Lucknow

Lucknow
lakhanaavati, lakhanauti, lakhanapur
لaaکaaھaaنaaؤ
mahanagar
बड़ा इमामबाड़ा
bada imaamabaada
samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya uttar pradesh
jila Lucknow
mahaapaur dau॰ dinesh sharma
janasankhya
ghanatv
4,875,858 (2006 tak )
• 331 /kimi2 (857 /varg meal)
aadhikaarik bhaasha(eain) hindi, angreji, urdoo
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
2,345 ki.mee² (905 varg meal)
• 123 meter (404 fee॰)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: lucknow.nic.in

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 26°a51′a38″aN 80°a54′a57″aE / 26.860556°aN 80.915833°aE / 26.860556; 80.915833 Lucknow (uchchaarit/ˈaalʌaaknaʊ/; urdoo: لaaکaaھaaنaaؤ, Lakhnaū, IPA: [ˈaaləaakʰaana.uː] (Speaker Icon.svg sunein) Bhaarat ke sarvaadhik aabaadi vaale raajya uttar pradesh ki rajdhani hai. is shahar mein, Lucknow jila aur Lucknow mandal ka prashaasanik mukhyaalaya bhi hai. Lucknow shahar apni khaas najaakat aur tahajeeb waali bahusaanskrutik khoobi, dashahari aam ke baagon tatha chikn ki kadhaai ke kaam ke liye jaana jaata hai. 2006 me iski janasankhya 2,541,101 tatha saaksharata dar 68.63% thi. Bhaarat sarkaar ki 2001 ki janaganana, saamaajik aarthik soochakaank aur buniyaadi suvidha soochakaank sambandhi aankadon ke anusaar, Lucknow jila alpasankhyakon ki ghani aabaadi wala jila hai.[1] Kanpur ke baad yeh shahar uttar-pradesh ka sabse bada shahari kshetr hai. shahar ke beech se gomati nadi bahti hai, jo Lucknow ki sanskruti ka hissa hai.

Lucknow us kshretr me sthit hai jise aitihaasik roop se avadh kshetr ke naam se jaana jaata tha . Lucknow hamesha se ek bahusaanskrutik shahar raha hai. yahaaain ke shiya navaabon dvaara shishtaachaar, khoobsoorat udyaanon, kavita, sangeet aur badhiya vyanjanon ko hamesha sanrakshan diya gaya. Lucknow ko navaabon ke shahar ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai.[2] ise poorv ki svarn nagar (golden city) aur shiraaj-A-hind ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[3] aaj ka Lucknow ek jeevant shahar hai jisme ek aarthik vikaas dikhta hai aur yeh Bhaarat ke teji se badh rahe gair-mahaanagaron ke sheersh pandrah mein se ek hai.[4] yeh hindi aur urdoo saahitya ke keindron mein se ek hai. yahaan adhikaansh log hindi bolte hain. yahaan ki hindi mein lakhanavi andaaj hai, jo vishvaprasiddh hai. iske alaava yahaaain urdoo aur angreji bhi boli jaati hain.

anukram

Lucknow ka itihaas

Lucknow ka bade imaamabaade se liya gaya ek vihangam drushya, 1858 i0

Lucknow praacheen kosal raajya ka hissa tha. yeh Bhagwan Ram ki viraasat thi jise unhonne apne bhaai Lakshman ko samarpit kar diya tha.[5][6] at: ise lakshmanaavati, lakshmanapur ya lakhanapur ke naam se jaana gaya, jo baad mein badal kar Lucknow ho gaya. yahaan se ayodhya bhi maatr 80 meal doori par sthit hai.[5] ek anya katha ke anusaar is shahar ka naam, 'lakhan aheer' jo ki 'lakhan kile' ke mukhya kalaakaar the, ke naam par rakha gaya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] Lucknow ke vartamaan svaroop ki sthaapana navaab aasafuddaula ne 1775 E. mein ki thi. avadh ke shaasakon ne Lucknow ko apni rajdhani banaakar ise samruddh kiya. lekin baad ke navaab vilaasi aur nikmme siddh hue. in navaabon ke kaahil svabhaav ke parinaamasvaroop aage chalakar Lord dalahauji ne avadh ka bina yuddh hi adhigrahan kar british saamraajya mein mila liya. 1850 mein avadh ke antim navaab vaajid Ali shaah ne british adheenata sveekaar kar li. Lucknow ke navaabon ka shaasan is prakaar samaapt hua.[5]

san 1902 mein North vest provins ka naam badal kar yoonaaitid provins of Agra end avadh kar diya gaya. saadhaaran bolachaal ki bhaasha mein ise United provins ya UP kaha gaya. san 1920 mein pradesh ki rajdhani ko Allahabad se badal kar Lucknow kar diya gaya. pradesh ka uchch nyaayaalaya Allahabad hi bana raha aur Lucknow mein uchch nyaayaalaya ki ek khandapeeth sthaapit ki gayi. svatantrata ke baad 12 January san 1950 mein is kshetr ka naam badal kar uttar pradesh rakh diya gaya aur Lucknow iski rajdhani bana. is tarah yeh apne poorv laghunaam UP se juda raha. govind vallabh pant is pradesh ke pratham mukhyamantri bane. October 1963 mein sucheta krupalaani uttar-pradesh evam Bhaarat ki pratham mahila mukhyamantri bani.

bhoogol

Lucknow janasankhya
janaganana janasankhya
1981 10,07,604
1991 16,69,204 65.7%
2001 22,45,509 34.5%
anumaan 32,26,000 43.7%
srot: Bhaarat ki janaganana[9]

vishaal gaangeya maidaan ke hrudaya kshetr mein sthit Lucknow shahar bahut se graameen kasbon evam gaanvon se ghira hua hai, jaise amaraaiyon ka shahar malihaabaad, aitihaasik kaakori, mohanalaalaganj, gosaaniganj, chinhat aur itaunja. is shahar ke poorvi or baaraabanki jila hai, to pashchimi or unnaav jila evam dakshini or raayabareli jila hai. iske uttari or seetaapur evam haradoi jile hain. gomati nadi, mukhya bhaugolik bhaag, shahar ke beechon beech se niklati hai aur Lucknow ko traans-gomati evam sis-gomati kshetron mein vibhaajit karti hai. Lucknow shahar bhookamp kshetr truteeya star mein aata hai.[10]

janasaankhyiki

Lucknow ki adhikaansh janasankhya poorvaardh uttar pradesh se hai. fir bhi yahaan pashchimi uttar pradesh ke logon ke alaava bangaali, dakshin bhaarateeya evam aangl-bhaarateeya log bhi base hue hain. yahaan ki kul janasankhya ka 77% hindu evam 20% muslim log hain. shesh bhaag mein sikh, jain, isaai evam bauddh log hain. Lucknow Bhaarat ke sabse saakshar shaharon mein se ek hai. yahaan ki saaksharata dar 82.5% hai, striyon ki 78% evam purushon ki saaksharata 89% hain.

jalavaayu

Lucknow
jalavaayu saarani (vyaakhya)
j f ma a m joo ju a si a na di
22
23
7
11
26
9
8
32
14
5
38
21
17
41
25
107
39
27
294
34
26
314
33
26
181
33
24
45
33
19
4
29
12
7
24
7
ausat adhiktam evam nyoonatam taapamaan (°ase.)
kul varsha (mi.mi)
srot: vishv jalavaayu soochana seva

Lucknow mein garm ardh-ushnakatibndheeya jalavaayu hai. yahaan thande shushk sheetakaal December-February tak evam shushk garm greeshmakaal April-June tak rahate hain. madhya June se madhya September tak varsha ritu rahati hai, jismein ausat varsha 1010 mi.mi. (40 inch) adhikaanshat: dakshin-pashchimi monsoon havaaon se hoti hai.

Lucknow mein monsoon ki umadti ghumadti ghataaen

sheetakaal ka adhiktam taapamaan 21°aase. evam nyoonatam taapamaan 3-4°aase. rahata hai. December ke ant se January ant tak kohara bhi rahata hai. greeshm ritu garm rahati hai, jismein taapamaan 40-45°aase. tak jaata hai aur ausat uchch taapamaan 30°aase. tak rahata hai.


shahar aur aas-paas

muskuraaiye ki aap Lucknow me hain -yeh pankti Lucknow me kai sthaanon par likhi mil jaati hai.[6]
parivartan chauk

puraane Lucknow mein chauk ka baajaar pramukh hai. yeh chikn ke kaareegaron aur baajaaron ke liye prasiddh hai. yeh ilaaka apne chikn ke dukaanon va mithaaiyon ki dukaane ki vajah se mashahoor hai. chauk mein nakkhaas baajaar bhi hai. yahaan ka ameenaabaad Delhi ke chaaaindani chauk ki tarah ka baajaar hai jo shahar ke beech sthit hai. yahaan thok ka saamaan, mahilaaon ka sajaavati saamaan, vastraabhooshan aadi ka bada evam puraana baajaar hai. Delhi ke hi Connaught place ki bhaanti yahaan ka hrudaya hajrataganj hai. yahaan khoob chahal-pahal rahati hai. pradesh ka vidhaan sabha bhavan bhi yaheen sthit hai. iske alaava hajrataganj mein ji pi O, kaithedral church, chidiyaaghar, uttar railway ka mandaleeya railway kaaryaalaya (deeaaraem office), laal baag, postamaastar general kaaryaalaya (peeemaji), parivartan chauk, begam hajrat mahal park bhi kaafi pramukh sthal hain. inke alaava nishaataganj, daaleeganj, sadar baajaar, bangala baajaar, narahi, kesarabaag bhi yahaan ke bade baajaaron mein aate hain. ameenaabaad Lucknow ka ek aisa sthaan hai jo pustakon ke liye mashahoor hai.

yahaan ke aavaaseeya ilaakon mein sis-gomati kshetr mein raajaajeepuram, krushnaanagar, aalamabaag, dilkhusha, aar.di.S.O.kaaloni, chaarabaag, aishabaag, Hussainganj, laalabaag, raajeindranagar, maalaveeya nagar, sarojineenagar, haidaraganj, [[thaakuraganj evam saaadataganj aadi kshetr hain. traans-gomati kshetr mein Gomtinagar,indiraanagar, mahanagar, aleeganj, daaleeganj, neelamattha kaint, vikaasanagar, khurramanagar, jaanakeepuram evam south-city (raayabareli road par) aavaaseeya kshetr hain.

arth vyavastha

Lucknow uttari Bhaarat ka ek pramukh baajaar evam vaanijyik nagar hi naheen, balki utpaad evam sevaaon ka ubharata hua kendra bhi banta ja raha hai. uttar pradesh raajya ki rajdhani hone ke kaaran yahaan sarkaari vibhaag evam saarvajanik kshetr ke upakram bahut hain. yahaan ke adhikaansh madhyam-vargeeya vetanabhogi inheen vibhaagon evam upakramon mein niyukt hain. sarkaar ki udaareekaran neeti ke chalte yahaan vyavasaaya evam naukariyon tatha sv-rojagaariyon ke liye bahut se avsar khul gaye hain. is kaaran yahaan naukri peshe vaalon ki sankhya nirantar badhti rahati hai. Lucknow niktavarti Noida evam Gurgaon ke liye soochana praudyogiki evam BPO companiyon ke liye shramashakti bhi jutaata hai. yahaan ke soochana praudyogiki kshetr ke log bangaluru evam Hyderabad mein bhi bahutaayat mein milte hain.

shahar mein bhaarateeya laghu udyog vikaas bank (esaaaideebeeaai) tatha praadeshik audyogik evam investameint nigam, uttar pradesh (pikp) ke mukhyaalaya bhi sthit hain. uttar pradesh raajya audyogik vikaas nigam ka kshetreeya kaaryaalaya bhi yaheen sthit hai. yahaan anya vyaavasaayik vikaas mein udyat sansthaanon mein kaunfedareshan of Indian industry (CII) evam entaraprenyor davalapameint Institute of India (ideeaaiaai) hain.

utpaadan evam sansaadhan

Lucknow mein sthit Hindustan aironautiks limited ki ikaai ke paas pradhaan prachaalan suvidhaaen upalabdh hain.

Lucknow mein badi utpaadan ikaaiyon mein Hindustan aironautiks limited, tata motors, evaredi indastreej, scooter India limited aate hain. sansaadhit utpaad ikaaiyon mein dugdh utpaadan, ispaat roling ikaaiyaaain evam L pi ji bharan ikaaiyaaain aati hain.

shahar ki laghu evam madhyam-udyog ikaaiyaaain chinhat, aishabaag, taalakatora evam amausi ke audyogik enklevon mein sthit hain. chinhat apne teraakota evam porsilen utpaadon ke liye prasiddh hai.

real estate

real estate arthavyavastha ka ek sahasaavruddhi wala kshetr hai. shahar mein vibhinn shopping mauls, aavaaseeya parisar evam vyaavasaayik parisar badhte ja rahe hain. paarshvanaath, deeelaef, omaiks, sahaara, yunitek, ansal evam A pi I jaise is kshetr ke mahaakaaya niveshak yahaaain upasthit hain.

Lucknow ki pragati Delhi, Mumbai, soorat evam Ghaziabad se kaheen kam naheen hai. yahaan ke ubharate kshetron mein gomati nagar, hajrataganj, evam kapoorathala aadi pramukh hain. yahaan bade niji aspataalon mein se sahaara aspataal nirmaanaadheen hai, jismein 25 tal hain. iske baad metro, paarshvanaath plaanet, omeks haaits ka number aata hai. shahar ka sampatti vistaar soochakaank bahut ooncha hai. ek anumaan ke anusaar shahar mein 2010 tak 2.5 billion dollar ki vyavasthit real estate hogi. ye uttar Bhaarat mein raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr ke baad sabse adhik hai.

paramparaagat vyaapaar

dashahari aam Lucknow ke niktavarti kshetron mein ugaaya jaata hai, va yahaan ki paramparaagat upaj mein se ek hai.

paranparaanusaar lakhanavi aam (khaaskar dashahari aam), kharabooja evam niktavarti kshetron mein ugaaye ja rahe anaaj ki mandi rahi hai. yahaan ke mashahoor maleehaabaadi dashahari aam ko bhaugolik sanketak ka vishesh kaanooni darja praapt ho chuka hai. maleehaabaadi aam ko yeh vishesh darja Bhaarat sarkaar ke bhaugolik sanketak rajistri kaaryaalaya, chennai ne ek vishesh kaanoon ke antargatt diya gaya hai.[11] ek alag svaad aur sugandh ke kaaran dashahari aam ki sansaar bhar mein vishesh pehchaan bani hui hai. sarkaari aankadon ke anusaar maleehaabaadi dashahari aam lagbhag 6,253 haikteyar mein ugaae jaate hain aur 95,658.39 tan utpaadan hota hai.[12]

ganne ke khet evam cheeni milein bhi nikat hi sthit hain. inke kaaran mohan mekins breevari jaise udyogakarta yahaan apni milein lagaane ke liye aakarshit hue hain. mohan mekins ki ikaai 1855 mein sthaapit hui thi. yeh Asia ki pratham vyaapaarik breevari thi.[13]

Lucknow ka chikn ka vyaapaar bhi bahut prasiddh hai. yeh ek laghu-udyog hai, jo yahaan ke chauk kshetr ke ghar ghar mein faila hua hai. chikn evam lakhanavi jradoji, donon hi desh ke liye bharpoor videshi mudra kamaate hain. chikn ne Bollywood evam videshon ke fashion dijaainaron ko sada hi aakarshit kiya hai. lakhanavi chikn ek vishisht brand ke roop mein jaana jaaye aur use banaane vaale kaareegaron ka aarthik nuksaan na ho, isliye kendra sarkaar ke vastr mantraalaya ki teksataail committee ne chikn ko bhaugolik sanketak ke tahat rajistraar of jiyograafikl indiketar ke yahaan panjeekrut kara liya hai. is prakaar ab vishv mein chikn ki nakal kar bechana sambhav naheen ho sakega.[14]

navaabon ke kaal mein patang-udyog bhi apne charamotkarsh par tha.[15] yeh aaj bhi achha laghu-udyog hai. Lucknow tambaakoo ka audyogik utpaadanakarta raha hai. inmein kimaam aadi prasiddh hain. inke alaava itr, kalaakrutiyaan jaise chinhat ki teraakota, mruttikaakala, chaaaindi ke bartan evam sajaavati saamaan, suvarn evam rajat vark tatha haddi-par nakkaashi karke bani kalaakrutiyon ke laghu-udyog bahut chal rahe hain.

avasanrachana

yaataayaat

sadak yaataayaat

shahar mein saarvajanik yaataayaat ke upalabdh saadhanon mein city bas seva, taxi, cycle riksha, autorickshaw, tempo evam CNG basein hain. CNG ko haal hi mein pradooshan par niyantran rakhane hetu aarambh kiya gaya hai. nagar bas seva ko Lucknow mahanagar parivhan seva sanchaalit karta hai. yeh uttar pradesh raajya sadak parivhan nigam ki ek ikaai hai.[16] shahar ke hajrataganj chauraahe se chaar raajamaarg nikalte hain: raashtreeya raajamaarg 24Delhi ko, raashtreeya raajamaarg 25Jhansi aur madhya pradesh ko, raashtreeya raajamaarg 56Varanasi ko evam raashtreeya raajamaarg 28 mokaama, Bihar ko. pramukh bas tarmins mein aalamabaag ka dau॰aabheemaraav ambedakar bas tarmins aata hai. iske alaava anya pramukh bas tarmins kesarabaag, chaarabaag aate the, jinmein se chaarabaag ka bas tarmins, jo chaarabaag railway station ke theek saamane tha, nagar bas dipo bana kar sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya hai. yeh railway station ke saamane ki bheed evam kanjeshan ko niyantrit karne hetu kiya gaya hai.

rel yaataayaat

Lucknow mein kai railway station hain. shahar mein mukhya railway station chaarabaag railway station hai. iski shaanadaar mahal roopi imaarat 1923 mein bani thi. mukhya terminal uttar railway ka hai (station code: LKO). doosra terminal poorvottar railway (enaiaar) mandal ka hai. (station code: LJN). Lucknow ek pradhaan jankshan station hai, jo Bhaarat ke lagbhag sabhi mukhya shaharon se rel dvaara juda hua hai. yahaan aur 13 railway station hain:

ab meter gej line aishabaag se aarambh hokar Lucknow city, daaleeganj evam moheebullaapur ko jodti hain. moheebullaapur ke alaava anya station braud gej se bhi jude hain. anya sabhi station shahar ki seema ke bheetar hi hain, evam ek doosare se sadak maarg dvaara bhi jude hain. anya upanagareeya stationon mein nimn station hain:

mukhya railway station par vartamaan mein 15 pletafaurm hain aur iske 2009 tak desh ke vyastatam stationon mein se ek banane ki aasha hai. is station ke 2009 ke ant tak vishvastareeya station banane ki aasha hai.

amausi antarraashtreeya havaai adda shahar ka mukhya vimaanakshetr hai aur shahar se lagbhag 20 kilometer doori par sthit hai. Lucknow vaayu seva dvaara nai Delhi, Patna, Kolkata evam Mumbai evam Bhaarat ke kai mukhya shaharon se juda hua hai. yeh omaan air, kausmo air, flaai dubai, saaudi airlines evam indigo air tatha anya kai antarraashtreeya vaayu sevaaon dvaara antarraashtreeya gantavyon se juda hua hai. in gantavyon mein London, dubai, jeddaah, maskat, shaarajaah, Singapore evam Hongkong aate hain. haj mubaarak ke samay yahaan se haj-vishesh udaanein seedhe jeddaah ke liye chalti hain.

Lucknow metro

Lucknow ke liye uchch kshamata maas traanjit pranaali yaani Lucknow metro ki yojana antim roop le chuki hai. iske liye Delhi metro rel corporation hi yojanaaen bana raha hai aur yeh kaam shrei international ko diya hai.[17] metro rel ke sanchaalan ko moort roop dene aur us par aane vaale kharch ko poora karne ki vyavastha ke liye raajya sarkaar ne kai adheenasth vibhaagon ke pramukh sachivon aur Lucknow ke mandalaayuktaganon ki ek samiti bana di hai.

Delhi ki bhaanti Lucknow metro bhi chalegi

Lucknow mein metro rel shuru hone ke baad sadkon par yaataayaat kaafi kam ho sakega. vartamaan mein Lucknow evam Kanpur mein har maheene lagbhag 1000 nae chaupahiya vaahanon ka panjeekaran karaaya jaata raha hai. Lucknow mein sabhi raashtreeya raajamaargon par baaipaas bana diye jaane ke baavajood sadkon par gaadiyon ka dabaav badhta hi ja raha hai. is kaaran se yahaan metro ka tvarit nirmaan atyaavashyak ho gaya hai. Lucknow shahar mein aarambh mein chaar galiyaare nishchit kiye gaye hain:

  1. amausi se kursi maarg,[18]
  2. bada imaamabaada se sultaanapur maarg,[18]
  3. PGI se raajaajeepuram evam[18]
  4. hajrataganj se faijaabaad maarg[18]

Lucknow ke alaava Kanpur, Meerut aur Ghaziabad shaharon mein metro rel chalaane ki yojana hai.[19][17] is parivhan vyavastha ki safalta se prabhaavit hokar Bhaarat ke doosare raajyon jaise Maharashtra, Rajasthan[20][21] evam Karnataka[22], Andhra pradesh[22] evam Maharashtra[22] aur uttar pradesh ke anya shaharon[17][19], mein bhi ise chalaane ki yojanaaen ban rahi hain.

anusandhaan evam shiksha

Lucknow mein desh ke kai uchch shiksha evam shodh sansthaan bhi hain. inmein se kuchh hain: King George medical kaalej aur beerabal saahani anusandhaan sansthaan. yahaan Bhaarat ke vaigyaanik evam audyogik anusandhaan parishad ki chaar pramukh prayogashaalaaeain (kendreeya aushadhi anusandhaan sansthaan, audyogik vish vigyaan anusandhaan kendra, raashtreeya vanaspati vigyaan anusandhaan sansthaan(enabeeaaraaai) aur kendreeya aushadheeya evam sagandh paudha sansthaan(seemaip)) uttar pradesh raajya lalit kala academy hain.

Lucknow mein chh: vishvavidyaalaya hain: Lucknow vishvavidyaalaya, uttar pradesh takaneeki vishvavidyaalaya(yoopeeteeyoo), raamamanohar lohiya raashtreeya vidhi vishvavidyaalaya(lohiya law vivi), baabaasaaheb bheemaraav anbedakar vishvavidyaalaya, emiti vishvavidyaalaya evam inteegral vishvavidyaalaya. yahaan kai uchch chikitsa sansthaan bhi hain: sanjaya Gandhi snaatakottar aayurvigyaan sansthaan(esajeepeejeeaai), chhatrapati shaahooji mahaaraaj aayurvigyaan vishvavidyaalaya (jise pehle King George medical kaalij kehte the) ke alaava nirmaanaadheen sahaara aspataal, Apollo aspataal, eraaj Lucknow medical kaalij bhi hain. prabandhan sansthaanon mein bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan, Lucknow (IIM)[23], Institute of management Sciences(l.vi.vi) aate hain. yahaan Bhaarat ke pramukhatam niji vishvavidyaalayon mein se ek, emiti vishvavidyaalaya ka bhi parisar hai.

iske alaava yahaan bahut se uchchatar maadhyamik shiksha ke bhi sarkaari evam niji vidyaalaya hain. inmein se kuchh pramukh hain: city mauntesari school, la maartiniyr mahaavidyaalaya, jayapuriya school, kaulvin taalukedaars kaalej, emma thaumpasan school, seint Francis school, mahanagar bauyaj aadi.

sanskruti

paan ki thaali mein kattha, choona evam supaari

Lucknow apni viraasat mein mili sanskruti ko aadhunik jeevanashaili ke sang badi sundarata ke saath sanjoye hue hai. Bhaarat ke utkrushtatam shaharon mein gine jaane vaale Lucknow ki sanskruti mein bhaavanaaon ki garmaahat ke saath uchch shreni ka saujanya evam prem bhi hai. Lucknow ke samaaj mein navaabon ke samay se hi "pehle aap!" waali shaili samaayi hui hai.[6][24] haalaanki svaarthi aadhunik shaili ki padachaap sunaayi deti hai, kintu fir bhi shahar ki janasankhya ka ek bhaag is tahajeeb ko sambhaale hue hai. yeh tahajeeb yahaan do vishaal dharmon ke logon ko ek samaan sanskruti se baandhati hai. ye sanskruti yahaan ke navaabon ke samay se chali aa rahi hai.[24] lakhanavi paan yahaan ki sanskruti ka abhinn ang hai. iske bina Lucknow adhoora lagta hai.

bhaasha evam gadya

Lucknow mein hindi evam urdoo donon hi boli jaati hain kintu urdoo ko yahaan sadiyon se khaas mahattv praapt raha hai. jab Delhi khatre mein padi tab bahut se shaayaron ne Lucknow ka rukh kiya. tab urdoo shaayari ke do thikaane ho gaye- dehali aur Lucknow. jahaan dehali soofi shaayari ka kendra bani, vaheen Lucknow gajl vilaasita aur ishk-mushk ka abhipraaya ban gaya.[25][25] jaise navaabon ke kaal mein urdoo khoob panapi evam Bhaarat ki tahajeeb waali bhaasha ke roop mein ubhari. yahaan bahut se hindu kavi evam muslim shaayar hue hain,[26] jaise brujanaaraayan chakabast[26], khwaaja haidar Ali aatish, vinaya Kumar saroj, Aamir meenaai, mirja haadi rusava, naasikh, dayaashankar kaul naseem, musaahafi, inasha, safi lakhanavi aur meer taki "meer"[26] to prasiddh hi hain, jinhonne urdoo shaayari tatha lakhanavi bhaasha ko nayi oonchaaiyon tak pahunchaaya hai.[27] Lucknow shiya sanskruti ke liye vishv ke mahaan shaharon mein se ek hai. meer anees aur mirja dabeer urdoo shiya gadya mein marsiya shaili ke liye prasiddh rahe hain. marsiya imaam husain ki karbala ke yuddh mein shahaadat ka bayaan karta hai, jise muharramake avsar par gaaya jaata hai. kaakori kaand ke abhiyukt prasiddh svatantrata senaani Ram prasaad bismil, jinhein british sarkaar ne kaakori mein faansi par lataka diya tha, urdoo shaayari se khaase prabhaavit the, evam bismil upanaam se likhte the. kai niktavarti kasbon jaise kaakori, darayaabaad, baaraabanki, rudauli evam malihaabaad ne kai urdoo shaayaron ko janm diya hai. inmein se kuchh hain mohasin kaakoravi, majaaj[28], khumaar baaraabankavi evam josh malihaabaadi. haal hi mein 2008 mein 1857 ka pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ki 150veen varshagaanth par is vishay par ek upanyaas ka vimochan kiya gaya tha. is vishay par pratham angreji upanyaas reekailsitreshan, ek Lucknow ke nivaasi ne hi likha tha.

Lucknow janapad ke svatantrata sangraami

Lucknow janapad ke kaakori kaand ke abhiyukt prasiddh svatantrata senaani Ram prasaad bismil, jinhein british sarkaar ne kaakori mein faansi par lataka diya tha bismil upanaam se likhte the. Lucknow janapad ke kumharaavaan gaanv mein bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan ko 13 svatantrata sangraami diye jinhonne alag alag samay par bhaarateeya jailon mein rahakar bhaarateeya svatantrata ke sangharsh ko aage badhaaya inke naam is prakaar hain

  • sva0 guroo prasaad baajapeyi 'vaidya ji'
  • sva0 Ram saagar mishr ye prakhar samaajavaadi chintak the jo uttar pradesh ki vidhaan sabha ke sadasya rahe 1976 ke aapaatakaal mein bandi avastha mein hi inhonne apna shareer chhoda Lucknow mein inke naam par raamasaagar mishr nagar banaaya gaya jiska naam aage chalakar indiraanagar kar diya gaya.
  • sva0 raamadev aajaad
  • sva0 foolakali sva0 satyasheel mishr
  • sva0 Babulal
  • sva0 jagadev Dixit
  • sva0 shyaam sundar Dixit 'munne'
  • sva0 vishvanaath mishr 'daaktar saahab'
  • sva0 putteelaal mishr
  • sva0 badri vishaal mishr
  • shri Ram Kumar baajapeyi
  • shri bachaan shukl ji

nrutya evam sangeet

kathak nrutya karte hue kalaakaar

prasiddh bhaarateeya nrutya kathak ne apna svaroop yaheen paaya tha. avadh ke antim navaab vaajid Ali shaah kathak ke bahut bade jnyaaata evam premi the. lachhoo mahaaraaj, achhan mahaaraaj, shanbhu mahaaraaj evam birjoo mahaaraaj ne is parampara ko jeevit rakha hai.[24]

kathak nrutya

Lucknow prasiddh gajl gaayika begam Akhtar ka bhi shahar raha hai. ve gajl gaayiki mein agrani theen aur is shaili ko nayi oonchaaiyon tak pahunchaaya. ai mohabbat tere anjaam pe rona aaya – unki gaayi behatareen gajlon mein se ek hai. Lucknow ke bhaatakhande sangeet vishvavidyaalaya ka naam yahaan ke mahaan sangeetakaar pandit vishnu Narayan bhaatakhande ke naam par rakha hua hai. yeh sangeet ka pavitra mandir hai. Sri Lanka, Nepal aadi bahut se Asiaee deshon evam vishv bhar se saadhak yahaan nrutya-sangeet ki saadhana karne aate hain. Lucknow ne kai vikhyaat gaayak diye hain, jinmein se naushaad Ali[29], talat Mehmood, anoop jalota aur Baba sehagal kuchh hain. sanyog se yeh shahar british paup gaayak klif richrd ka bhi janm-sthaan hai.

filmon ki prerana

Lucknow hindi chalachitr udyog ki aarambh se hi prerana raha hai. yeh kehna atishyokti na hoga ki lakhanavi sparsh ke bina, Bollywood kabhi us oonchaai par naheen aa paata, jahaan vah ab hai. avadh se kai patakatha lekhak evam geetkaar hain, jaise majarooh sulataanapuri, kaife aajmi, jaaved Akhtar, Ali raja, bhagavati charan varma, dau॰kumud naagar, dau॰aaachala naagar, vajaahat mirja (madar India evam ganga jamuna ke lekhak), amrutalaal naagar, Ali sardaar Jaffrey evam ke pi Saxena jinhonne bhaarateeya chalachitr ko pratibha se dhani banaaya. Lucknow par bahut si prasiddh filmein bani hain jaise shashi Kapoor ki junoon, mujffar Ali ki umaraav jaan evam gaman, satyajeet rai ki shataranj ke khilaadi aur ismaail marcheint ki shekspiyr wala ki bhi aanshik shooting yaheen hui thi.

bahoo begam, mehaboob ki mehandi, mere hujoor, chaudahaveen ka chaand, paakeeja, main meri patni aur vo, sahar, Anwar aur bahut si hindi filmein ya to Lucknow mein bani hain, ya unki prushthabhoomi Lucknow ki hai. gadar film mein bhi Pakistan ke drushyon mein Lucknow ki shooting hi hai. ismein laal pul, Lucknow evam la maarteeniyr kaalij ki shooting hain.

khaanapaan

avadh kshetr ki apni ek alag khaas navaabi khaanapaan shaili hai. ismein vibhinn tarah ki biryaaniyaan, kabaab, korama, naahari kulche, sheeramaal, jrda, rumaali roti aur varki paraantha[30] aur rotiyaan aadi hain, jinmein kaakori kabaab, galaavati kabaab,[31] pateeli kabaab, boti kabaab, ghutavaan kabaab aur shaami kabaab pramukh hain.[30][31] shahar mein bahut si jagah ye vyanjan mileinge. ye sabhi tarah ke evam sabhi bajat ke honge. jahaan ek or 1805 mein sthaapit Ram aasare halavaai ki makkhan malaai evam malaai-gilauri prasiddh hai, vaheen akabari gate par milne vaale haaji muraad Ali ke tunde ke kabaab bhi kam mashahoor naheen hain.[6][31][32] iske alaava anya navaabi pakavaano jaise 'damapukht', lachhedaar pyaaj aur hari chatani ke saath parose gaya seekh-kabaab aur roomaali roti ka bhi javaab naheen hai.[6] Lucknow ki chaat desh ki behatareen chaat mein se ek hai. aur khaane ke ant mein vishv-prasiddh Lucknow ke paan jinka koi saani naheen hai.

Lucknow ke avadhi vyanjan jagaprasiddh hain. yahaan ke khaanapaan bahut prakaar ki rotiyaan bhi hoti hain. aisi hi rotiyaan yahaan ke ek puraane baajaar mein aaj bhi milti hain, balki ye baajaar rotiyon ka baajaar hi hai. akabari gate se nakkhaas chauki ke peechhe tak yeh baajaar hai, jahaan futakar va saikade ke hisaab se sheeramaal, naan, khameeri roti, roomaali roti, kulcha jaisi kai anya tarah ki rotiyaan mil jaaengi. puraane Lucknow ke is roti baajaar mein vibhinn prakaar ki rotiyon ki lagbhag 15 dukaanein hain, jahaan subah nau se raat nau baje tak garm roti khareedi ja sakti hai. kai puraane naami hotel bhi is gali ke paas hain, jahaan apni manapasand roti ke saath maansaahaari vyanjan bhi milte hain. ek ukti ke anusaar Lucknow ke vyanjan visheshagyon ne hi paratadaar paraathe ki khoj ki hai, jisko tandoori paraantha bhi kaha jaata hai. lakhanaoovaalon ne bhi kulache mein vishesh prayog kiye. kulacha naahari ke visheshagya kaareegar haaji Zubair Ahmad ke anusaar kulacha avadhi vyanjanon mein shaamil khaas roti hai, jiska saath naahari bina adhoora hai. Lucknow ke gilaami kulache yaani do bhaag vaale kulache unke paradaada ne taiyaar kiye the..[33]

inhein bhi dekhein: Lucknow ka roti baajaar
saadi ke palloo par chikn ki kadhaai

chikn ki kadhaai

chikn, yahaaain ki kasheedaakaari ka utkrusht namoona hai aur lakhanavi jradoji yahaaain ka laghu udyog hai jo kurte aur saadiyon jaise kapadon par apni kalaakaari ki chhaap chadhaate hain. is udyog ka jyaadaatar hissa puraane Lucknow ke chauk ilaake mein faila hua hai. yahaan ke baajaar chikn kasheedaakaari ke dukaanon se bhare hue hain.[6][34] murre, jaali, bakhiya, tepchi, tappa aadi 36 prakaar ke chikn ki shailiyaan hoti hain. iske maahir evam prasiddh kaareegaron mein ustaad fyaaj Khan aur hasan mirja saahib the.[34]

media

press

Lucknow itihaas mein bhi patrakaarita ka ek pramukh kendra raha hai. Bhaarat ke pratham pradhaan mantri pandit Jawahar laal Nehru dvaara dviteeya vishvayuddh se pehle aarambh kiya gaya samaachaar patra national heraald Lucknow se hi prakaashit hota tha. iske tatkaaleen sampaadak manikonda chalapati raau the.

shahar ke pramukh angreji samaachaar-patron mein the times of India, Hindustan times, the paainiyr evam Indian ekspres hain. inke alaava bhi bahut se samaachaar dainik angreji, hindi evam urdoo bhaashaaon mein shahar se prakaashit hote hain. hindi samaachaar patron mein svatantr Bhaarat, dainik jaagaran, amar ujaala, dainik Hindustan, raashtreeya sahaara, janasatta evam I next hain. pramukh urdoo samaachaar dainikon mein jaayaja dainik, raashtreeya sahaara, sahaaft, kaumi khabarein evam aag hain.

press trast of India evam United news of India ke kaaryaalaya shahar mein hain, evam desh ke sabhi pramukh samaachaar-patron ke patrakaar Lucknow mein upasthit rahate hain.

radio

all India radio ke aaranbhik kuchh stationon mein se Lucknow kendra ek hai. yahaan meediym vev par prasaaran karte hain. iske alaava yahaan ef M prasaaran bhi 2000 se aarambh hua tha. shahar mein nimn radio station chal rahe hain:.[35] -

Internet

shahar mein Internet ke liye braudabaind Internet kanektiviti evam video kaunfreinsing suvidha upalabdh hain. pramukh sevaakarta Bhaarat sanchaar nigam limited, bhaarati Airtel, Reliance kamyunikeshans, tata kamyunikeshans evam esateepeeaai ka bruhat avasanrachana dhaancha hai. inke dvaara gruh prayoktaaon evam nigmit prayoktaaon ko achhi gati ka braudabaind Internet kanekshan upalabdh hota hai. shahar mein dheron Internet kaife bhi upalabdh hain.

paryatan sthal

shahar aur aaspaas kai darshaneeya sthal hain. inmein aitihaasik sthal, udyaan, manoranjan sthal evam shopping mall aadi hain. yahaan kai imaamabaade hain. inmein bada evam chhota pramukh hai. prasiddh bade imaamabaade ka aitihaasik aur saanskrutik mahatva hai. is imaamabaade ka nirmaan aasafauddaula ne 1784 mein akaal raahat pariyojana ke antargat karavaaya tha. yeh vishaal gumbadanuma hall 50 meter lamba aur 15 meter ooncha hai. yahaan ek anokhi bhool bhulaiya hai. is imaamabaade mein ek asfi masjid bhi hai jahaan gair muslim logon ke pravesh ki anumati naheen hai. masjid parisar ke aangan mein do oonchi meenaarein hain. iske alaava chhota imaamabaada, jiska asli naam husainaabaad imaamabaada hai mohammad Ali shaah ki rachana hai jiska nirmaan 1837 E. mein kiya gaya tha. ise chhota imaamabaada bhi kaha jaata hai.

saaadat Ali ka makabara begam hajarat mahal park ke sameep hai. iske saath hi khursheed jaidi ka makabara bhi bana hua hai. yeh makabara avadh vaastukala ka shaanadaar udaaharan hain. makabare ki shaanadaar chhat aur gumbad iski khaasiyat hain. ye donon makabare judvaan lagte hain. bade imaamabaade ke baahar hi roomi darvaaja bana hua hai. yahaan ki sadak iske beech se niklati hai. is dwaar ka nirmaan bhi akaal raahat pariyojana ke antargat kiya gaya tha. navaab aasafauddaula ne yeh darvaaja 1782 E. mein akaal ke dauraan banavaaya tha taaki logon ko rojagaar mil sake. jaami masjid husainaabaad imaamabaade ke pashchim disha sthit hai. is masjid ka nirmaan mohammad shaah ne shuroo kiya tha lekin 1840 E. mein unki mrutyu ke baad unki patni ne ise poora karavaaya. moti mahal gomati nadi ki seema par bani teen imaaraton mein se pramukh hai. ise saaadat Ali Khan ne banavaaya tha.

Lucknow rejeedeinsi ke avashesh british shaasan ki spasht tasveer dikhaate hain. 1857 ke svatantrata sangraam ke samay yeh rejidensi East India company ke agent ka bhavan tha. yeh aitihaasik imaarat hajarataganj kshetr mein raajyapaal nivaas ke nikat hai. Lucknow ka ghantaaghar Bhaarat ka sabse ooncha ghantaaghar hai. husainaabaad imaamabaade ke ghantaaghar ke sameep 19veen shataabdi mein bani ek pikchar gailari hai. yahaan Lucknow ke lagbhag sabhi navaabon ki tasveerein dekhi ja sakti hain.

kukarail faarest ek piknik sthal hai. yahaan ghadiyaalon aur kachhuon ka ek abhayaaranya hai. yeh Lucknow ke indira nagar ke nikat, ring maarg par sthit hai. banaarasi baag vaastav mein ek chidiyaaghar hai, jiska mool naam prince of vels vanya-praani udyaan hai. sthaaneeya log is chidiyaaghar ko banaarasi baag kehte hain. yahaan ke hare bhare vaataavaran mein jaanvaron ki kuchh prajaatiyon ko chhote pinjaron mein rakha gaya hai. yeh desh ke achhe vanya praani udyaanon mein se ek hai. is udyaan mein ek sangrahaalaya bhi hai.

inke alaava roomi darvaaja, chhatar manjil, haathi park, buddh park, neeboo park maireen drive aur indira gaaaindhi taaraamandal bhi darshaneeya hain. Lucknow-haradoi raajamaarg par hi malihaabaad gaanv hai, jahaan ke dashahari aam vishv prasiddh hain. Lucknow ka amausi havaai adda shahar se bees kilometer door amausi mein sthit hai. shahar se 90 kilometer ki doori par hi naimishaaranya teerth hai. iska puraanon mein bahut ooncha sthaan bataaya gaya hai. yaheen par rishi sootaji ne shaunakaadi rishiyon ko puraanon ka aakhyaan diya tha. Lucknow ke niktavarti shaharon mein Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, faijaabaad, baaraabanki, haradoi hain.

dhaarmik sauhaard

muharram ke dauraan taajiye ke saath juloos

Lucknow mein vaise to sabhi dharmon ke log sauhaard evam sadbhaav se rahate hain, kintu hinduon evam muslimon ka baahulya hai. yahaan sabhi dharmon ke archanaasthal bhi is hi anupaat mein hain. hinduon ke pramukh mandiron mein hanumaan setu mandir, manakaameshvar mandir, aleeganj ka hanumaan mandir, bhootanaath mandir, indiraanagar, chandrika devi mandir, naimishaaranya teerth aur raamakrushn math, niraalaanagar hain.[36] yahaan kai badi evam puraani masjidein bhi hain. inmein Lakshman teela masjid, imaamabaada masjid evam idagaah pramukh hain. pramukh girijaagharon mein kaithedral church, hajrataganj, indiraanagar (si block) church, subhaash maarg par seint paauls church evam assembly of bileevars church hain.[37] yahaan hindu tyauhaaron mein holi,[38] deepaavali, durga pooja evam dashahara aur dheron anya tyauhaar jahaan harshollaas se manaaye jaate hain, vaheen Eid aur baaraavafaat tatha muharram ke taajiye bhi feeke naheen hote. saampradaayik sauhaard yahaan ki visheshata hai. yahaan dashahare par raavan ke putale banaane vaale anekon muslim evam taajiye banaane vaale anekon hindu kaareegar hain.[39][40]

aavaagaman

vaayumaarg

Lucknow ka amausi antarraashtreeya vimaanakshetr Delhi, mumbai, Kolkata, chennai, Bangalore, Jaipur, Pune, bhuvaneshvar, Guwahati aur Ahmedabad se pratidin seedhi flight dvaara juda hua hai.

relamaarg

chaarabaag railway jankshan Bhaarat ke pramukh shaharon se anek railgaadiyon ke maadhyam se juda hua hai. Delhi se Lucknow mel aur shataabdi express, mumbai se pushpak express, Kolkata se doon ekspres aur haavada ekspres 3050 ke maadhyam se Lucknow pahuncha ja sakta hai. chaarabaag station ke alaava Lucknow jile mein kai anya station bhi hain:-

iske atirikt malhaur mein 13 ki.mi, gomati nagar mein 15 ki.mi, kaakori 15 ki.mi, mohanalaalaganj 19 ki.mi, harauni 25 ki.mi, malihaabaad 26 ki.mi, safedaabaad 26 ki.mi, nigohaaain 35 ki.mi, baaraabanki jankshan 35 ki.mi, ajagain 42 ki.mi, bachharaavaan 48 ki.mi, sandeela 53 ki.mi, unnaav jankshan 59 ki.mi tatha beeghaapur 64 ki.mi par sthit hain. is prakaar rel yaataayaat Lucknow ko anek chhote chhote gaaainvon aur kasbon se jodta hai.

sadak maarg

raashtreeya raajamaarg 24 se Delhi se seedhe Lucknow pahuncha ja sakta hai. Lucknow ka raashtreeya raajamaarg 2 Delhi ko Agra, Allahabad, Varanasi aur Kanpur ke raaste Kolkata se jodta hai. raashtreeya raajamaarg 25 Jhansi ko jodta hai. raashtreeya raajamaarg 28 mujaffarapur se, raashtreeya raajamaarg 56 Varanasi se jodte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

bhagini shahar

sandarbh

  1. aaidentifikeshan of maainauriti kansantreshan distrikts pablik infaurmeshan bureau
  2. first= (20 June). "Lucknow femas for navaabs" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). aaibeebo . com. pp. 01. http://blogs.ibibo.com/blisszone/lucknow-famous-for-nawabs. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  3. first= (20 June). "Lucknow news" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). pp. 01. http://www.indiasnews.com/Details-0~Lucknow.html. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  4. faastest groing siteej (1 too 100) | city meyars staitistiks |
  5. a aa i first= (20 June). "histaurik city Lucknow" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). raashtreeya soochana kendra. pp. 01. http://www.lucknow.nic.in/history.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  6. a aa i E u oo sisodiya, sandeep (20 June). "muskuraaie janaab ki aap Lucknow mein hai..." (hindi mein) (echateeemael). maai web duniya. pp. 01. http://sandeeps.mywebdunia.com/2008/06/20/1213936739277.html. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  7. pablik infaurmeshan bureau
  8. Lucknow ka itihaas
  9. "dikedal growth of urban eglomareshan" (PDF). www.nic.in. http://localbodies.up.nic.in/luck/chap2.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-23.
  10. yooenadeepi report |abhigman tithi 29 September, 2006
  11. maleehaabaadi dashahari ka peteint. BBC-hindi. 27 fravari 2010
  12. maleehaabaadi dashahari aam ko mila jeeaai peteint. bijnes bhaaskar. 2 October 2009. press trast, nai Delhi
  13. mohan mekins breevari - Asia mein pratham
  14. ab naheen ho sakegi lakhanavi chikn ki nakal Yahoo jaagaran
  15. Lucknow kraafts 23 October, 2006
  16. uttar pradesh raajya sadak parivhan nigam| abhigman tithi September, 2006
  17. a aa i Ghaziabad aur Lucknow mein metro train project ko manjoori| Yahoo jaagaran|3 February, 2009)
  18. a aa i E (Lucknow Gates projakt varth 2400 karod times of India, 6 February 2009, faij Rahman Siddiqui)
  19. a aa Meerut mein metro ki sambhaavana talaashegi DMRC| 5 June, 2009|Yahoo jaagaran)
  20. ab Jaipur mein bhi metro train 5 June, 2009
  21. metro Jaipur sarve shuru
  22. a aa i Mumbai, Hyderabad, bangalaur mein hogi metro 7 April, 2006 BBC, hindi
  23. I I M - Lucknow
  24. a aa i first= (20 June). "kalcharal richnes of Lucknow" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). raashtreeya soochana kendra. pp. 01. http://www.lucknow.nic.in/Culture.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  25. a aa satapaal khayaal. "gjl ka itihaas aur gjl ki bhaasha (gjl shilp aur sanrachana)". saahitya shilpi. http://www.sahityashilpi.com/2009/03/blog-post_09.html?showComment=1236563460000. abhigman tithi: 25 July 2009. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name ".E0.A4.B8.E0.A4.A4.E0.A4.AA.E0.A4.BE.E0.A4.B2" defined multiple times with different content
  26. a aa i anjali Singh. "vaah shaad vaah! Lucknow ke ek behatareen shaayar se ek mulaakaat". meri khabar. http://merikhabar.com/fullstory.aspx?storyid=7534. abhigman tithi: 16 July 2009. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content
  27. "raashtreeya urdoo bhaasha vikaas parishad". http://www.urducouncil.nic.in/pers_pp/index.htm. abhigman tithi: 29 September 2006.
  28. siraaj mirja. "majaaj aur unki inklaabi shaayari". nootan savera. http://www.nutansavera.com/new/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=430:2009-03-26-09-57-33&catid=38:2009-03-23-07-45-56. abhigman tithi: 26 September 2008.
  29. (sangeetakaar hi naheen ek achhe shaayar the naushaad|ramesh chandra|4 May,2009|samay live)
  30. a aa first= (20 June). "kyujaains of Lucknow" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). raashtreeya soochana kendra. pp. 01. http://www.lucknow.nic.in/cuisine.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  31. a aa i first= jeetoo (2 March). "jaayake ka safr : Lucknow" (hindi mein) (echateeemael). spaais aais/ food vaandararr. pp. 01. http://food.wanderer.in/2007/05/02/tundekekabab/. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  32. "Lucknow kabaabs kantinyoo too bi gorments dilaait beyaund time". http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=356097&sid=LIF&ssid=23. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-21.
  33. rotiyon ka baajaar, raashtreeya sahaara hindi dainik, Avinash vaachaspati, abhigman tithi: 24 August, 2009
  34. a aa first= (20 June). "kraafts of Lucknow" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). raashtreeya soochana kendra. pp. 01. http://www.lucknow.nic.in/crafts.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  35. "ef M radio station". http://www.asiawaves.net/india-fm-radio.htm. abhigman tithi: 27 October 2006.
  36. tempals in Lucknow
  37. charchej in Lucknow
  38. hindooj muslims selibret Lucknow'za holi baaraat| breking news 24/7| aaiyaans|11 March 2009
  39. peedhiyon se taajiye bana rahe hindu kaareegar
  40. door tak mashahoor hai bisvaan ke bane taajiya| Yahoo jaagaran | 28 December 2008

baahari kadiyaaain