja sar annaamalaai chettiyaar (baaen se teesare) 1940. chhavi: Ambikapathycolour.jpg | tamil film abhineta M ke tyaagaraaj bhaagavathar chhavi: nanboodiri house 1909.jpg | ek nanboodari 'braahman ka ghar, 1909 chhavi: hindu bhakt sikandaraamalaai Madurai.jpg | tirupparamakunaram sthit mandir ke aaspaas mein bhakton ka julus, 1909 chhavi: kaapoo doolha aur dulhan 1909.jpg | kaapoo jaati ke telugu doolhe aur dulhan, 1909 chhavi: kalki 03 1948.jpg | tamil patrika kalki dinaank 28 March 1948, sanskaran ka kavar chhavi: William henari Jackson-jalapaan staul.jpg | Madras preseedeinsi sthit ek railway station ka ek jalapaan staal, 1895 gailari

inhein bhi dekhein

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  114. a aa i E u official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 85
  115. official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 83
  116. official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 86
  117. a aa official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 88
  118. official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 89
  119. a aa i E official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 90
  120. official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 91
  121. a aa official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 92
  122. official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 93
  123. official edaministreshan of Madras preseedeinsi, prushth 94
  124. a aa i 1911 britainika vishvakosh
  125. stetsamain, prushth 154
  126. stetsamain, prushth 155
  127. thaanagaaraj, prushth 287
  128. patanaayak, prushth 330
  129. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 193
  130. a aa i E impeeriyl gaijiteer of India, 1908, vaulyoom 16, prushth 276
  131. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 194
  132. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 195
  133. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, 196
  134. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 197
  135. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 199
  136. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 200
  137. a aa i E impeeriyl gaijiteer of India, 1908, vaulyoom 16, prushth 274
  138. impeeriyl gaijiteer of India, 1908, vaulyoom 16, prushth 278
  139. gaf, prushth 130
  140. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 203
  141. a aa i Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 205
  142. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 206
  143. a aa i E u oo A ai O au stetsamain, prushth 175
  144. a aa i impeeriyl gaijiteer of India, prushth 297
  145. impeeriyl gaijiteer of India, 1908, vaulyoom 16, prushth 354
  146. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 43
  147. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 36
  148. a aa impeeriyl gaijiteer of India, prushth 298
  149. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 208
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  152. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 210
  153. a aa i Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 211
  154. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 212
  155. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 213
  156. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 214
  157. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 216
  158. a aa Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 219
  159. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 220
  160. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 223
  161. Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 222
  162. a aa "Madras Stock Exchange". surfindia.com. http://www.surfindia.com/finance/madras-stock-exchange.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-06.
  163. muthaiya, prushth 264
  164. "Madras Stock Exchange". Madras Stock Exchange. http://www.madrasstockexchange.in. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-06.
  165. a aa muthaiya, prushth 261
  166. muthaiya, prushth 262
  167. muthaiya, prushth 263
  168. a aa muthaiya, prushth 410
  169. muthaiya, prushth 338
  170. muthaiya, prushth 339
  171. a aa sinha, prushth 44
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  173. a aa banking edaministreshan, prushth 70
  174. banking edaministreshan, prushth 71
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  176. tarsenteenari, prushth 261
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  178. W. S. Weerasooriya (1973). The Nattukottai Chettiar Merchant Bankers in Ceylon. Tisara Prakasakayo. pp. 43.
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  181. a aa i Bhaarat ke bhaugolik pradesh, prushth 185
  182. a aa i E u muthaiya, prushth 323
  183. a aa i P. Maria Lazar. "A Great Pioneer in Roadways". trankebar.net. http://www.trankebar.net/article/tbml-college/singing-waves-no27/bus.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-07. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  184. a aa i mil, prushth 134
  185. a aa impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom 16, prushth 303
  186. a aa i E u oo A muthaiya, prushth 321
  187. impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom 16, prushth 301
  188. a aa muthaiya, prushth 322
  189. bhaarateeya saamraajya smaarika, prushth 14
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  191. "Nilgiris – Mountain Railway – Up in the Hills". Emerging Planet. http://www.nilgiris.com/nilgiritrain.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-11.
  192. a aa impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom 16, prushth 304
  193. "Historical Events at a Glance". District Collectorate, Chennai. http://www.chennai.tn.nic.in/chnhistevents.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-08.
  194. a aa i muthaiya, prushth 127
  195. a aa i E "History 1932–1940". Air India. http://home.airindia.in/SBCMS/Webpages/Time-line-1932-1940.aspx?MID=196. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-06.
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  197. a aa i "GPO awaiting restoratiin". the hindu. January 29, 2003. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2003/01/29/stories/2003012900300300.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-10.
  198. seelon ke chhaape, prushth 207
  199. a aa muthaiya, prushth 54
  200. B. S. Padmanabhan (2003). "The telecom journey". Frontline 20 (20). http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2020/stories/20031010005111800.htm.
  201. impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom XVI, prushth 383
  202. a aa i impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom XVI, prushth 338
  203. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; imperialgazetteerofindiap339 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
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  205. a aa i raajaneetik dalon ka vishvakosh, prushth 74
  206. "University of Kerala website Home page". University of Kerala. http://www.keralauniversity.edu/. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-07.
  207. kraik, prushth 260
  208. a aa muthaiya, prushth 239
  209. muthaiya, prushth 240
  210. a aa muthaiya, prushth 241
  211. bhaarateeya saamraajya smaarika, prushth 41
  212. impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom XVI, prushth 343
  213. Muthiah, S. (May 7, 2003). "A great philanthropist". the hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2003/05/07/stories/2003050700110300.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-05.
  214. "About University". Annamalai University. http://annamalaiuniversity.ac.in/aboutus.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-05.
  215. seal, prushth 103
  216. impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom XVI, prushth 345
  217. meharotra, prushth 23
  218. impeeriyl gaijiteer of India 1908, vaulyoom XVI, prushth 361
  219. a aa K. Nambi Arooran (1980). "Caste & the Tamil Nation:The Origin of the Non-Brahmin Movement, 1905–1920". Tamil renaissance and Dravidian nationalism 1905–1944. Koodal Publishers. http://www.tamilnation.org/caste/nambi.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-03. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  220. a aa hom life in India, prushth 62
  221. a aa Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1982). India: social structure. Transaction Publishers. pp. 69.
  222. Bina Aggarwal (1994). A field of one's own: gender and land rights in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 472. ISBN 0521429269, ISBN 9780521429269.
  223. Monika Böack, Aparna Rao (2000). Culture, creation, and procreation: concepts of kinship in South Asian practice. Berghahn Books. pp. 177. ISBN 1571819118, ISBN 9781571819116.
  224. hom life in India, prushth 22
  225. a aa hom life in India, prushth 63
  226. a aa hom life in India, prushth 64
  227. hom life in India, prushth 65
  228. hom life in India, prushth 66
  229. a aa dakshini Bhaarat ki jaatiyaan aur janajaatiyaan, vaulyoom 6, prushth 87 sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "castesandtribesv6p87" defined multiple times with different content
  230. dakshini Bhaarat ki jaatiyaan aur janajaatiyaan, vaulyoom 6, prushth 79
  231. P. V. Balakrishnan (1981). Matrilineal system in Malabar. Satyavani Prakashan. pa॰ 21.
  232. Anantha Raman, Sita; Vasantha Surya, A. Māatavaiyā (2005). A. Madhaviah: A Biography and a Novel. Oxford University Press. pp. 87. ISBN 0195670213.
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  234. Kalpana Roy (2002). Encyclopaedia of violence against women and dowry death in India. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. pp. 213. ISBN 8126103434, ISBN 9788126103430.
  235. A. R. Desai (2005). Social background of Indian nationalism. Popular Prakashan. pp. 224. ISBN 8171546676, ISBN 9788171546671.
  236. Harnik Deol (2000). Religion and nationalism in India: the case of the Punjab. Routledge. pp. 26. ISBN 041520108X, ISBN 9780415201087.
  237. hom life in India, prushth 35 - 41
  238. muthaiya, prushth 173
  239. muthaiya, prushth 50
  240. muthaiya, prushth 53
  241. muthaiya, prushth 51
  242. muthaiya, prushth 164
  243. Randor Guy (November 26, 2004). "A milestone movie". the hindu. http://www.thehindujobs.com/thehindu/fr/2004/11/26/stories/2004112602680500.htm.
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sandarbhagranth

Bhaarat, Madras mudde ka praanteeya bhaugolik ka kavar
sarkaari prakaashan
  • Thurston, Edgar (1913). Provincial Geographies of India:The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and Associated States. Cambridge University.
  • The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908–1931.
  • Thurston, Edgar; K. Rangachari (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vol. I to VII. Government of Madras.
  • Madras jila ki vivranika
  • Slater, Gilbert (1918). Economic Studies Vol I:Some South Indian villages.
  • Raghavaiyangar, Srinivasa (1893). Memorandum of progress of the Madras Presidency during the last forty years of British Administration. Government of Madras.
  • MaClean, C. D. (1877). Standing Information regarding the Official Administration of Madras Presidency. Government of Madras.
  • Great Britain India Office (1905). The India List and India Office List. London: Harrison and Sons.
  • Illustrated Guide to the South Indian Railway (Incorporated in England): Including the Tanjore District Board, Pondicherry, Peralam-Karaikkal, Travancore State, Cochin State, Coimbatore District Board, Tinnevelly-Tiruchendur, and the Nilgiri Railways. Madras: South Indian Railway Company. 1926.
  • Tercentenary Madras Staff (1939). Madras Tercentenary Celebration Committee Commemoration Volume. Indian Branch, Oxford Press.
  • Talboys-Wheeler, James (1862). Hand-book to the cotton cultivation in the Madras presidency. J. Higginbotham and Pharaoh and Co..
anya prakaashan
  • Steinberg, S. H. (1950). The Statesman's Yearbook 1950. London: Macmillan and Co.
  • Penny, F. E.; Lady Lawley (1914). Southern India. A. C. Black.
  • Playne, Somerset; J. W. Bond, Arnold Wright (1914). Southern India: Its History, People, Commerce, and Industrial Resources.
  • Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. Oxford University.
  • Vadivelu, A. (1903). The Aristocracy of South India. Vest & Co..
  • Some Madras Leaders. Babu Bhishambher Nath Bhargava. 1922.
  • Major MacMunn, G. F.; Major A. C. Lovett (1911). The Armies of India. Adam and Charles Black.
  • Besant, Annie (1915). How India Wrought for freedom. Adyar, Madras: Theosophical Publishing House.
  • Newell, Herbert Andrews (1919). Madras, the Birth Place of British India: An Illustrated Guide with Map. The Madras Times Printing and Publishing.
  • Iyengar, P. T. Srinivasa (1929). History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to the Present Day.
  • Mazumdar, Amvika Charan (1917). Indian National Evolution. Madras: G. A. Natesan & Co..
  • Codrington, Humphry William (1926). A Short history of Lanka. Macmillan & Co..
  • Dutt, Romesh Chunder. Open Letters to Lord Curzon on Famines and Land Assessments in India. Adamant Media Corporation. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-4021-5115-2.
  • T. Osborne, C. Hitch, A. Millar, John Rivington, S. Crowder, B. Law & Co, T. Longman, C. Ware (1765). The Modern part of a universal history from the Earliest Account of Time, Vol XLIII. London: Oxford University.
  • Christophers, S. R. (1927). The Indian Empire Souvenir. Executive Committee of the Congress.
  • Wright, Arnold (1999). Twentieth Century Impressions of Ceylon: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-1335-X, 9788120613355.
  • Finnemore, John (1917). Peeps at many lands: Home Life in India. London: A. & C. Black, Ltd.
samakaaleen prakaashan

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