Kolkata

Kolkata (Calcutta)
কaaলaaকaaাaaতaaা (কaaলaaিaaকaaাaaতaaা)
mahanagar
samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya pashchim Bengal
jila Calcutta
mahaapaur bikaash ranjan Bhattacharya
janasankhya
ghanatv
mahanagar
7,780,544 (2008 tak )
• 42,057 /kimi2 (1,08,927 /varg meal)
• 16
aadhikaarik bhaasha(eain) baangla, angreji
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
1,886.67 km² (728 sq mi)
• 9 meter (30 fee॰)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: www.kolkatamycity.com

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 22°a34′a11″aN 88°a22′a11″aE / 22.5697°aN 88.3697°aE / 22.5697; 88.3697 Bengal ki khaadi ke sheersh tat se 180 kilometer door hugali nadi ke baayein kinaare par sthit Kolkata (baangla: ) (puraana naam Calcutta) pashchim Bengal ki rajdhani hai. yeh Bhaarat ka doosra sabse bada mahanagar tatha paaainchava sabse bada bandaragaah hai. yahaaain ki janasankhya 2 karod 29 lakh hai.[1] is shahar ka itihaas atyant praacheen hai. iske aadhunik svaroop ka vikaas angrejo evam France ke upaniveshavaad ke itihaas se juda hai. aaj ka Kolkata aadhunik Bhaarat ke itihaas ki kai gaathaaeain apne aap mein samete hue hai. shahar ko jahaaain Bhaarat ke shaikshik evam saanskrutik parivrtanon ke praarambhik kendra bindu ke roop mein pehchaan mili hai vaheen doosari or ise Bhaarat mein saamyavaad aandolan ke gadh ke roop mein bhi maanyata praapt hai. mahalon ke is shahar ko 'city of jauya' ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.

apni uttam avasthiti ke kaaran Kolkata ko 'poorvi Bhaarat ka pravesh dwaar' bhi kaha jaata hai. yeh relamaargon, vaayumaargon tatha sadak maargon dvaara desh ke vibhinn bhaagon se juda hua hai. yeh pramukh yaataayaat ka kendra, vistrut baajaar vitran kendra, shiksha kendra, audyogik kendra tatha vyaapaar ka kendra hai. ajaayabaghar, chidiyaakhaana, Birla taaramandal, haavada pul, kaaleeghaat, fort William, Victoria memoriyl, vigyaan nagari aadi mukhya darshaneeya sthaan hain. Kolkata ke nikat hugali nadi ke donon kinaaron par bhaaratavarsh ke praay: adhikaansh joot ke kaarkhaane avasthit hain. iske alaava motaragaadi taiyaar karne ka kaarkhaana, sooti-vastr udyog, kaagaj-udyog, vibhinn prakaar ke engineering udyog, joota taiyaar karne ka kaarkhaana, hojari udyog evam chai vikraya kendra aadi avasthit hain. poorvaanchal evam sampoorn bhaaratavarsh ka pramukh vaanijyik kendra ke roop mein Kolkata ka mahattv adhik hai.

anukram

vikaas aur naamakaran

19veen sadi mein Kolkata

aadhikaarik roop se is shahar ka naam Kolkata 1 January, 2001 ko rakha gaya. iska poorv naam angreji mein "kailakata' tha lekin baangla bhaashi ise sada Kolkata ya kolikaata ke naam se hi jaante hai evam hindi bhaashi samudaaya mein yeh Calcutta ke naam se jaana jaata raha hai. samraat Akbar ke chungi dastaavejon aur pandrahavi sadi ke vipradaas ki kavitaaon mein is naam ka baar-baar ullekh milta hai. iske naam ki utpatti ke baare mein kai tarah ki kahaaniyaaain mashahoor hain. sabse lokapriya kahaani ke anusaar hinduon ki devi kaali ke naam se is shahar ke naam ki utpatti hui hai. is shahar ke astitv ka ullekh vyaapaarik bandargaah ke roop mein cheen ke praacheen yaatriyon ke yaatra vruttaant aur faarasi vyaapaariyon ke dastaavejon mein milta hai. mahaabhaarat mein bhi Bengal ke kuchh raajaaon ka naam hai jo kaurav sena ki taraf se yuddh mein shaamil hue the. naam ki kahaani aur vivaad chaahe jo bhi hon itna to tay hai ki yeh aadhunik Bhaarat ke shaharon mein sabse pehle basane vaale shaharon mein se ek hai. 1690 mein ist India company ke adhikaari "jaab chaaranaak" ne apne company ke vyaapaariyon ke liye ek basti basaai thi. 1698 mein ist India company ne ek sthaaneeya jameendaar parivaar saavarn raayachaudhuri se teen gaaainv (sootaanuti, kolikaata aur Gobindpur) ke ijaara liye. agale saal company ne in teen gaaainvon ka vikaas presideinsi city ke roop mein karna shuroo kiya. 1727 mein England ke raaja George dvateeya ke aadeshaanusaar yahaaain ek naagrik nyaayaalaya ki sthaapana ki gayi. Kolkata nagar nigam ki sthaapana ki gayi aur pehle mayor ka chunaav hua. 1756 mein Bengal ke navaab siraajuddaula ne kolikaata par aakraman kar use jeet liya. usane iska naam "aleenagar" rakha. lekin saal bhar ke andar hi siraajuddaula ki pakad yahaaain dheeli pad gayi aur angrejon ka is par pun: adhikaar ho gaya. 1772 mein vaaren hestings ne ise british shaasakon ki bhaarateeya rajdhani bana di. kuchh itihaasakaar is shahar ki ek bade shahar ke roop mein sthaapana ki shuruaat 1698 mein fort William ki sthaapana se jod kar dekhte hain. 1912 tak Kolkata Bhaarat mein angrejo ki rajdhani bani rahi.

1757 ke baad se is shahar par poori tarah angrejon ka prabhutv sthaapit ho gaya aur 1850 ke baad se is shahar ka teji se audyogik vikaas hona shuru hua khaaskar kapadon ke udyog ka vikaas naatakeeya roop se yahaaain badha halaaki is vikaas ka asar shahar ko chhodkar aaspaas ke ilaakon mein kaheen parilkshit naheen hua. 5 October 1865 ko samudri toofaan (jisme saath hajaar se jyaada log maare gaye) ki vajah se Kolkata mein buri tarah tabaahi hone ke baavajood kolakaat adhikaanshat: aniyojit roop se agale dedh sau saalon mein badhata raha aur aaj iski aabaadi lagabh 1 karod 40 lakh hai. Kolkata 1980 se pehle Bhaarat ki sabse jyaada aabaadi wala shahar tha, lekin iske baad Mumbai ne iski jagah li. Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke samay 1947 mein aur 1971 ke Bhaarat Pakistan yuddh ke baad "poorvi Bengal" (ab Bangladesh) se yahaaain sharanaarthiyon ki baadh aa gayi jisne is shahar ki arthavyavastha ko buri tarah jhakajhora.

itihaas

svaadheenata aandolan mein bhoomika

aitihaasik roop se Kolkata bhaarateeya svaadheenata aandolan ke har charan mein kendreeya bhoomika mein raha hai. bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke saath saath kai raajanaitik evam saanskrutik sansthaanon jaise "hindu mela" aur kraantikaari sangathan "yugaantar", "anusheelan" ityaadi ki sthaapana ka gaurav is shahar ko haasil hai. praanbhik raashtravaadi vyaktitvon mein Arvind ghosh, indira devi chaudharaani, vipinchandr paal ka naam pramukh hai. aaranbhik raashtravaadiyon ke prerana ke kendra bindoo bane raamakrushn paramahans ke shishya svaami vivekaanand. bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke pehle adhyaksh bane shri vyomesh chandra bainarji aur Swaraj ki vakaalat karne vaale pehle vyakti shri surendranaath bainarji bhi Kolkata se hi the. 19 vi sadi ke uttaraarddh aur 20 veen shataabdi ke praanbh mein baangla saahityakaar bankimchandr chatarji ne bangaali raashtravaadiyon ke bahut prabhaavit kiya. inheen ka likha aanandamath mein likha geet vande maataram aaj Bhaarat ka raashtra geet hai. subhaashachandr Bose ne aajaad hind fauj ka gathan kar angrejo ko kaafi saaainsat mein rakha. iske alaava raveendranaath Tagore se lekar saikadon svaadheenata ke sipaahi vibhinn roopon mein is shahar mein maujood rahe hain.

babu sanskruti aur bangaali punarjaagaran

1945 mein Kolkata mein hugali nadi ka drushya

british shaasan ke dauraan jab Kolkata ekeekrut Bhaarat ki rajdhani thi, Kolkata ko London ke baad british saamraajya ka doosra sabse bada shahar maana jaata tha. is shahar ki pehchaan mahalon ka shahar, poorab ka moti ityaadi ke roop mein thi. isi dauraan Bengal aur khaaskar Kolkata mein babu sanskruti ka vikaas hua jo british udaaravaad aur bangaali samaaj ke aantarik uthal puthal ka nateeja thi jisme bangaali jameendaari pratha hindu dharm ke saamaajik, raajanaitik aur naitik moolyon mein uthaapatak chal rahi thi. yeh inheen dvandon ka nateeja tha ki angrejon ke aadhunik shaikshanik sansthaanon mein padhe kuchh logon ne Bengal ke samaaj mein sudhaaravaadi bahas ko janm diya. mool roop se "babu" un logon ko kaha jaata tha jo pashchimi dhang ki shiksha paakar bhaarateeya moolyon ko hikaarat ki drushti se dekhte the aur khud ko jyaada se jyaad pashchimi rang dhang mein dhaalane ki koshish karte the. lekin lakh koshishon ke baavajood jab angrejon ke beech jab unki asveekaaryata bani rahi to baad mein iske sakaaratm parinaam bhi aaye, isi varg ke kuchh logo ne nayi bahason ki shuruaat ki jo Bengal ke punarjaagaran ke naam se jaana jaata hai. iske tahat Bengal mein saamaajik, raajanaitik aur dhaarmik sudhaar ke bahut se Abhinav prayaas huye aur baangla saahitya ne nayi ooainchaaiyon ko chhuaa jisko bahut teji se anya bhaarateeya samudaayon ne bhi apnaaya.

aadhunik Kolkata

Kolkata Bhaarat ki aajaadi aur uske kuchh samay baad tak ek samruddh shahar ke roop mein sthaapit raha lekin baad ke varshon mein janasainkhya ke davaab aur moolabhoot suvidhaaon ke aabhaav mein is shahar ki sehat bigadne lagi. 1960 aur 1970 ke dashakon mein naksalavaad ka ek sashakt aandolan yahaaain uth khada hua jo baad mein desh ke doosare kshetron mein bhi fail gaya. 1977 ke baad se yeh vaamapanthi aandolan ke gadh ke roop mein sthaapit hua aur tab se is raajya mein bhaarateeya kamyoonist party ka bolabaala hai.

arth-vyavastha

k'ogneejaint technology saulyooshans, imaarat, sault lek saiktar 5, electronics complex

Kolkata poorvi Bhaarat evam poorvottar raajyon ka pradhaan vyaapaarik, vaanijyik evam vitteeya kendra hai. yahaan Kolkata stock ekscheinj bhi hai, jo Bhaarat ka doosare number ka sabse bada stok ekscheinj hai.[2] yahaan pramukh vaanijyik evam sainya bandargaah bhi hai. inke saath hi is kshetr ka ekamaatr antarraashtreeya havaai adda bhi yaheen hai. kabhi Bhaarat ka mukhya shahar rahe Kolkata ne svatantrata pashchaat kuchh aaranbhik varshon mein anvarat aarthik patan ko dekha. iska mukhya kaaran raajanaitik asthirta evam vyaapaarik unionon ka badhna tha.[3] 1960 ke dashak se 1990 ke madhya dashak tak shahar ki pragati girti hi gayi, jiska kaaran yahaan band ya yahaan se sthaanaantarit hoti faiktriyaan aur vyaapaar the.[3] is vajah se poonji nivesh evam sansaadhanon ki kami utpann hui, jo ki yahaan ki girti aarthik sthiti ke bharpoor sahaayak kaarak siddh hue.[4] bhaarateeya aarthik neeti ke udaareekaran ki prakriya ne 1990 ke dashak mein shahar ki bhaagyarekha ko nai disha di. iske baad utpaadan bhi badha evam bekaar shramikon ko bhi kaam mila.[5] udaaharanaarth, yahaan ke sadkon par fereevaale lagbhag 8722 karod rupaye (2005 ke aankadon ke anusaar) ka vyaapaar kar rahe the.[6]

flaavar maarkit mein pushp vikreta

nagar ki shramashakti mein sarkaari evam niji companiyon ke karmachaari ek bada bhaag banaate hain. yahaan badi sankhya mein akushal evam ardh-kushal shramik hain, jinke saath anya kushal kaareegar bhi achhi sankhya mein kaaryarat hain. shahar ki aarthik sthiti ke punarutthaan mein soochana praudyogiki sevaaon ka bada haath raha hai. soochana praudyogiki kshetr yahaan prativrsh lagbhag 70% ki unnati kar raha hai, jo raashtreeya ausat ka doguna hai. [7] haal ke varshon mein yahaan gruh-nirmaan evam real estate kshetr mein bhi niveshak umade hain. iska kaaran evam parinaam shahar mein kai nai pariyojanaaon ka aarambh hona hai.[8] Kolkata mein kai badi bhaarateeya nigmon ki audyogik ikaaiyaan sthaapit hain, jinke utpaad joot se lekar electronic saamaan tak hain. kuchh ullekhaneeya companiyaan jinke yahaan mukhyaalaya hain, ITC limited, baata shooj, Birla kaurporeshan, kol India limited, Damodar valley kaurporeshan, United bank of India, UCO bank aur Allahabad bank, aadi pramukh hain. haal hi mein Bhaarat sarkaar ki poorv-dekho (luk East) neeti, naathoo la darra ke sikkim mein khole jaane evam cheen tatha dakshin poorv Asiaee deshon se vyaapaarik sambandh badhaane ki neetiyon ke kaaran yahaan kai deshon ne bharateeya baajaar mein padaarpan kiya hai. iske chalte Kolkata mein nivesh hone se yahaan ki arth-vyavastha ko ap-tharst mila hai.[9][10]

jalavaayu

Kolkata
jalavaayu saarani (vyaakhya)
j f ma a m joo ju a si a na di
16.8
27
14
22.9
30
17
32.8
34
22
47.7
36
25
101.7
36
26
259.9
34
27
331.8
32
26
328.8
32
26
295.9
32
26
151.3
32
24
17.2
30
19
7.4
27
14
ausat adhiktam evam nyoonatam taapamaan (°ase.)
kul varsha (mi.mi)
srot: IMD

Kolkata mein ushnakatibandheeya aardr-shushk jalavaayu rahati hai. yeh koppen jalavaayu vargeekaran ke anusaar Aw shreni mein aati hai. vaarshik ausat taapamaan 26.8 °ase. (80 °afai.); maasik ausat taapamaan 19 °ase. se 30 °ase. (67 °afai. se 86 °afai.) rahata hai.[11] greeshm ritu garm evam aardr rahati hai, jismein nyoonatam taapamaan 30 degree ke dashak mein rahata hai tatha shushk kaalon mein yeh 40 °ase (104 °afai) ko bhi paar kar jaata hai. aisa May aur June maah mein hota hai.[11] sheet ritu dhaai maah tak hi rahati hain; jismein kai baar nyoonatam taapamaan 12 °ase – 12 °ase. (54 °afai. – 57 °afai.) tak jaata hai. aisa December se February ke beech hota hai. uchchatam ankit taapamaan 49°aase. °ase. (113 °afai.) evam nyoonatam 5 °ase. (41 °afai.) kiya gaya hai.[11] praay: greeshmakaal ke aarambh mein dhool bhari aandhiyaan aati hain, jinke peechhe tadit sahit tej varshaaen shahar ko bhigoti hain, evam shahar ko bheeshan garmi se raahat dilaati hain. ye varshaaen kaal baisaakhi (কaaাaaলaaবaaৈaaশaaাaaখaaী) kahalaati hain.[12]

dakshin-pashchim monsoon ki Bengal ki khaadi waali shaakha dvaara laai gayi varshaaen[13] shahar ko June ant se September ke beech yahaan ki adhiktam vaarshik varsha 1582 mi.mi. (62.3 inch) dilaati hain. monsoon kaal mein adhiktam varshaaen August mein hoti hain jo (306 mi.mi.) tak jaati hain. shahar mein vaarshik 2,528 ghante khuli dhoop upalabdh rahati hai, jismein adhiktam dainik antaraal March ke maheene mein hota hai.[14] Kolkata ki pradhaan samasya pradooshan ki hai. yahaan ka saspended partikulet maitar star Bhaarat ke anya pradhaan shaharon ki apeksha bahut hai,[15][16] jo gahre smaug aur dhundh ka kaaran banta hai. shahar mein bheeshan pradooshan ne pradooshan-sambandhi shvaas rogon jaise fefadon ke Cancer ko badhaava diya hai.[17]

shahari sanrachana

Kolkata ka vihangam drushya

Kolkata nagar nigam (ke.M.si) ke anurakshan mein Kolkata shahar ka kshetrafal 185 kimi2 (71 varg meal) hai.[18] haalaanki Kolkata ki shahari basaavat kaafi badhi hai, jo 2006 mein Kolkata shaahari kshetr 1,750 kimi2 (676 varg meal) mein faili hai.[18] ismein 157 pin kshetr hai.[19] yahaan ki shahari basaavat ke kshetron ko aupachaarik roop se 38 sthaaneeya nagar paalikaaon ke adheen rakha gaya hai. in kshetron mein 72 shahar, 527 kasbe evam graameen kshetr hain.[18] Kolkata mahaanagareeya jile ke upanagareeya kshetron mein uttar 24 paragana, dakshin 24 paragana, haavada evam nadiya aate hain.

mukhya shahar ki poorv-pashchim chaudaai kaafi kam hai, jo pashchim mein hugali nadi se poorvi metropolitan baayapaas tak maatr 5 kimi (3.1 meal)–6 kimi (3.7 meal) hoti hai.[20] shahar ke uttar-dakshini vistaar ko mukhyat: uttari, madhya evam dakshini bhaag mein baanta ja sakta hai. uttari bhaag sabse puraane bhaagon mein se ek hai, jismein 19veen shaataabdi ke sthaapatya aur sankare gali kooche dikhaayi dete hain. svatantrata uparaant adhiktam dakshini bhaag ne pragati ki hai aur yahaan kai paush evam samruddh kshetr hain jaise bauleeganj, bhovaaneepur, Alipur, new Alipur, Jodhpur park, aadi. shahar ke uttar-poorvi or sault lek city (bidhaananagar) kshetr yahaan ka vyavasthit kshetr hai. vaheen nikat hi raajaarahaat bhi vyavasthit evam yojanaabaddh kshetr viksit ho raha hai, jise new taaun bhi kehte hain.

madhya Kolkata mein bi.bi.deebaag ke paas central bijnes jila hai. yahaan Bengal sarkaar sachivaalaya, pradhaan daakaghar, uchch nyaayaalaya, laal baajaar police mukhyaalaya aadi kai sarkaari imaaratein tatha niji kaaryaalaya sthaapit hain. maidaan Kolkata ke hrudaya kshetr mein vistrut khula maidaan hai, jahaan bahut si kreeda aur vishaal jan-sammelan aadi aayojit hua karte hain. bahut si companiyon ne apne kaaryaalaya park street ke dakshini kshetr mein banaaye hain, jiske kaaran yeh bhi dviteeyak central bijnes jila banta ja raha hai.

bhoogol

hugali nadi ki prushthabhoomi mein vidyaasaagar setu

Kolkata poorvi Bhaarat mein 22°a33′aN 88°a20′aE / 22.55°aN 88.333°aE / 22.55; 88.333 nirdeshaank par ganga delta kshetr mein 1.5 mi (5 fut) se 9 mi (30 fut) ki oonchaai par sthit hai.[21] shahar hugali nadi ke kinaare kinaare uttar-dakshin raikhik faila hua hai. shahar ka bahut sa bhaag ek vruhat nam-bhoomi kshetr tha, jise bharaav kar shahar ki badhti aabaadi ko basaaya gaya hai.[22] shesh bachi nam-bhoomi jise ab East kailkata vetalainds kehte hain, ko raamasar sammelan ke antargat antarraashtreeya mahattv ki nam-bhoomi ghoshit kiya gaya hai.[23]

anya gaangeya kshetron ki tarah yahaan ki mitti bhi upajaaoo jalodh (alyooviyl) hi hai. mitti ki oopari part ke neeche chaturdhaatvik avasaad, mitti, gaad, evam ret ki vibhinn shreniyaan atatha bajari aadi hai. ye kan mitti ki do parton ke beech bichhe hue hain. inmein se nichli part 250 mi (820 fut) tatha 650 mi (2,133 fut) aur oopari part 10 mi (33 fut) tatha 40 mi (131 fut) ki motaai ki hai.[24] bhaarateeya maanak bureau ke anusaar, shahar bhookamp prabhaavi kshetr shreni-truteeya mein aata hai. yeh shreniyaan 1-4 ke beech badhte kram mein hoti hain.[25] yooenadeepi report ke anusaar vaayu aur chakravaat ke liye yeh atyochch kshati jokhim kshetr mein aata hai.[25]

sevaaen evam media

tata kamyunikeshans ka veeesaenael tower, shahar ka ek pradhaan telecom seva pradaata
inhein bhi dekhein: Kolkata mein media

ke M si shahar ki jalaapoorti hugali nadi se praapt jal se karta hai. jal ko uttar 24 paragana ke nikat paalta jal panping station mein shodhit kiya jaata hai. shahar ka dainik avashisht lagbhag 2500 tan dhaapa ke nikat shahar ke poorvi kshetr mein damp kiya jaata hai. is danping sthal par krushi ko badhaava diya jaata hai, jisse ki yeh avashisht aur shahar ka mal (seevar) praakrutik taur par punarchakrit ho paaye.[26] shahar ke kuchh bhaagon mein seevar dvaara mal nikaas ka abhaav hone se asvaasthavardhak mal nikaas ko badhaava milta hai.[14] shahar ki vidyut aapoorti kailkata ilektrik saplaai corporation (si.E.S.si) dvaara shahar kshetr mein, tatha pashchim Bengal raajya vidyut board dvaara upanagareeya kshetron mein ki jaati hai. 1990 ke dashak ke madhya tak vidyut aapoorti mein atyadhik vyavadhaan evam katauti ki samasya thi; jo ki ab iski dasha mein kaafi sudhaar hua hai, evam ab katauti bahut hi kam ki jaati hai. shahar mein 20 agni-shaman station pashchim Bengal agni-shaman seva ke antargat vaarshik ausat 7500 agnikaandon ko shaman karte hain.[27]

Kolkata mein sarkaari bi S N L tatha niji upakram jaise vodaafon, Airtel, Reliance kamyunikeshans, tata indikaum aadi doorabhaash evam mobile sevaaen upalabdh karaate hain. shahar mein ji S M aur si di M A, donon hi prakaar ki selular sevaaen upalabdh hain. yahaan bi S N L, tata kamyunikeshans, Airtel tatha Reliance kamyunikeshans dvaara braudabaind seva bhi upalabdh hai. inke alaava sifi aur elaayans bhi yeh seva upalabdh karaate hain.


bahut se baangla samaachaar-patra yahaan prakaashit hote hain, jinmein aanand baajaar patrika, aajkal, bartamaan, sangabaad pratidin, ganashakti tatha dainik stetsmain pramukh hain. angreji samaachaar patron mein the teleegraaf, the stetsmain, asian ej, Hindustan times evam times of India pramukh hain. kuchh mukhya saamayik patrikaaon mein se desh, sanand, unish kuri, kindl, aanandalok tatha aanand mela pramukh hain. poorvi Bhaarat mein sabse bade vyaapaarik kendra hone se kai vitteeya dainik jaise ikaunomik times, financial ekspres tatha bijnes staindard aadi ke paryaapt paathak hain.[28] yahaan ke anya bhaashaaon ke alpasankhyakon ke liye hindi, gujaraati, udiya, urdu, punjabi tatha cheeni patra bhi prakaashit hote hain.

yahaan sarkaari radio station all India radio se kai A M radio channel prasaarit karta hai. Kolkata mein gyaarah ef M radio station prasaarit hote hain. inmein se do all India radio ke hain. sarkaari TV prasaaranakarta dooradarshan se do terestriyl channel prasaarit kiye jaate hain. chaar bahu-pranaali oparetaar (M S O) dvaara baangla, hindi, angreji va anya kshetreeya bhaashaaon ke channel kebal TV dvaara dikhaae jaate hain. baangla upagrah channelon mein ebeepi aanand, 24 ghanta, Kolkata TV, channel 10 tatha taara news pramukh hain.

yaataayaat

vi.I.pi maarg, shahar ko havaai adde se jodta ek vyast maarg
Bhaarat mein ekamaatr Kolkata shahar mein traam chalti hain.
vidyaasaagar setu Kolkata ko haavada se jodta hai

Kolkata mein jan yaataayaat Kolkata upanagareeya railway, Kolkata metro, traam aur bason dvaara upalabdh hai. vyaapak upanagareeya jaal sudoor upanagareeya kshetron tak faila hua hai. bhaarateeya rel dvaara sanchaalit Kolkata metro Bhaarat mein sabse puraani bhoomigat yaataayaat pranaali hai.[29] ye shahar mein uttar se dakshin disha mein hugali nadi ke samaanaantar shahar ki lanbaai ko 16.45 ki.mi. mein naapati hai. yahaan ke adhikaansh logon dvaara bason ko praathamik taur par yaataayaat ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai. yahaan sarkaari evam niji oparetaron dvaara basein sanchaalit hain. Bhaarat mein Kolkata ekamaatr shahar hai, jahaaain traam seva upalabdh hai. traam seva kailkata traamavej company dvaara sanchaalit hai.[30] traam mand-gati chaalit yaataayaat hai, va shahar ke kuchh hi kshetron mein seemit hai. monsoon ke samay bhaari varsha ke chalte kai baar lok-yaataayaat mein vyavadhaan padta hai.[31][32]

bhaade par upalabdh yaantrik yaataayaat mein peeli meter-taxi aur auto-rikshau hain. Kolkata mein lagbhag sabhi peeli taiksiyaaain embesaidar hi hain. Kolkata ke alaava anya shaharon mein adhiktar tata indika ya fiyet hi taisi ke roop mein chalti hain. shahar ke kuchh kshetron mein cycle-riksha aur haath-chaalit riksha abhi bhi sthaaneeya chhoti dooriyon ke liye prachaalan mein hain. anya shaharon ki apeksha yahaan niji vaahan kaafi kam hain. aisa anek prakaaron ke lok yaataayaat ki adhikta ke kaaran hai.[33] haalaanki shahar ne niji vaahanon ke panjeekaran mein achhi badottari dekhi hai. varsh 2002 ke aankadon ke anusaar pichhle saat varshon mein vaahanon ki sankhya mein 44% ki badhat dikhi hai.[34] shahar ke janasankhya ghanatv ki apeksha sadak bhoomi maatr 6% hai, jahaaain Delhi mein yeh 23% aur Mumbai mein 17% hai. yahi yaataayaat jaam ka mukhya kaaran hai.[35] is disha mein Kolkata metro railway tatha bahut se naye fly-overon tatha nayi sadkon ke nirmaan ne shahar ko kaafi raahat di hai.


Kolkata mein do mukhya lambi dooriyon ki gaadiyon vaale railway station hain- haavada jankshan aur siyaaladah jankshan. Kolkata railway station naam se ek naya station 2006 mein banaaya gaya hai.[36] Kolkata shahar bhaarateeya railway ke do mandalon ka mukhyaalaya hai – poorvi railway aur dakshin-poorv railway.[37]

Kolkata metro rel ka maanachitr

shahar ke vimaan sampark hetu netaaji subhaash chandra Bose antarraashtreeya havaai adda dam dam mein sthit hai. yeh vimaanakshetr shahar ke uttari chhor par hai va yahaan se donon, antardesheeya aur antarraashtreeya udaanein chalti hain. yeh nagar poorvi Bhaarat ka ek pradhaan bandargaah hai. Kolkata port trast hi Kolkata pattan aur haldiya pattan ka prabandhan karta hai.[38] yahaan se andamaan nikobaar dveepasamooh mein port bleyar ke liye yaatri jahaaj aur Bhaarat ke anya bandaragaahon tatha videshon ke liye bhaarateeya shiping nigam ke maal-jahaaj chalte hain. yaheen se Kolkata ke dvi-shahar haavada ke liye feri-seva bhi chalti hai. Kolkata mein do bade railway station hain jinme ek haavada aur doosra siyaaladah mein hai, haavada tulanaatmak roop se jyaada bada station hai jabki siyaaladah se sthaaneeya sevaaeain jyaada hain. shahar mein uttar mein damadam mein netaaji subhaashachandr Bose antarraashtreeya havaai adda jo shahar ko desh videsh se jodta hai. shahar se seedhe dhaaka yaangoon, bainkaak London paaro sahit madhya poorv Asia ke kuchh shahar jude huye hain. Kolkata bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ka ekamaatr aisa shahar hai jahaaain traam yaataayaat ka prachalan hai. iske alaava yahaaain Kolkata metro ki bhoomigat rel seva bhi upalabdh hai. ganga ki shaakha hugali mein kaheen kaheen steemar yaataayaat ki suvidha bhi upalabdh hai. sadkon par neeji bason ke saath saath pashchim Bengal yaataayaat parivhan nigam ki bhi kaafi basein chalti hain. shahar ki sadkon pe kaali-peeli taiksiyaaain chalti hain. dhuneain, dhool aur pradooshan se raahat shahar ke kisi kisi ilaake mein hi milti hai.

shiksha

Kolkata mein Kolkata vishvavidyaalaya samet kai naamacheen shaikshik sansthaan evam hamaavidyaalaya hain yahaaain chaar medical kaalej bhi hain. assi ke dashakon ke baad Calcutta ki shaikshik haisiyat mein giraavat hui lekin Kolkata ab bhi shaikshik maahaul ke liye jaana jaata hai. Kolkata vishvavidyaalaya, jaadavapur vishvavidyaalaya, raveendr bhaarati vishvavidyaalaya, pashchim Bengal raashtreeya nyaayik vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya, netaaji subhaash mukt vishvavidyaalaya, Bengal abhiyaantriki evam vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya,pashchim Bengal svaasthya vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya, pashchim Bengal pashupaalan evam matasya paalan vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya, pashchim Bengal takaneeki vishvavidyaalaya Kolkata ke vibhinn bhaagon mein sthit hain. in vishvavidyaalayon se saikado mahaavidyaalaya sambaddh evam angeebhoot ikaai ke roop mein kaam karte hain. eshiyaatik society, bhaarateeya saaainkhyiki sansthaan, bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan, meghanaath saaha aanvik bhautiki sansthaan, satyajeet re film evam television sansthaan raashtreeya mahatva ke sansthaan hain. anya ullekhaneeya sansthaanon meinraamakrushn mission sanskruti sansthaan, enthropolojikl sarve of India, Bose sansthaan, botainikl sarve of India, jiyolaajikl sarve of India, Indian Institute of inafaarmeshan teknaalaji, raashtreeya homiyopaithi sansthaan, shreeraamapur kaalej, preseedeinsi kaalej, skaatish church kaalej pramukh hain.

janasaankhyiki

Kolkata nivaasiyon ko kalakatiya kaha jaata hai. varsh 2001 ki janagananaanusaar Kolkata shahar ki kul janasankhya 4,580,544 hai, jabki yahaan ke sabhi shahari kshetron ko milaakar 13,216,546 hai. 2009 varsh ki pariyojanaaon ke vartamaan anumaan ke anusaar shahar ki janasankhya 5,080,519 hai.[40] yahaan ka ling anupaat 928 striyaan prati 100 purush hai.[41] – jo ki raashtreeya ausat se kam hai. iska kaaran graameen kshetron se kaam ke liye aane vaale purush hain. shahar ki saaksharata dar 81% hai[42] jo raashtreeya ausat 80% se adhik hai.[43] Kolkata nagar nigam ke kshetron ki panjeekrut vikaar dar 4.1% hai, jo Bhaarat ke das lakh se adhik janasankhya vaale shaharon mein nyoonatam hai.[44]

bangaali log hi Kolkata ki janasankhya ka adhikaansh bhaag banaate hain (55%), jinke alaava maaravaadi aur bihaari log yahaan alpasankhyakon ka bada bhaag (20%) hain.[45] Kolkata mein alpasankhyak samudaayon mein cheeni, tamil, nepaali, udiya, telugu, asami, gujaraati, aangl-bhaarateeya, udiya aur Bhojpuri samudaaya aate hain.

janaganana ke anusaar Kolkata ki janasankhya ka 80% bhaag hindu hain. shesh 18% muslim, 1% isaai aur 1% jain log hain. anya alpasankhyak samudaayon mein sikh bauddh, yahoodi aur paarasi samudaaya aate hain.[46] nagar ki janasankhya ka ek-tihaai bhaag yaani 15 lakh log 2,011 panjeekrut kshetron aur kaaloniyon tatha 3,500 anaadhikrut kshetron aur jhuggiyon mein vaas karte hain.[47]

san 2004 mein Bhaarat ke 35 mahaanagaron aur bade shaharon mein hue kul vishisht aur sthaaneeya vidhi aparaadhon ka 67.6% report hue the.[48] Kolkata jila police ne varsh 2004 mein I.pi.si ke antargat 10,575 maamale darj kiye the, jo desh mein dasvein sthaan par sabse adhik the.[49] 2006 mein shahar ki aparaadh dar 71 prati 1 lakh rahi, jo raashtreeya aparaadh dar 167.7 se bahut kam hai aur sabhi bade shaharon se nyoonatam hai.[50] Kolkata ka sonaagaachi kshetr 10,000 veshyaaon sahit,[51] Asia ka sabse bada red-laait kshetr hai.

sanskruti

inhein bhi dekhein: ullekhaneeya kolakaataavaasi
teepoo sultaan masjid
Kolkata poorvi-Bhaarat ki sanskruti ka kendra hai. yahaan ka raashtreeya pustakaalaya, Kolkata

Kolkata ko lambe samay se apne saahityik, kraantikaari aur kalaatmak dharoharon ke liye jaana jaata hai. Bhaarat ki poorv rajdhani rahane se yeh sthaan aadhunik Bhaarat ki saahityik aur kalaatmak soch ka janmasthaan bana. kolakaataavaasiyon ke maanas patal par sada se hi kala aur saahitya ke liye vishesh sthaan raha hai. yahaan nayi pratibhaako sada protsaahan dene ki kshamata ne is shahar ko atyadhik srujanaatmak oorja ka shahar (city of fyooriys kriyetiv enarji) bana diya hai.[52] in kaaranon se hi Kolkata ko kabhi kabhi Bhaarat ki saanskrutik rajdhani bhi kah diya jaata hai, jo atishyokti na hogi.

Kolkata ka ek khaas ang hai paara, yaani paas-pados ke kshetr. inmein samudaaya ki sashaakt bhaavana hoti hai. pratyek paara mein ek saamudaayik kendra, kreeda sthal aadi hote hain. logon mein yahaan fursat ke samay adda (yaani aaraam se baatein karna) mein baithak karne, charchaaen aadi mein saamayik muddon par baat karne ki aadat hain. ye aadat ek mukt-shaili buddhigt vaartaalaap ko utsaahit karti hai.[53]

Kolkata mein bahut si imaaratein gothik, barok, roman aur indo-islaamik sthaapatya shaili ki hain. british kaal ki kai imaaratein achhi tarah se sanrakshit hain va ab dharohar ghoshit hain, jabki bahut si imaaratein dhvans ke kagaar par bhi hain. 1814 mein bana bhaarateeya sangrahaalaya Asia ka praacheenatam sangrahaalaya hai. yahaan bhaarateeya itihaas, praakrutik itihaas aur bhaarateeya kala ka vishaal aur adbhut sangrah hai.[54] Victoria memoriyl Kolkata ka pramukh darshaneeya sthal hai. yahaan ke sangrahaalaya mein shahar ka itihaas abhilekhit hai. yahaan ka bhaarateeya raashtreeya pustakaalaya Bhaarat ka ek mukhya aur bada pustakaalaya hai. faain Arts academy aur kai anya kala deerghaaen niyamit kala-pradarshaniyaan aayojit karti rahati hain.

shahar mein naatakon aadi ki parampara jaatra, theatre aur saamoohik theatre ke roop mein jeevit hai. yahaan hindi chalachitr bhi utana hi lokapriya hai, jitna ki [[baangla chalachitr, jise tauleevud naam diya gaya hai. yahaan ka film udyog tauleeganj mein sthit hai. yahaan ke lambe film-nirmaan ki den hai prasiddh film nirdeshak jaise satyajeet rai, mrunaal sen, tapan sinha aur ritvik ghatak. inke samakaaleen kshetreeya nirdeshak hain, aparna sen aur rituparno ghosh.

Kolkata ke khaanapaan ke mukhya ghatak hain chaaval aur maachher jhol,[55] aur sang mein rausogulla aur mishti doi dejrt ke roop mein. bangaali logon ke pramukh machhali aadhaarit vyanjanon mein hilsa vyanjan pasandeeda hain. alpaahaar mein beguni (baingan bhaaja), kaathi rol, fuchaka aur China taaun ke cheeni vyanjan shahar ke poorvi bhaag mein adhik lokapriya hain.[56][57]

bangaali mahilaayein saamaanyataya saadi hi pahanati hain. inki ghareloo taur par saadi pahanane ki ek vishesh shaili hoti hai, jo khaas bangaali pehchaan hai. saadiyon mein yahaan ki bangaali sooti aur reshami vishv-saadiyaan prasiddh hain, jinhein taant naam diya gaya hai. purushon mein praay: pashchimi pent-shart hi chalte hain, kintu tyauhaaron, mel-milaap aadi ke avsaron par sooti aur reshami taant ke kurte dhoti ke saath pahane jaate hain. yahaan purushon mein bhi dhoti ka chhor haath mein pakad kar chalne ka chalan raha hai, jo ek khaas bangaali pehchaan deta hai. dhoti adhikaanshaat: shvet varn ki hi hoti hai.

durga pooja Kolkata ka sabse mahattvapoorn aur chakaachaundh wala utsav hai.[58] yeh tyauhaar praay: October ke maah mein aata hai, par har chauthe varsh September mein bhi aa sakta hai. anya ullekhaneeya tyauhaaron mein jagaddhaatri pooja, poila baisaakh, sarasvati pooja, rath yaatra, paush paurbo, deevaali, holi, krismas, Eid, aadi aate hain. saanskrutik utsavon mein Kolkata pustak mela, Kolkata filmotsav, dovar len sangeet utsav aur national theatre festival aate hain.

nagar mein bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet aur bangaali lok sangeet ko bhi saraaha jaata raha hai. unneesaveen aur beesaveen shataabdi se hi bangaali saahitya ka aadhunikikran ho chuka hai. yeh aadhunik saahityakaaron ki rachanaaon mein jhalakata hai, jaise bankimchandr chattopaadhyaaya, Michael madhusoodan datt, ravindranaath thaakur, kaaji najrul islaam aur sharatachandr chattopaadhyaaya, aadi. in saahityakaaron dvaara tay ki gayi uchch shreni ki saahitya parampara ko jeebanaanandadaas, bibhootibhooshan bandhopaadhyaaya, taaraashankar bandhopaadhyaaya, maanik bandopaadhyaaya, aashaapoorna devi, shishirendu mukhopaadhyaaya, buddhadev guha, mahaashveta devi, samaresh majoomadaar, sanjeev chattopaadhyaaya aur suneel gangopaadhyaaya ne aage badhaaya hai.

saath ke dashak mein bhukhi peedhi (Hungary jenareshan) naamake ek saahityik andolanakaareeyon ka aagaman huya jiske sadasyon ne pure Kolkata shahar ko apne karatuton aur lekhan ke jariye hila diya tha. uske charche videshon tak ja panhucha tha. us andolan ke sadasyon mein pradhaan the malaya raayachaudhuri, subiml basaak. debi rai, sameer raayachaudhuri, faalaguni rai, anil karanajaya, baasudeb daashagupta, tridib mitra, shakti chattopadhyaaya pramukh hastiyaan.

1990 ke aaranbhik dashak se hi Bhaarat mein jaij aur rock sangeet ka udbhav hua tha. is shaaili se jude kai baangla baind hain, jise jeebonamukhi gaan kaha jaata hai. in baindon mein chandrabindu, kaiktas, insomniya, fausils aur lakkheechara aadi kuchh hain. inse jude kalaakaaron mein kabeer suman, nachiketa, anjana datt, aadi hain.

smaarak evam darshaneeya sthal

maidaan aur fort William, hugali nadi ke sameep Bhaarat ke sabse bade paarkon mein se ek hai. yeh 3 varg ki॰mee॰ ke kshetr mein faila hai. maidaan ke pashchim mein fort William hai. choonki fort William ko ab bhaarateeya sena ke liye upayog mein laaya jaata hai yahaan pravesh karne ke liye vishesh anumati leni padti hai. Eden gardens meinek chhote se taalaab mein barma ka pegoda sthaapit kiya gaya hai, jo is garden ka vishesh aakarshan hai. yeh sthaan sthaaneeya janta mein bhi lokapriya hai. Victoria memoriyl, 1906-21 ke beech nirmit yeh smaarak raani Victoria ko samarpit hai. is smaarak mein shilpakala ka sundar mishran hai. iske mugal shaili ke gunbadon mein saarasenik aur punarjaagaran kaal ki shailiyaan dikhaai padti hain. memoriyl mein ek shaanadaar sangrahaalaya hai, jahaan raani ke piyaano aur stadi-desk sahit 3000 se adhik vastuen pradarshit ki gayi hain. yeh rojaana praat: 10.00 baje se saayan 4.30 baje tak khulata hai, somvaar ko yeh band rahata hai. seint paul kaithedral church shilpakala ka anootha udaaharan hai, iski rangeen kaanch ki khidkiyaan, bhittichitr, grand-oltar, ek gauthik tower darshaneeya hain. yeh rojaana praat: 9.00 baje se dopahar tak aur saayan 3.00 baje se 6.00 baje tak khulata hai. naakhoda masjid laal patthar se bani is vishaal masjid ka nirmaan 1926 mein hua tha, yahaan 10,000 log aa sakte hain. maarbal pailes, M ji road par sthit aap is pailes ki samruddhata dekh sakte hain. 1800 E. mein yeh pailes ek ameer bangaali jameendaar ka aavaas tha. yahaan kuchh mahatvapoorn pratimaaen aur peinting hain. sundar jhoomar, yooropiyn enteek, venetiyn glaas, puraane piyaano aur cheen ke bane neele guladaan aapko us samay ke ameeron ki jeevanashaili ki jhalak deinge. paarasanaath jain mandir, 1867 mein bana yeh mandir venetiyn glaas mojek, peris ke jhoomaron aur broosels, sone ka mulamma chadha gunbad, rangeen sheeshon waali khidkiyaan aur darpan lage khanbon se saja hai. yeh rojaana praat: 6.00 baje se dopahar tak aur saayan 3.00 baje se 7.00 baje tak khulata hai. beloor math, beloor math raamakrushn mission ka mukhyaalaya hai, iski sthaapana 1899 mein svaami vivekaanand ne ki thi, jo raamakrushn ke shishya the. yahaan 1938 mein bana mandir hindu, muslim aur isaaishailiyon ka mishran hai. yeh October se March kedauraan praat: 6.30 baje se 11.30 baje tak aur saayan 3.30 baje se 6.00 baje tak tatha April se September tak praat: 6.30 baje se 11.30 baje tak aur saayan 4.00 baje se 7.00 baje tak khulata hai. dakshineshvar kaali mandir

dakshineshvar kaali mandir.

hugali nadi ke poorvi tat par sthit yeh maan kaali ka mandir hai, jahaan shri raamakrushn paramahans ek pujaari the aur jahaan unhein sabhi dharmon mein ekta laane ki anubhooti hui. kaali mandir sadar street se 6 ki॰mee॰ dakshin mein yeh shaanadaar mandir Kolkata ki sanrakshak devi kaali ko samarpit hai. kaali ka arth hai "kaala". kaali ki moorti ki jihva khoon se sani hai aur yeh naramundon ki maala pahane hue hai. kaali, Bhagwan Shiv ki ardhaangini, paarvati ka hi vinaashak roop hai. puraane mandir ke sthaan par hi vartamaan mandir 1809 mein bana tha. yeh praat: 3.00 baje se raatri 8.00 baje tak khulata hai. madar teresa homs is sthaan ki yaatra aapki Kolkata yaatra ko ek naya aayaam degi. kaali mandir ke nikat sthit yeh sthaan sainkadon begharon aur "gareebon mein se bhi gareeb logon" ka ghar hai - jo madar teresa ko uddhrut karta hai. aap apne anshadaan se jaruratamandon ki madad kar sakte hain. bautanikl gardens kai ekad mein faili hariyaali, paudhon ki durlabh prajaatiyaan, sundar khile fool, shaant vaataavaran...yahaan prakru ti ke saath shaam gujaarne ka ek sahi mauka hai. nadi ke pashchimi or sthit is garden mein vishv ka doosra sabse bada bargad ka ped hai, jo 10,000 varg meter mein faila hai, iski lagbhag 420 shaakhaaen hain.

bhagini shahar

bhagini shahar desh
laung beech Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya
dailaas
odesa Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine
naipals Flag of Italy.svg Italy

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/other' not found. luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/other' not found.


sandarbh

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granthasoochi

  • bainet, A & J hindal (1996), London review of books: N ऍntholauji, verso, 63-70, ISBN 185984121X

baahari kadiyaaain